Polina Isaikina, Ivana Petrovic, Roman P Jakob, Parishmita Sarma, Ashutosh Ranjan, Minakshi Baruah, Vineet Panwalkar, Timm Maier, Arun K Shukla, Stephan Grzesiek
The two non-visual arrestins, arrestin2 and arrestin3, bind hundreds of GPCRs with different phosphorylation patterns, leading to distinct functional outcomes. Structural information on these interactions is available only for very few GPCRs. Here, we have characterized the interactions between the phosphorylated human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and arrestin2. We identified several new CCR5 phosphorylation sites necessary for stable arrestin2 complex formation. Structures of arrestin2 in the apo form and complexes with CCR5 C-terminal phosphopeptides, together with NMR, biochemical, and functional assays, revealed three phosphoresidues in a pXpp motif that are essential for arrestin2 binding and activation...
May 23, 2023: Molecular Cell
Yi Han, Yan-Yu Zhang, Yi-Qian Pan, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Kun Liao, Hai-Yu Mo, Hui Sheng, Qi-Nian Wu, Ze-Xian Liu, Zhao-Lei Zeng, Wei Yang, Shu-Qiang Yuan, Peng Huang, Huai-Qiang Ju, Rui-Hua Xu
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key protein in inflammation and contributes to tumor progression. However, the role of IL-1β in cancer is ambiguous or even contradictory. Here, we found that upon IL-1β stimulation, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) in cancer cells is acetylated at lysine (K) 1042 (NNT K1042ac) and thereby induces the mitochondrial translocation of p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF). This acetylation enhances NNT activity by increasing the binding affinity of NNT for NADP+ and therefore boosts NADPH production, which subsequently sustains sufficient iron-sulfur cluster maintenance and protects tumor cells from ferroptosis...
May 23, 2023: Molecular Cell
Yuezheng Lai, Yuying Zhang, Shan Zhou, Jinxu Xu, Zhanqiang Du, Ziyan Feng, Long Yu, Ziqing Zhao, Weiwei Wang, Yanting Tang, Xiuna Yang, Luke W Guddat, Fengjiang Liu, Yan Gao, Zihe Rao, Hongri Gong
Biological energy currency ATP is produced by F1 Fo -ATP synthase. However, the molecular mechanism for human ATP synthase action remains unknown. Here, we present snapshot images for three main rotational states and one substate of human ATP synthase using cryoelectron microscopy. These structures reveal that the release of ADP occurs when the β subunit of F1 Fo -ATP synthase is in the open conformation, showing how ADP binding is coordinated during synthesis. The accommodation of the symmetry mismatch between F1 and Fo motors is resolved by the torsional flexing of the entire complex, especially the γ subunit, and the rotational substep of the c subunit...
May 19, 2023: Molecular Cell
Anh Nguyen, Francesca Lugarini, Céline David, Pouya Hosnani, Çağla Alagöz, Annabelle Friedrich, David Schlütermann, Barbora Knotkova, Anoshi Patel, Iwan Parfentev, Henning Urlaub, Michael Meinecke, Björn Stork, Alex C Faesen
Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathway that generates de novo double-membrane autophagosomes to target a wide range of material for lysosomal degradation. In multicellular organisms, autophagy initiation requires the timely assembly of a contact site between the ER and the nascent autophagosome. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of a full-length seven-subunit human autophagy initiation supercomplex built on a core complex of ATG13-101 and ATG9. Assembly of this core complex requires the rare ability of ATG13 and ATG101 to switch between distinct folds...
May 12, 2023: Molecular Cell
Jagannath Maharana, Parishmita Sarma, Manish K Yadav, Sayantan Saha, Vinay Singh, Shirsha Saha, Mohamed Chami, Ramanuj Banerjee, Arun K Shukla
Agonist-induced GPCR phosphorylation is a key determinant for the binding and activation of β-arrestins (βarrs). However, it is not entirely clear how different GPCRs harboring divergent phosphorylation patterns impart converging active conformation on βarrs leading to broadly conserved functional responses such as desensitization, endocytosis, and signaling. Here, we present multiple cryo-EM structures of activated βarrs in complex with distinct phosphorylation patterns derived from the carboxyl terminus of different GPCRs...
