Neelanjan Vishnu, Manigandan Venkatesan, Travis R Madaris, Mridula K Venkateswaran, Kristen Stanley, Karthik Ramachandran, Adhishree Chidambaram, Abitha K Madesh, Wenli Yang, Jyotsna Nair, Melanie Narkunan, Tharani Muthukumar, Varsha Karanam, Leroy C Joseph, Amy Le, Ayodeji Osidele, M Imran Aslam, John P Morrow, May C Malicdan, Peter B Stathopulos, Muniswamy Madesh
Intracellular Mg2+ (i Mg2+ ) is bound with phosphometabolites, nucleic acids, and proteins in eukaryotes. Little is known about the intracellular compartmentalization and molecular details of Mg2+ transport into/from cellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that the ER is a major i Mg2+ compartment refilled by a largely uncharacterized ER-localized protein, TMEM94. Conventional and AlphaFold2 predictions suggest that ERMA (TMEM94) is a multi-pass transmembrane protein with large cytosolic headpiece actuator, nucleotide, and phosphorylation domains, analogous to P-type ATPases...
March 13, 2024: Molecular Cell
Joel William Francis, Simone Hausmann, Sabeen Ikram, Kunlun Yin, Robert Mealey-Farr, Natasha Mahealani Flores, Annie Truc Trinh, Tourkian Chasan, Julia Thompson, Pawel Karol Mazur, Or Gozani
eEF2 post-translational modifications (PTMs) can profoundly affect mRNA translation dynamics. However, the physiologic function of eEF2K525 trimethylation (eEF2K525me3), a PTM catalyzed by the enzyme FAM86A, is unknown. Here, we find that FAM86A methylation of eEF2 regulates nascent elongation to promote protein synthesis and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) pathogenesis. The principal physiologic substrate of FAM86A is eEF2, with K525me3 modeled to facilitate productive eEF2-ribosome engagement during translocation...
March 12, 2024: Molecular Cell
Oleksandra Sirozh, Anabel Saez-Mas, Bomi Jung, Laura Sanchez-Burgos, Eduardo Zarzuela, Sara Rodrigo-Perez, Ivan Ventoso, Vanesa Lafarga, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
Nucleolar stress (NS) has been associated with age-related diseases such as cancer or neurodegeneration. To investigate how NS triggers toxicity, we used (PR)n arginine-rich peptides present in some neurodegenerative diseases as inducers of this perturbation. We here reveal that whereas (PR)n expression leads to a decrease in translation, this occurs concomitant with an accumulation of free ribosomal (r) proteins. Conversely, (PR)n-resistant cells have lower rates of r-protein synthesis, and targeting ribosome biogenesis by mTOR inhibition or MYC depletion alleviates (PR)n toxicity in vitro...
March 11, 2024: Molecular Cell
Tristen Wright, Meghan E Turnis, Christy R Grace, Xiao Li, Lauren A Brakefield, Yong-Dong Wang, Haiyan Xu, Ewa Kaminska, Leslie K Climer, Tresor O Mukiza, Chi-Lun Chang, Tudor Moldoveanu, Joseph T Opferman
MCL-1 is essential for promoting the survival of many normal cell lineages and confers survival and chemoresistance in cancer. Beyond apoptosis regulation, MCL-1 has been linked to modulating mitochondrial metabolism, but the mechanism(s) by which it does so are unclear. Here, we show in tissues and cells that MCL-1 supports essential steps in long-chain (but not short-chain) fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) through its binding to specific long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases of the ACSL family. ACSL1 binds to the BH3-binding hydrophobic groove of MCL-1 through a non-conventional BH3-domain...
