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Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

William S Burton, Irene Sintini, Jason M Chavarria, James R Brownhill, Peter J Laz
The design of total shoulder arthroplasty implants are guided by anatomy. The objective of this study was to develop statistical models to quantify shape and material property variation in the scapula. Material-mapped models were reconstructed from CT scans for a training set of subjects. Statistical shape (SSM) and intensity (SIM) models were created; SSM modes described scaling, changes in the medial border and acromial process, and elongation of the scapular blade. SIM modes captured bone quality changes in the anterior and inferior glenoid...
February 7, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Jorge Aramburu, Raúl Antón, Alejandro Rivas, Juan Carlos Ramos, Gorka S Larraona, Bruno Sangro, José Ignacio Bilbao
Balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolisation (B-TACE) is an intraarterial transcatheter treatment for liver cancer. In B-TACE, an artery-occluding microballoon catheter occludes an artery and promotes collateral circulation for drug delivery to tumours. This paper presents a methodology for analysing the haemodynamics during B-TACE, by combining zero-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling tools. As a proof of concept, we apply the methodology to a patient-specific hepatic artery geometry and analyse two catheter locations...
February 7, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Jorge Zaragoza-Siqueiros, Hugo I Medellin-Castillo, Héctor de la Garza-Camargo, Theodore Lim, James M Ritchie
Conventional Orthognathic surgery (OGS) planning involves cephalometric analyses and dental casts to be mounted on an articulator. Dental segments are subsequently identified, cut and repositioned to allow the fabrication of intraoral wafers that guide the positioning of the osteotomy bone segments. This conventional planning introduces many inaccuracies that affect the post-surgery outcomes. Although computer technologies have advanced computational tools for OGS planning, they have failed in providing a practical solution...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Dilan Pathirana, Barbara Johnston, Peter Johnston
Coarctation of the Aorta is a congenital narrowing of the aorta and diagnosis can be difficult. Treatments result in idiopathic sequelae including hypertension. Untreated patients are known to develop increased arterial stiffness in the upper body, which worsens with time. We present results from simulations with a one-dimensional mathematical model, about the effect of stiffness, stenting, surgery and coarctation severity on blood pressure, Pulsatility and Resistivity Index. One conclusion is that increased stiffness may explain both hypertension in treated patients and why diagnosis can be difficult...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Victor A Carranza, Jacob Reeves, Alan Getgood, Timothy A Burkhart
Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is a surgical procedure intended to alter the coronal and sagittal plane alignment of the lower limb to primarily relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the medial compartment of the knee. The purpose of this work was to develop and validate a finite element model to simulate the opening of a high tibial osteotomy and determine whether a pilot hole at the cortical hinge reduces the risk of lateral cortical fracture. Fifteen models were reconstructed from CT images of eight cadaveric specimens...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Erica Beaucage-Gauvreau, William S P Robertson, Scott C E Brandon, Robert Fraser, Brian J C Freeman, Ryan B Graham, Dominic Thewlis, Claire F Jones
There is currently no validated full-body lifting model publicly available on the OpenSim modelling platform to estimate spinal loads during lifting. In this study, the existing full-body-lumbar-spine model was adapted and validated for lifting motions to produce the lifting full-body model. Back muscle activations predicted by the model closely matched the measured erector spinae activation patterns. Model estimates of intradiscal pressures and in vivo measurements were strongly correlated. The same spine loading trends were observed for model estimates and reported vertebral body implant measurements...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Xavier García-Massó, Yiyao Ye-Lin, Javier Garcia-Casado, Felipe Querol, Luis-Millan Gonzalez
The purpose of this study was to develop a tool able to distinguish between subjects who have haemophilic arthropathy in lower limbs and those who do not by analyzing the centre of pressure displacement. The second objective was to assess the possible different responses of haemophiliacs and healthy subjects by creating a classifier that could distinguish between both groups. Fifty-four haemophilic patients (28 with and 26 without arthropathy) and 23 healthy subjects took part voluntarily in the study. A force plate was used to measure postural stability...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Zhe Gou, Xiaodong Ruan, Feng Huang, Xin Fu
By using a three-dimensional continuum model, we simulate the shape memory of a red blood cell after the remove of external forces. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the effect of membrane reference state on cell behavior during the recovery process. The reference state of an elastic element is the geometry with zero stress. Since the cell membrane is composed of cytoskeleton and lipid bilayer, both the reference states of cytoskeleton (RSC) and lipid bilayer (RSL) are considered. Results show that a non-spherical RSC can result in shape memory...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Wei Fan, Li-Xin Guo
Previous studies have compared the effects of different interbody fusion approaches on biomechanical responses of the lumbar spine to static loadings. However, very few have dealt with the whole body vibration (WBV) condition that is typically present in vehicles. This study was designed to determine the biomechanical differences among anterior, posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF, PLIF and TLIF) under vertical WBV. A previously developed and validated finite element (FE) model of the intact L1-sacrum human lumbar spine was modified to simulate ALIF, PLIF and TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation at L4-L5...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Ana Paula Martini, Fernando Isquierdo de Souza, Rodolfo Bruniera Anchieta, Erika Oliveira de Almeida, Amilcar Chagas Freitas Junior, Eduardo Passos Rocha
To evaluate the stress behavior of ceramic fragment restoration, varying the thickness of the cement layer and intraoral temperature variation. A solid model of a upper lateral incisor was obtained and a defect at enamel distal/incisal edge was restored with a ceramic fragment. Based on this initial model, 4 different models (M) were built: M1 - absence of cement layer (CL) (0 μm of thickness); M2 - CL with an uniform thickness of 50 μm; M3 - CL with 50 μm at the margin of ceramics and 100 μm in the inner area far from margins; M4 - CL with 50 μm at the margin of ceramics and 200 μm in the inner area far from margins...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
A Ramos, Marco P Soares Dos Santos, M Mesnard
The number of hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures has declined dramatically in recent years, for reasons related to the survival rate. Some studies suggest that metal particles are the main critical problem, but do not specify the effect of femoral position on the failure rate. The present study aims to analyze whether the positioning of the resurfacing head implant is important in the distribution of bone strains and in the risk of fracture of the femur. Three in vitro experimental models received the Birmingham hip resurfacing implant to replicate the total hip joint...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Erica E Neumann, Melissa Young, Ahmet Erdemir
The goal of this study was to develop a pragmatic approach to build patient-specific models of the peripheral artery that are aware of plaque inhomogeneity. Patient-specific models using element-specific material definition (to understand the role of plaque composition) and homogeneous material definition (to understand the role of artery diameter and thickness) were automatically built from intravascular ultrasound images of three artery segments classified with low, average, and high calcification. The element-specific material models had average surface stiffness values of 0...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Dávid Pammer
The goal of this work was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate the primary stability of the dental implant without further in vivo measurements. Through proper simulations the information about stability could be obtained faster and easier than in vitro or in vivo studies. Four dental implants were chosen to evaluate their implant stability in various grades of bone. The 3D CAD models of these implants were reengineered via stereo microscopic measurements and the reengineered models were placed in artificial bone samples...