May 11, 2023: Molecular Cell
Shiv I S Grewal
Heterochromatin plays a fundamental role in gene regulation, genome integrity, and silencing of repetitive DNA elements. Histone modifications are essential for the establishment of heterochromatin domains, which is initiated by the recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes to nucleation sites. This leads to the deposition of histone H3 lysine-9 methylation (H3K9me), which provides the foundation for building high-concentration territories of heterochromatin proteins and the spread of heterochromatin across extended domains...
May 11, 2023: Molecular Cell
Yaara Makaros, Anat Raiff, Richard T Timms, Ajay R Wagh, Mor Israel Gueta, Aizat Bekturova, Julia Guez-Haddad, Sagie Brodsky, Yarden Opatowsky, Michael H Glickman, Stephen J Elledge, Itay Koren
Although most eukaryotic proteins are targeted for proteasomal degradation by ubiquitination, a subset have been demonstrated to undergo ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation (UbInPD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving UbInPD and the degrons involved. Utilizing the GPS-peptidome approach, a systematic method for degron discovery, we found thousands of sequences that promote UbInPD; thus, UbInPD is more prevalent than currently appreciated. Furthermore, mutagenesis experiments revealed specific C-terminal degrons required for UbInPD...
May 9, 2023: Molecular Cell
Tomoyuki Fukuda, Kentaro Furukawa, Tatsuro Maruyama, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Daisuke Noshiro, Chihong Song, Yuta Ogasawara, Kentaro Okuyama, Jahangir Md Alam, Manabu Hayatsu, Tetsu Saigusa, Keiichi Inoue, Kazuho Ikeda, Akira Takai, Lin Chen, Vikramjit Lahiri, Yasushi Okada, Shinsuke Shibata, Kazuyoshi Murata, Daniel J Klionsky, Nobuo N Noda, Tomotake Kanki
Mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis by selective degradation of mitochondria. During mitophagy, mitochondria should be fragmented to allow engulfment within autophagosomes, whose capacity is exceeded by the typical mitochondria mass. However, the known mitochondrial fission factors, dynamin-related proteins Dnm1 in yeasts and DNM1L/Drp1 in mammals, are dispensable for mitophagy. Here, we identify Atg44 as a mitochondrial fission factor that is essential for mitophagy in yeasts, and we therefore term Atg44 and its orthologous proteins mitofissin...
May 6, 2023: Molecular Cell
Shelby E Compton, Susan M Kitchen-Goosen, Lisa M DeCamp, Kin H Lau, Batsirai Mabvakure, Matthew Vos, Kelsey S Williams, Kwok-Kin Wong, Xiaobing Shi, Scott B Rothbart, Connie M Krawczyk, Russell G Jones
Deregulated inflammation is a critical feature driving the progression of tumors harboring mutations in the liver kinase B1 (LKB1), yet the mechanisms linking LKB1 mutations to deregulated inflammation remain undefined. Here, we identify deregulated signaling by CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) as an epigenetic driver of inflammatory potential downstream of LKB1 loss. We demonstrate that LKB1 mutations sensitize both transformed and non-transformed cells to diverse inflammatory stimuli, promoting heightened cytokine and chemokine production...
May 2, 2023: Molecular Cell
Junfan Guo, Wenxia Yu, Min Li, Hongyu Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaowen Xue, Jianxiang Lin, Shisheng Huang, Wenjie Shu, Xingxu Huang, Zhen Liu, Shengqi Wang, Yunbo Qiao
Bacterial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cytosine deaminase DddAtox -derived cytosine base editor (DdCBE) and its evolved variant, DddA11, guided by transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) proteins, enable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) editing at TC or HC (H = A, C, or T) sequence contexts, while it remains relatively unattainable for GC targets. Here, we identified a dsDNA deaminase originated from a Roseburia intestinalis interbacterial toxin (riDddAtox ) and generated CRISPR-mediated nuclear DdCBEs (crDdCBEs) and mitochondrial CBEs (mitoCBEs) using split riDddAtox , which catalyzed C-to-T editing at both HC and GC targets in nuclear and mitochondrial genes...
