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Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

Sania Naz, Syeda Tayyaba Batool Kazmi, Muhammad Zia
Widespread use of cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) is found in almost all areas of research due to their distinctive properties. CeO2 NPs synthesized via green chemistry have been characterized for antioxidant, phytochemical, and biological potential. Physical characterization through scanning electron microscopy, XRD, and TGA showed that the NPs are circular in shape, 20-25 nm in size, and stable in a wide range of temperature. NPs display significant antioxidant (32.7% free radical scavenging activity) and antileishmanial (IC50 48 µg mL-1 ) properties...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Nesreen Ishak Mahmoud, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ali Ahmed Abo-Saif, Mohamed Sadek Abdel-Bakky
Activated factor X has a central role in the coagulation activation and also contributes to chronic inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In this study, rivaroxaban, a direct factor X inhibitor, attenuates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Male rats were randomly allocated into three groups: a control group, CCl 4 fibrotic group, and CCl 4 +rivaroxaban (5 mg/kg) group. Liver fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl 4 twice a week for 6 weeks. Rivaroxaban significantly restored the biochemical parameter including inflammatory and fibrosis markers with histopathological evidence using routine and Masson trichrome staining...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Naotoshi Sugimoto, Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Yoshibumi Ueda, Akihiro Yachie, Osamu Shido
The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are thermo-sensors, and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 and V4 are widely expressed in primary afferent neurons and nonneuronal cells. Although heat acclimation is considered as changes of thermoregulatory responses by thermo-effectors to heat, functional changes of TRP channels in heat acclimation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether heat acclimation induces capsaicin tolerance. NIH3T3 cells were incubated at 39.5°C. We determined the expression level of TRPV1 and TRPV4 messenger RNA (mRNA), performed cellular staining of TRPV1 and TRPV4, and investigated actin assembly and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Hayreddin Gezegen, Uğur Tutar, Ceylan Hepokur, Mustafa Ceylan
A series of novel indenopyrazole derivatives 2a-j and 3a-j were synthesized from the reaction of 1-(4-(hydroxy(1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2 H-inden-2-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-3-phenylurea derivatives 1a-j with hydrazine and phenylhydrazine, respectively. The obtained novel indenopyrazoles ( 2a-j and 3a-j) were evaluated for anticancer activity against HeLa and C6 cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was determined by the BrdU proliferation ELISA assay; 2a, 2b, 2d, 2h, and 3h were found to be the most active compounds...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Gamze Guney Eskiler, Gulsah Cecener, Unal Egeli, Berrin Tunca
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of BMN 673 (talozoparib) on BRCA1 mutant (HCC1937) and wild-type (MDA-MB-231) triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The in vitro cytotoxicity results indicated that BMN 673 had considerable inhibitory effects on HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines by inducing apoptosis, multicaspase activity, G2/M arrest, and altering the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.01). Additionally, BMN 673 indicated no toxicity on MCF-10A control cells until a certain concentration and incubation time...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Bai Zhang, Ming Li, Qi Wang, Aihua Zhai
Puerarin belongs to one of the most familiar tradition medicines of China, but adverse effects of puerarin during the clinical treatment have been found for years, the mechanisms of which remain unclear. In this study, toxic mechanisms of puerarin on the structure and function of catalase were studied by multiple spectroscopic techniques, isothermal titration calorimetric measurement, and molecular docking methods in vitro. Results showed puerarin could inhibit the activity of catalase due to direct interactions between puerarin and catalase, resulting in conformational and functional changes of the enzyme...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Albina Dolores Resende, Sandra Leal, Carla Batista-Pinto, Fernanda Garcez, Susana Isabel Sá
The metabolic implications of tamoxifen (TAM) used as preventive therapy of young premenopausal women with high risk of breast cancer is unknown. To unravel this problem, an animal model of long-term TAM administration to cycling young adult female rats was used to evaluate its effects in the liver. Body weight and food consumption were monitored, and at the end of the study, both parameters were lower in TAM-treated rats. Biochemical measurements showed that the TAM administration induced alterations in serum levels of liver enzymes when compared with control rats at different stages of the estrous cycle...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Kyung-Mi Lee, Ji Min Shin, Jaemoo Chun, Kwangho Song, Chu Won Nho, Yeong Shik Kim
Igalan is one of the sesquiterpene lactones found in Inula helenium L., which is used as the traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, the pharmacological effects of igalan have not been characterized. In this study, we isolated igalan from I. helenium L. and evaluated the effects of igalan on signaling pathways and expression of target genes in HepG2 cells. Igalan activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway by increasing the inactive form of GSK3β, the phosphorylated form of AKT, and the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Liya Deng, Jincun Li, Shiyou Lu, Yan Su
The pathogenetic mechanisms of retinoblastoma are still not yet fully elucidated, putting limits to efficacious treatment. Crocin is the main component of saffron, which exhibits significant antitumorigenic properties. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of crocin on retinoblastoma. The effects of crocin on the proliferation of human retinoblastoma cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell number assay, and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis induced by crocin was measured by flow cytometry analysis...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Lin Zhang, Ya-Ping Jin
