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Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Dorota Urbańska, Steffen Moritz, Łukasz Gawęda
INTRODUCTION: Stress aggravates delusional symptoms, but the exact underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. One of the routes may be via exacerbation of information processing distortions frequently observed in psychosis. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the impact of social and sensory stress on specific cognitive processes along with different dimensions of delusional thinking. METHODS: Nineteen individuals affected by schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls were assessed under 3 experimental conditions (social stress, neutral, noise stress), with counter-balanced presentation of stress conditions across participants of both groups...
May 2, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Philip R Corlett
INTRODUCTION: Two-factor theory suggests delusions require two neuropsychological impairments, one in perception (which furnishes content), and a second in belief evaluation (that augers formation and maintenance). Capgras delusion; the belief that one's loved one has been replaced by an imposter, then entails two independent processes; first a lack of skin conductance response to familiar faces so the loved one feels different. This has been demonstrated in four patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) but who do not have delusions...
April 22, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
R Ryan Darby
In response to Dr. Corlett's paper regarding the two factor theory of delusional misidentifications, I discuss further evidence that VMPFC damaged patients do not have an isolated factor 1 defect. I then discuss more broadly the limitations in the modular view of brain function that leads to the 2-factor theory. Finally, I propose a connectionist based interpretation of delusional misidentifications that better fits with the clinical data from patients with focal brain lesions showing how these lesion locations relate to complex brain networks...
April 16, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Lillian Wieder, Devin B Terhune
INTRODUCTION: Hypnotic suggestibility is elevated in the dissociative disorders but the relationship between dissociative tendencies and suggestibility in the general population seems to be constrained by additional factors. The diathesis-stress (DS) model stipulates that suggestibility interacts with trauma exposure to augment the propensity for dissociative states whereas the dual pathway to suggestibility (DPS) model proposes two developmental routes involving either dissociation preceded by trauma, or a healthy cognitive profile characterised by superior imagination...
April 16, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ryan McKay
Corlett (Corlett, P. (this issue). Factor one, familiarity and frontal cortex: A challenge to the two-factor theory of delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry) provides a robust critique of the two-factor theory of delusions. The heart of his critique is two challenges he derives from a paper by Tranel and Damasio (Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1994). Neuroanatomical correlates of electrodermal skin conductance responses. Psychophysiology, 31(5), 427-438), who illuminate the autonomic responses and brain damage of four patients often cited in support of the two-factor theory of Capgras delusion...
April 16, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Rohan Bhome, Jonathan D Huntley, Gary Price, Robert J Howard
INTRODUCTION: Functional Cognitive Disorder (FCD) is poorly understood. We sought to better characterise FCD in order to inform future diagnostic criteria and evidence based treatments. Additionally, we compared FCD patients with and without co-morbid depression, including their neuropsychological profiles, to determine whether these two disorders are distinct. METHODS: 47 FCD patients (55% female, mean age: 52 years) attending a tertiary neuropsychiatric clinic over a one year period were included...
March 11, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Nathan Caruana, Timo Stein, Tamara Watson, Nikolas Williams, Kiley Seymour
INTRODUCTION: Faces provide a rich source of social information, crucial for the successful navigation of daily social interactions. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social-cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in face perception. However, to date, studies of face perception in schizophrenia have primarily employed tasks that require patients to make judgements about the faces. It is, thus, unclear whether the reported deficits reflect an impairment in encoding visual face information, or biased social-cognitive evaluative processes...
March 8, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Emily A Currell, Nomi Werbeloff, Joseph F Hayes, Vaughan Bell
HASH(0x556726868660): Although important to cognitive neuropsychiatry and theories of delusions, Capgras delusion has largely been reported in single case studies. Bell et al. [2017. Uncovering Capgras delusion using a large scale medical records database. British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 3(4), 179-185] previously deployed computational and clinical case identification on a large-scale medical records database to report a case series of 84 individuals with Capgras delusion. We replicated this approach on a new database from a different mental health service provider while additionally examining instances of violence, given previous claims that Capgras is a forensic risk...
February 22, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Sanja Andric Petrovic, Stefan Jerotic, Marina Mihaljevic, Zorana Pavlovic, Ivan Ristic, Ivan Soldatovic, Nadja P Maric
BACKGROUND: Previous studies examining sex-differences in facial emotion recognition (FER) in psychosis yielded inconsistent results. Although females are considered to be superior in FER in health, it remains unclear whether the specific sex-difference is present in psychosis. We aimed to examine whether women and men differ in FER ability in health and in psychosis, and to explore potential sex differences in the illness' effects on FER. METHODS: Remitted psychotic patients and controls were assessed using the CANTAB Emotion Recognition Task (ERT) examining accuracies/response latencies in identifying basic emotional expressions...