January 24, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Mariska Wesseling, Lode Bosmans, Christophe Van Dijck, Jos Vander Sloten, Roel Wirix-Speetjens, Ilse Jonkers
To account for proximal femoral deformities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), subject-specific musculoskeletal models are needed. Non-rigid deformation (NRD) deforms generic onto personalized bone geometry and thereby transforms the muscle points. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent the models and simulation outcomes in CP patients differ when including subject-specific detail using NRD or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based models. The NRD models slightly overestimated hip contact forces compared to MRI models and differences in muscle point positions and moment arm lengths (MALs) remained, although differences were smaller than for the generic model...
January 22, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Ke Song, Andrew E Anderson, Jeffrey A Weiss, Michael D Harris
Optimizing the geometric complexity of musculoskeletal models is important for reliable yet feasible estimation of joint biomechanics. This study investigated the effects of subject-specific model geometry on hip joint reaction forces (JRFs) and muscle forces in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and healthy controls. For nine DDH and nine control subjects, three models were created with increasingly subject-specific pelvis geometry, hip joint center locations and muscle attachments. Hip JRFs and muscle forces during a gait cycle were compared among the models...
January 20, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Piero G Pavan, Silvia Todros, Paola Pachera, Silvia Pianigiani, Arturo N Natali
Abdominal wall biomechanics is strongly affected by muscular contraction and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which characterize different physiological functions and daily tasks. However, the active muscular behavior is generally not considered in current computational models of the abdominal wall. The aim of this study is to develop a numerical model mimicking muscular activation and IAP. A three dimensional Finite Element model of a healthy abdominal wall is developed detailing the principal abdomen components reconstructed upon anatomical data and medical images...
January 20, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
B Prashantha, S Anish
Hemodynamic behaviour of blood in the bifurcated arteries are closely related to the development of cardiovascular disease. The secondary flows generated at the bifurcation zone promotes the deposition of atherogenic particles on the outer walls. The present study aims at suppressing the development of atherosclerosis plaque by inducing helical flow structure in the arterial passage. To realize this objective a novel swirl generator (stent like structure with an internal groove) has been developed to induce helicity in the bifurcated passage...
January 20, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Augustin Lerebours, Frederic Marin, Salima Bouvier, Christophe Egles, Alain-Charles Masquelet, Alain Rassineux
Here, we describe an original and efficient geometry design approach, based on voxels resulting in a validated model for printability in additive manufacturing. The proposed approach is also designed to be accessible to non-specialists as it does not require specialist skills in computer-assisted-design (CAD). It focuses on biomedical applications, particularly the geometry design of a configurable digital biomechanical model with selected anatomical features based on medical imaging compatible with customization, as might be needed for prosthetic elements...
January 20, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
K Arkusz, T Klekiel, G Sławiński, R Będziński
Malgaigne fractures are the most common and widespread pelvic injuries resulting from the shear forces the action mechanism of which has not been explained in the literature yet. Military accidents with improvised explosive devices (IED) perfectly reflect this type of pelvic fracture. The finite element (FE) model of lumbar-pelvic complex (LPC) was developed based on computed tomography (CT) scans with the seat including steel frame, padding and soft tissue. The correlation coefficients of both low (100 N) and high (500 N) loads were greater than that currently obtained in the literature due to the presence of muscle force, pubic symphysis and joint cartilage...
January 9, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Prashant Jindal, Frank Worcester, Kartikeya Walia, Anand Gupta, Philip Breedon
Titanium alloy based maxillofacial plates and implants are widely used in fracture treatment and reconstructions. Filler materials Graphene Nanoplatlets(GNPs) were used in a Titanium alloy maxillofacial plate and a Finite Element Model (FEM) was designed to reconstruct a fractured human mandible. Both 50N and 500N bite forces were applied on the mandible and stress distribution using Von mises failure theory across the plate sections was analyzed. A pure plate was critically stressed at a section near the mandible fracture region for a Von mises stress of nearly 27...
January 9, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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