April 30, 2023: Molecular Cell
Andrew L Spencley, Shiran Bar, Tomek Swigut, Ryan A Flynn, Cameron H Lee, Liang-Fu Chen, Michael C Bassik, Joanna Wysocka
The HUSH complex recognizes and silences foreign DNA such as viruses, transposons, and transgenes without prior exposure to its targets. Here, we show that endogenous targets of the HUSH complex fall into two distinct classes based on the presence or absence of H3K9me3. These classes are further distinguished by their transposon content and differential response to the loss of HUSH. A de novo genomic rearrangement at the Sox2 locus induces a switch from H3K9me3-independent to H3K9me3-associated HUSH targeting, resulting in silencing...
April 28, 2023: Molecular Cell
Julio Abril-Garrido, Christian Dienemann, Frauke Grabbe, Taras Velychko, Michael Lidschreiber, Haibo Wang, Patrick Cramer
At active human genes, the +1 nucleosome is located downstream of the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) pre-initiation complex (PIC). However, at inactive genes, the +1 nucleosome is found further upstream, at a promoter-proximal location. Here, we establish a model system to show that a promoter-proximal +1 nucleosome can reduce RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro, and we analyze its structural basis. We find that the PIC assembles normally when the edge of the +1 nucleosome is located 18 base pairs (bp) downstream of the transcription start site (TSS)...
April 28, 2023: Molecular Cell
Madeleine Delbeau, Expery O Omollo, Ruby Froom, Steven Koh, Rachel A Mooney, Mirjana Lilic, Joshua J Brewer, Jeremy Rock, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell, Robert Landick
Transcriptional pauses mediate regulation of RNA biogenesis. DNA-encoded pause signals trigger pausing by stabilizing RNA polymerase (RNAP) swiveling and inhibiting DNA translocation. The N-terminal domain (NGN) of the only universal transcription factor, NusG/Spt5, modulates pausing through contacts to RNAP and DNA. Pro-pausing NusGs enhance pauses, whereas anti-pausing NusGs suppress pauses. Little is known about pausing and NusG in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We report that MtbNusG is pro-pausing...
April 27, 2023: Molecular Cell
Na Yang, James R Occean, Daniël P Melters, Changyou Shi, Lin Wang, Stephanie Stransky, Maire E Doyle, Chang-Yi Cui, Michael Delannoy, Jinshui Fan, Eliza Slama, Josephine M Egan, Supriyo De, Steven C Cunningham, Rafael de Cabo, Simone Sidoli, Yamini Dalal, Payel Sen
Epigenetic alterations are a key hallmark of aging but have been limitedly explored in tissues. Here, using naturally aged murine liver as a model and extending to other quiescent tissues, we find that aging is driven by temporal chromatin alterations that promote a refractory cellular state and compromise cellular identity. Using an integrated multi-omics approach and the first direct visualization of aged chromatin, we find that globally, old cells show H3K27me3-driven broad heterochromatinization and transcriptional suppression...
April 26, 2023: Molecular Cell
Edoardo José Longarini, Helen Dauben, Carolina Locatelli, Anne R Wondisford, Rebecca Smith, Charlotte Muench, Andreas Kolvenbach, Michelle Lee Lynskey, Alexis Pope, Juan José Bonfiglio, Eva Pinto Jurado, Roberta Fajka-Boja, Thomas Colby, Marion Schuller, Ivan Ahel, Gyula Timinszky, Roderick J O'Sullivan, Sébastien Huet, Ivan Matic
PARP1, an established anti-cancer target that regulates many cellular pathways, including DNA repair signaling, has been intensely studied for decades as a poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase. Although recent studies have revealed the prevalence of mono-ADP-ribosylation upon DNA damage, it was unknown whether this signal plays an active role in the cell or is just a byproduct of poly-ADP-ribosylation. By engineering SpyTag-based modular antibodies for sensitive and flexible detection of mono-ADP-ribosylation, including fluorescence-based sensors for live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that serine mono-ADP-ribosylation constitutes a second wave of PARP1 signaling shaped by the cellular HPF1/PARP1 ratio...