February 21, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Serdar Süleyman Can, Murat İlhan Atagün, Şükrü Alperen Korkmaz, Çağlar Soykan
INTRODUCTION: Hemsley and Garety described the "jumping to conclusions bias" in which patients with delusions may reach unreasonable results with insufficient information. In this study patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of jumping to conclusions bias using the beads in the jar task. METHODS: 37 patients with DSM-5 diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 30 healthy controls were tested with the Beads Task (BT), Tower of London Test (ToL) and Barrat Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)...
May 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Isabelle E Bauer, Robert Suchting, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Mon-Ju Wu, Benson Mwangi, Danielle Spiker, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairments are primary hallmarks symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD). Whether these deficits are markers of vulnerability or symptoms of the disease is still unclear. This study used a component-wise gradient (CGB) machine learning algorithm to identify cognitive measures that could accurately differentiate pediatric BD, unaffected offspring of BD parents, and healthy controls. METHODS: 59 healthy controls (HC; 11.19 ± 3.15 yo; 30 girls), 119 children and adolescents with BD (13...
February 18, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Hiroaki Hori, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Toshiya Teraishi, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi
INTRODUCTION: The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is a standardised battery for assessing memory functions. We aimed to investigate the relationship between all WMS scores, including subtests, and whole-brain structure in a relatively large sample. METHODS: Participants were 93 patients with schizophrenia and 117 healthy individuals, all right-handed and of Japanese ethnicity, and matched for age and sex. Their memory functions were assessed using the WMS-Revised (WMS-R)...
January 24, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Sumudu Rasangi Mallawaarachchi, Susan Maree Cotton, Jacqueline Anderson, Eóin Killackey, Kelly Anne Allott
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between performance-related neurocognitive abilities and Theory of Mind (ToM) as measured by the Hinting Task (HT) performance and investigate the psychometric properties of the HT for use in First-Episode Psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 132 participants with FEP, aged 15-25 years, enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of vocational intervention, were analysed. A comprehensive cognitive battery including social cognitive and neurocognitive measures, a social and occupational functioning measure and psychopathological measures, were used...
January 24, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jens Egeland, Tom Langerud Holmen, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, Anja Vaskinn, John Abel Engh
INTRODUCTION: Although considered a promising design for testing social cognition, it is not clear to what extent the EmoBio test of emotion recognition actually predicts community functioning. It is also not clear whether the test measures something unique or different from nonsocial cognition. The present study tests whether EmoBio accounts for GAF function score and two operationalised community outcome measures. The study also analyses cognitive predictors of EmoBio performance, testing whether stimulus modality affects prediction...
January 17, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Anthony S David, Vaughan Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Sophia E R Bogaty, Jacob J Crouse, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that patients with psychosis who have a history of cannabis use, but currently abstain, demonstrate superior cognitive performance than patients who have never used cannabis. The present study aimed to determine the neurocognitive profiles of patients who are in adolescence or early adulthood, when both illness- and drug-onset typically occur. METHODS: Subjects were 24 cannabis-using and 79 cannabis-naïve psychosis patients between 16 and 25 years of age...
January 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Juliet Silberstein, Philip D Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizophrenia present across a spectrum of symptomatology. Disability remains a debilitating reality across varying disease presentations and remains pervasive despite psychiatric medications. Cognition (neuro/social cognition) and negative symptoms have emerged as the strongest predictors of real-world disability, but account for <50% of the variance in outcomes. METHODS: Our attempts to determine what accounts for the remaining 50% of variance has shown that poor introspective accuracy (IA) may be the most potent predictor of functional outcomes 25% of individuals with schizophrenia...
November 26, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Giampaolo Perna, Paolo Cavedini, Alice Riva, Nunzia Valentina Di Chiaro, Mara Bellotti, Giuseppina Diaferia, Daniela Caldirola
INTRODUCTION: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) showed impaired spatial working memory (SWM). We evaluated whether patients and healthy controls (HCs) differed in spatial store capacity, and whether they differed in the relative weight of spatial store capacity and/or executive strategy in SWM. METHODS: Thirty inpatients with OCD and 31 age- and education-matched HCs underwent the CANTAB SWM, SRM (a measure of spatial store). The severity of OC symptoms was assessed using the Y-BOCS...
November 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia present clinically with difficulties in manipulating contradictory information in the form of loose associations, surface contradictions and delusional beliefs. It is to date unclear whether patients can detect and process information that contradicts their beliefs and prior knowledge and whether this capacity is related to their symptoms and the nature of contradictory stimuli (e.g., personally significant information, emotional information)...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Romina Rinaldi, Laurent Lefebvre, Wivine Blekic, Frank Laroi, Julien Laloyaux
INTRODUCTION: Impairment in Theory of mind (TOM) has frequently been associated with schizophrenia and with schizotypy. Studies have found that a tendency to over-attribute intentions and special meaning to events and to people is related to positive psychotic symptoms. Further, it has been suggested that this intentionality bias may be due to a broader deficit in context processing (CP). The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between positive schizotypy and both over-attribution of intentions and contextual processing...
November 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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