The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of brain damage induced by the combined treatment of mice with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) and ethanol. Mice were divided into control group; 1,2-DCE-intoxicated group; ethanol-treated group; and low-, medium-, and high-dose combined treatment groups. Histological observations along with brain organ coefficients and water content were used to measure the brain damage directly and indirectly. The levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls, malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase activity were used as parameters to evaluate oxidative stress in the brain...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Amar Preet Kaur, Nimisha Saxena, Nimai C Chandra
In this study, we examined the relative immune response of T-lymphocytes and its intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, in a mouse model system, after treatment with immunogen, mitogen, and carcinogen. We studied the T-lymphocyte percentage, their LDL-receptor expression, along with the levels of serum interleukins (IL-2, IFNγ, IL-4, and IL-10) and intracellular cholesterol concentration (cytoplasmic and nuclear). The mitogen was found to be a better stimulator of T-cell marker expressions than the immunogen; though the immunogen was more effective on immunogenic response as was marked from interleukin levels...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Göknur Aktay, Şule Öner Gürsoy, Umut Uyumlu, Songül Ünüvar, Nevin İlhan
In the present study, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on the lipid profile, oxidative stress, and liver enzyme markers, and its protective activity against diabetic complications, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities, were measured 7 weeks after the administration of STZ and atorvastatin...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Qimeng Shi, Yuhang Zhuang, Tingting Hu, Chuncheng Lu, Xinru Wang, Hongyu Huang, Guizhen Du
Triclocarban (TCC), which is used as an antimicrobial agent in personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems. However, the consequence of TCC exposure on embryo development is still elusive. Here, by using zebrafish embryos, we aimed to understand the developmental defects caused by TCC exposure. After exposure to 0.3, 30, and 300 μg/L TCC from 4-hour postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf, we observed that TCC exposure significantly increased the mortality and malformation, delayed hatching, and reduced body length...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Poorva Bhargava, Vipin Kumar Verma, Salma Malik, Sana Irfan Khan, Jagriti Bhatia, Dharamvir Singh Arya
Hesperidin (HES), a flavanone glycoside, predominant in citrus fruits, has an agonistic activity on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). PPAR-γ is an inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy (CH) signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of HES in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced CH through PPAR-γ agonistic activity. For this, male albino Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6), that is, normal, ISO-control, HES treatment group (200 mg kg-1 ; p...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Ghazale Cheraghi, Elnaz Hajiabedi, Behnaz Niaghi, Firouzeh Nazari, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
Tungstate (W) is recognized as an agent of environmental pollution and a substitute to depleted uranium. According to some preliminary studies, tungstate toxicity is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under abnormal pathological conditions. The kidneys and liver are the main tungstate accumulation sites and important targets of tungstate toxicity. Since the mitochondrion is the main ROS production site, we evaluated the mechanistic toxicity of tungstate in isolated mitochondria for the first time, following a two-step ultracentrifugation method...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Uğur Tutar, Ümit M Koçyiğit, Hayreddin Gezegen
A series of 1,3-bis-chalcone derivatives (3a-i, 6a-i and 8) were synthesized and evaluated antimicrobial, antibiofilm and carbonic anhydrase inhibition activities. In this evaluation, 6f was found to be the most active compound showing the same effect as the positive control against Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes in terms of antimicrobial activity. Biofilm structures formed by microorganisms were damaged by compounds at the minimum inhibitory concentration value between 0.5% and 97%.1,3-bis-chalcones ( 3a-i, 6a-i and 8) showed good inhibitory action against human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms I and II...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Shi Zhong, Jianxun Zhu, Yougui Li, Xinquan Wang, Jiaqi Yu, Dongfeng Ji, Chongming Wu
Butylene fipronil (BFPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide, acting at the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Here, we show that BFPN inducedcytotoxicity in PC12 murinenervous cells, which lacks GABA receptor. Treatment with BFPN for 48 hours significantly enhanced G0/G1 arrest and induced apoptosis. BFPN decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4 and CDK6) and increased P16 and cyclin D1. Simultaneously, Bcl-2 protein was declined while Bax and cytochrome c were significantly enhanced in BFPN-treated groups...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Yao Xiao, Ting Xiong, Xiangping Meng, Danfang Yu, Zheng Xiao, Lin Song
Although antibiotics are generally well tolerated, their toxic effects on the central nervous system have been gained attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the neuron toxicity of antibiotics from six different classes. We show that clinically relevant concentrations of metronidazole, tigecycline, azithromycin and clindamycin but not ampicillin or sulfamethoxazole induce apoptosis of human primary neuron cells and lines. Notably, tigecycline, azithromycin and clindamycin cause neuron cell oxidative damage whereas metronidazole has no effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suggesting that metronidazole induces neuron death via ROS-independent mechanism...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Kolawole A Olofinsan, Rafiat A Ajala-Lawal, Taofeek O Ajiboye
At therapeutic dose, loperamide is a safe over-the-counter antidiarrheal drug but could induce cardiotoxic effect at a supratherapeutic dose. In this study, we use cardiac and oxidative biomarkers to evaluate loperamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally gavaged with 1.5, 3, or 6 mg/kg body weight (BW) of loperamide hydrochloride for 7 days. The results after 7 days administration of loperamide, revealed dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and serum concentration of cardiac troponin I, total homocysteine, and nitric oxide...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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