March 11, 2024: Molecular Cell
Guy Zoltsman, Thi Lieu Dang, Miriam Kuchersky, Ofrah Faust, Micael S Silva, Tal Ilani, Anne S Wentink, Bernd Bukau, Rina Rosenzweig
J-domain proteins (JDPs) constitute a large family of molecular chaperones that bind a broad spectrum of substrates, targeting them to Hsp70, thus determining the specificity of and activating the entire chaperone functional cycle. The malfunction of JDPs is therefore inextricably linked to myriad human disorders. Here, we uncover a unique mechanism by which chaperones recognize misfolded clients, present in human class A JDPs. Through a newly identified β-hairpin site, these chaperones detect changes in protein dynamics at the initial stages of misfolding, prior to exposure of hydrophobic regions or large structural rearrangements...
March 8, 2024: Molecular Cell
Xiaoding Ma, Jianli Yin, Longliang Qiao, Hang Wan, Xingwan Liu, Yang Zhou, Jiali Wu, Lingxue Niu, Min Wu, Xinyi Wang, Haifeng Ye
Myriad physiological and pathogenic processes are governed by protein levels and modifications. Controlled protein activity perturbation is essential to studying protein function in cells and animals. Based on Trim-Away technology, we screened for truncation variants of E3 ubiquitinase Trim21 with elevated efficiency (ΔTrim21) and developed multiple ΔTrim21-based targeted protein-degradation systems (ΔTrim-TPD) that can be transfected into host cells. Three ΔTrim-TPD variants are developed to enable chemical and light-triggered programmable activation of TPD in cells and animals...
March 6, 2024: Molecular Cell
David Lando, Xiaoyan Ma, Yang Cao, Aleksandra Jartseva, Tim J Stevens, Wayne Boucher, Nicola Reynolds, Bertille Montibus, Dominic Hall, Andreas Lackner, Ramy Ragheb, Martin Leeb, Brian D Hendrich, Ernest D Laue
Enhancers bind transcription factors, chromatin regulators, and non-coding transcripts to modulate the expression of target genes. Here, we report 3D genome structures of single mouse ES cells as they are induced to exit pluripotency and transition through a formative stage prior to undergoing neuroectodermal differentiation. We find that there is a remarkable reorganization of 3D genome structure where inter-chromosomal intermingling increases dramatically in the formative state. This intermingling is associated with the formation of a large number of multiway hubs that bring together enhancers and promoters with similar chromatin states from typically 5-8 distant chromosomal sites that are often separated by many Mb from each other...
March 5, 2024: Molecular Cell
Jicheng Zhao, Jie Lan, Min Wang, Cuifang Liu, Zheng Fang, Aoqun Song, Tiantian Zhang, Liang Wang, Bing Zhu, Ping Chen, Juan Yu, Guohong Li
Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is a key transcriptional regulator in development via modulating chromatin structure and catalyzing histone H2A ubiquitination at Lys119 (H2AK119ub1). H2AK119ub1 is one of the most abundant histone modifications in mammalian cells. However, the function of H2AK119ub1 in polycomb-mediated gene silencing remains debated. In this study, we reveal that H2AK119ub1 has two distinct roles in gene expression, through differentially modulating chromatin compaction mediated by canonical PRC1 and the linker histone H1...
February 29, 2024: Molecular Cell
Gergely Rona, Bearach Miwatani-Minter, Qingyue Zhang, Hailey V Goldberg, Marc A Kerzhnerman, Jesse B Howard, Daniele Simoneschi, Ethan Lane, John W Hobbs, Elizabeth Sassani, Andrew A Wang, Sarah Keegan, Daniel J Laverty, Cortt G Piett, Lorinc S Pongor, Miranda Li Xu, Joshua Andrade, Anish Thomas, Piotr Sicinski, Manor Askenazi, Beatrix Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Zachary D Nagel, Michele Pagano
Although mismatch repair (MMR) is essential for correcting DNA replication errors, it can also recognize other lesions, such as oxidized bases. In G0 and G1, MMR is kept in check through unknown mechanisms as it is error-prone during these cell cycle phases. We show that in mammalian cells, D-type cyclins are recruited to sites of oxidative DNA damage in a PCNA- and p21-dependent manner. D-type cyclins inhibit the proteasomal degradation of p21, which competes with MMR proteins for binding to PCNA, thereby inhibiting MMR...