April 25, 2023: Molecular Cell
Zlata Gvozdenov, Zeno Barcutean, Kevin Struhl
We measure transcriptional noise in yeast by analyzing chromatin structure and transcription of an 18-kb region of DNA whose sequence was randomly generated. Nucleosomes fully occupy random-sequence DNA, but nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) are much less frequent, and there are fewer well-positioned nucleosomes and shorter nucleosome arrays. Steady-state levels of random-sequence RNAs are comparable to yeast mRNAs, although transcription and decay rates are higher. Transcriptional initiation from random-sequence DNA occurs at numerous sites, indicating very low intrinsic specificity of the RNA Pol II machinery...
April 24, 2023: Molecular Cell
Morgan Dasovich, Anthony K L Leung
PARPs catalyze ADP-ribosylation-a post-translational modification that plays crucial roles in biological processes, including DNA repair, transcription, immune regulation, and condensate formation. ADP-ribosylation can be added to a wide range of amino acids with varying lengths and chemical structures, making it a complex and diverse modification. Despite this complexity, significant progress has been made in developing chemical biology methods to analyze ADP-ribosylated molecules and their binding proteins on a proteome-wide scale...
April 24, 2023: Molecular Cell
Margaret L Rodgers, Brett O'Brien, Sarah A Woodson
Small ribonucleoproteins (sRNPs) target nascent precursor RNAs to guide folding, modification, and splicing during transcription. Yet, rapid co-transcriptional folding of the RNA can mask sRNP sites, impeding target recognition and regulation. To examine how sRNPs target nascent RNAs, we monitored binding of bacterial Hfq⋅DsrA sRNPs to rpoS transcripts using single-molecule co-localization co-transcriptional assembly (smCoCoA). We show that Hfq⋅DsrA recursively samples the mRNA before transcription of the target site to poise it for base pairing with DsrA...
April 20, 2023: Molecular Cell
Yoon-Mo Yang, Youngeun Jung, Daniel Abegg, Alexander Adibekian, Kate S Carroll, Katrin Karbstein
Because of the central role ribosomes play for protein translation and ribosome-mediated mRNA and protein quality control (RQC), the ribosome pool is surveyed and dysfunctional ribosomes degraded both during assembly, as well as the functional cycle. Oxidative stress downregulates translation and damages mRNAs and ribosomal proteins (RPs). Although damaged mRNAs are detected and degraded via RQC, how cells mitigate damage to RPs is not known. Here, we show that cysteines in Rps26 and Rpl10 are readily oxidized, rendering the proteins non-functional...
April 18, 2023: Molecular Cell
Michael R Lazear, Jarrett R Remsberg, Martin G Jaeger, Katherine Rothamel, Hsuan-Lin Her, Kristen E DeMeester, Evert Njomen, Simon J Hogg, Jahan Rahman, Landon R Whitby, Sang Joon Won, Michael A Schafroth, Daisuke Ogasawara, Minoru Yokoyama, Garrett L Lindsey, Haoxin Li, Jason Germain, Sabrina Barbas, Joan Vaughan, Thomas W Hanigan, Vincent F Vartabedian, Christopher J Reinhardt, Melissa M Dix, Seong Joo Koo, Inha Heo, John R Teijaro, Gabriel M Simon, Brahma Ghosh, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Kay Ahn, Alan Saghatelian, Bruno Melillo, Stuart L Schreiber, Gene W Yeo, Benjamin F Cravatt
Most human proteins lack chemical probes, and several large-scale and generalizable small-molecule binding assays have been introduced to address this problem. How compounds discovered in such "binding-first" assays affect protein function, nonetheless, often remains unclear. Here, we describe a "function-first" proteomic strategy that uses size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to assess the global impact of electrophilic compounds on protein complexes in human cells. Integrating the SEC data with cysteine-directed activity-based protein profiling identifies changes in protein-protein interactions that are caused by site-specific liganding events, including the stereoselective engagement of cysteines in PSME1 and SF3B1 that disrupt the PA28 proteasome regulatory complex and stabilize a dynamic state of the spliceosome, respectively...
April 18, 2023: Molecular Cell
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