February 29, 2024: Molecular Cell
Chunyao Wei, Barry Kesner, Hao Yin, Jeannie T Lee
In mammals, dosage compensation involves two parallel processes: (1) X inactivation, which equalizes X chromosome dosage between males and females, and (2) X hyperactivation, which upregulates the active X for X-autosome balance. The field currently favors models whereby dosage compensation initiates "de novo" during mouse development. Here, we develop "So-Smart-seq" to revisit the question and interrogate a comprehensive transcriptome including noncoding genes and repeats in mice. Intriguingly, de novo silencing pertains only to a subset of Xp genes...
February 29, 2024: Molecular Cell
Nathalie Bastié, Christophe Chapard, Axel Cournac, Sanae Nejmi, Henri Mboumba, Olivier Gadal, Agnès Thierry, Frederic Beckouët, Romain Koszul
Eukaryotic genomes are folded into DNA loops mediated by structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes such as cohesin, condensin, and Smc5/6. This organization regulates different DNA-related processes along the cell cycle, such as transcription, recombination, segregation, and DNA repair. During the G2 stage, SMC-mediated DNA loops coexist with cohesin complexes involved in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). However, the articulation between the establishment of SCC and the formation of SMC-mediated DNA loops along the chromatin remains unknown...
February 29, 2024: Molecular Cell
Niccolò Arecco, Ivano Mocavini, Enrique Blanco, Cecilia Ballaré, Elina Libman, Sophie Bonnal, Manuel Irimia, Luciano Di Croce
The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates epigenetic maintenance of gene silencing in eukaryotes via methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27). Accessory factors define two distinct subtypes, PRC2.1 and PRC2.2, with different actions and chromatin-targeting mechanisms. The mechanisms orchestrating PRC2 assembly are not fully understood. Here, we report that alternative splicing (AS) of PRC2 core component SUZ12 generates an uncharacterized isoform SUZ12-S, which co-exists with the canonical SUZ12-L isoform in virtually all tissues and developmental stages...
February 28, 2024: Molecular Cell
Kyung Lock Kim, Gilbert J Rahme, Viraat Y Goel, Chadi A El Farran, Anders S Hansen, Bradley E Bernstein
Enhancer-gene communication is dependent on topologically associating domains (TADs) and boundaries enforced by the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) insulator, but the underlying structures and mechanisms remain controversial. Here, we investigate a boundary that typically insulates fibroblast growth factor (FGF) oncogenes but is disrupted by DNA hypermethylation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The boundary contains an array of CTCF sites that enforce adjacent TADs, one containing FGF genes and the other containing ANO1 and its putative enhancers, which are specifically active in GIST and its likely cell of origin...
February 28, 2024: Molecular Cell
Kwamina Nyame, Andy Hims, Aya Aburous, Nouf N Laqtom, Wentao Dong, Uche N Medoh, Julia C Heiby, Jian Xiong, Alessandro Ori, Monther Abu-Remaileh
Batten disease, the most prevalent form of neurodegeneration in children, is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene, which encodes a lysosomal transmembrane protein. CLN3 loss leads to significant accumulation of glycerophosphodiesters (GPDs), the end products of glycerophospholipid catabolism in the lysosome. Despite GPD storage being robustly observed upon CLN3 loss, the role of GPDs in neuropathology remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that GPDs act as potent inhibitors of glycerophospholipid catabolism in the lysosome using human cell lines and mouse models...
February 28, 2024: Molecular Cell
Gayathri Muthukumar, Taylor A Stevens, Alison J Inglis, Theodore K Esantsi, Reuben A Saunders, Fabian Schulte, Rebecca M Voorhees, Alina Guna, Jonathan S Weissman
Mitochondrial outer membrane ⍺-helical proteins play critical roles in mitochondrial-cytoplasmic communication, but the rules governing the targeting and insertion of these biophysically diverse proteins remain unknown. Here, we first defined the complement of required mammalian biogenesis machinery through genome-wide CRISPRi screens using topologically distinct membrane proteins. Systematic analysis of nine identified factors across 21 diverse ⍺-helical substrates reveals that these components are organized into distinct targeting pathways that act on substrates based on their topology...
February 27, 2024: Molecular Cell
S Chan Baek, Boseon Kim, Harim Jang, Kijun Kim, Il-Soo Park, Dal-Hee Min, V Narry Kim
MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is critically dependent on structural features of primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, the scarcity of determined pri-miRNA structures has limited our understanding of miRNA maturation. Here, we employed selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension and mutational profiling (SHAPE-MaP), a high-throughput RNA structure probing method, to unravel the secondary structures of 476 high-confidence human pri-miRNAs. Our SHAPE-based structures diverge substantially from those inferred solely from computation, particularly in the apical loop and basal segments, underlining the need for experimental data in RNA structure prediction...
February 26, 2024: Molecular Cell
Kate M MacDonald, Shahbaz Khan, Brian Lin, Rose Hurren, Aaron D Schimmer, Thomas Kislinger, Shane M Harding
Micronuclei (MN) are induced by various genotoxic stressors and amass nuclear- and cytoplasmic-resident proteins, priming the cell for MN-driven signaling cascades. Here, we measured the proteome of micronuclear, cytoplasmic, and nuclear fractions from human cells exposed to a panel of six genotoxins, comprehensively profiling their MN protein landscape. We find that MN assemble a proteome distinct from both surrounding cytoplasm and parental nuclei, depleted of spliceosome and DNA damage repair components while enriched for a subset of the replisome...
February 22, 2024: Molecular Cell
Hao Li, Zhejian Ji, Joao A Paulo, Steven P Gygi, Tom A Rapoport
Most eukaryotic proteins are degraded by the 26S proteasome after modification with a polyubiquitin chain. Substrates lacking unstructured segments cannot be degraded directly and require prior unfolding by the Cdc48 ATPase (p97 or VCP in mammals) in complex with its ubiquitin-binding partner Ufd1-Npl4 (UN). Here, we use purified yeast components to reconstitute Cdc48-dependent degradation of well-folded model substrates by the proteasome. We show that a minimal system consists of the 26S proteasome, the Cdc48-UN ATPase complex, the proteasome cofactor Rad23, and the Cdc48 cofactors Ubx5 and Shp1...
February 22, 2024: Molecular Cell
Paula F V do Prado, Frederik M Ahrens, Monique Liebers, Noah Ditz, Hans-Peter Braun, Thomas Pfannschmidt, Hauke S Hillen
Chloroplasts contain a dedicated genome that encodes subunits of the photosynthesis machinery. Transcription of photosynthesis genes is predominantly carried out by a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP), a nearly 1 MDa complex composed of core subunits with homology to eubacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) and at least 12 additional chloroplast-specific PEP-associated proteins (PAPs). However, the architecture of this complex and the functions of the PAPs remain unknown. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of a 19-subunit PEP complex from Sinapis alba (white mustard)...
February 21, 2024: Molecular Cell
Kaiwen Bao, Yanhui Ma, Yuan Li, Xilin Shen, Jiao Zhao, Shanshan Tian, Chunyong Zhang, Can Liang, Ziyan Zhao, Ying Yang, Kai Zhang, Na Yang, Fei-Long Meng, Jihui Hao, Jie Yang, Tao Liu, Zhi Yao, Ding Ai, Lei Shi
Appropriate DNA end synapsis, regulated by core components of the synaptic complex including KU70-KU80, LIG4, XRCC4, and XLF, is central to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair of chromatinized DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, it remains enigmatic whether chromatin modifications can influence the formation of NHEJ synaptic complex at DNA ends, and if so, how this is achieved. Here, we report that the mitotic deacetylase complex (MiDAC) serves as a key regulator of DNA end synapsis during NHEJ repair in mammalian cells...
February 21, 2024: Molecular Cell
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