Journals Autism : the International Jou...

Autism : the International Journal of Research and Practice
Amber M Davis, Gyasi Burks-Abbott, Octaviano Merecias, Bonnie K Swenor
Black/African American people in the United States who have a diagnosis of autism often experience service-related disparities, including not having the same access to high-quality autism and related care (e.g. behavioral interventions), and are less likely to have sustained treatment engagement across their lifespan. While interventions to support autistic people are typically designed to be universal, there is concern that these interventions not being tailored to the Black/African American population could reduce the overall impact due to a lack of responsiveness to the needs of the Black children or families who receive the intervention...
June 23, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Serene Habayeb, Anne Inge, Erica Eisenman, Sheina Godovich, Maria Lauer, Amanda Hastings, Vanessa Fuentes, Melissa Long, Xavier Marshall, Alexis Khuu, Leandra Godoy
Primary care providers often screen for autism during well child visits in the first few years of life and refer children for diagnostic evaluations when needed. However, most children do not receive a diagnosis until years later which delays access to services. Racism, socioeconomic status, and other systemic inequalities that limit access to health care further delay diagnostic evaluations. Mental health clinicians who work in primary care clinics can help address barriers to accessing diagnostic evaluation services once they are recommended by their primary care provider...
June 22, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Stephanie Petty, Amy Ellis
What is already known? Moving the body in 'stereotyped', 'repetitive', 'ritualised' or 'unusual' ways is part of the criteria for receiving a diagnosis of autism. However, the reasons for these movements and their personal value are not well understood. Certain ways of moving have become part of a disorder, and have received negative judgements, whereas other movements have not. What this paper adds? We searched online blogs for descriptions of movement written by autistic adults, using their preferred language and definitions...
June 22, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Yung-Ting Tsou, Maedeh Nasri, Boya Li, Els M A Blijd-Hoogewys, Mitra Baratchi, Alexander Koutamanis, Carolien Rieffe
Many previous studies reported that autistic children have fewer social connections. Yet, recent studies also show that autistic children more often feel lonely in school than allistic (i.e. non-autistic) children. This outcome seems to go against the traditional view that autistic children do not desire to have social connections. Therefore, this study aimed to find out how autistic and allistic children feel about their social connections. We included 47 autistic and 52 neurodiverse-allistic children from two special education primary schools (aged 8-13 years)...
June 18, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Terence Ty Kwok, Melody My Chan, Flora Ym Mo, Se-Fong Hung, Patrick Wl Leung, Kelly Yc Lai, Caroline Ks Shea
Autistic features are commonly observed in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, but they are sometimes overlooked by clinicians and caregivers. By comprehensively examining the clinical profiles of 103 children and adolescents (below 18 years old) with first-episode psychosis and conducting the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (the 'gold standard' autism diagnostic tool) with their primary caregivers, we showed that around 28% of patients with first-episode psychosis had a comorbid autism diagnosis, and boys were 3...
June 13, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Xiaotian Dai, Gareth J Williams, John A Groeger, Gary Jones, Keeley Brookes, Wei Zhou, Jing Hua, Wenchong Du
Research shows that people with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often have sleep issues and problems with the body's natural daily rhythms, known as circadian rhythms. By exploring the genetic variants associated with these rhythms and the conditions, this study reveals that these rhythm changes and sleep patterns are directly linked to autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It found that the timing of one's most active hours can increase the likelihood of having both autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
June 13, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Fangyuan Liu, Sander Begeer, Rosa A Hoekstra, Chongying Wang, Anke M Scheeren
Even though there are about 10 million Chinese autistic individuals, we know little about autistic adults in China. This study examined how well young autistic adults in China integrate into their communities (such as having a job, living independently and having friends) and how satisfied they are with their lives as reported by their caregivers. We compared them to autistic adults with similar characteristics (such as high support needs) from the Netherlands. We included 99 autistic adults in China and 109 in the Netherlands (18-30 years)...
June 12, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Hannah E Grosman, Diego Aragon-Guevara, Goldie A McQuaid, Gregory L Wallace, Nancy Raitano Lee
Finding a job can be hard for autistic adults. No studies have been completed that look into whether having difficulties learning and troubles finding a job are related in this population. The current study did so by evaluating the Learning Needs Screening Tool, a measure of learning challenges used in vocational rehabilitation settings, or places meant to help people find work. A total of 401 autistic adults completed this study online. Specifically, the study evaluated (a) the characteristics of the Learning Needs Screening Tool, including the relationships between questions that ask about similar learning challenges, and (b) the ability of the measure to relate to real-world outcomes that are associated with learning difficulties, namely prior special education receipt and difficulties finding a job...
June 12, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Emma Pritchard-Rowe, Carmen de Lemos, Katie Howard, Jenny Gibson
Play is often included in autism diagnostic assessments. These assessments tend to focus on negatives and how people who are not autistic interpret observable behaviours. It is important to take a neurodiversity-affirmative assessment approach. This involves focusing on what autistic people say and looking at strengths and needs. We wanted to find out how autistic adults experience diagnostic assessments that include play. We asked autistic and non-autistic people to help us design our study and interview questions...
June 12, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Lam Phoebe Pui Ying, Fok Elise Hoi Wan, Chan Yuen Tung Megan, Leung Chung Ming, Colman Patrick McGrath, Yiu Cynthia Kar Yung
This research review looked at how well different psychological behavioral therapies help improve the behavior of autistic children during dental visits. The researchers studied 18 different studies and found that, on average, about 56% of autistic children were able to cooperate with a dental exam using an oral mirror during their first visit. The number increased to about 64% during their second visit. However, using visual pedagogies or teaching aids did not seem to make a big difference in how many children could accept the dental exams...
June 10, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Alexander Woodman, Khawaja Bilal Waheed, Rehab Y Al-Ansari, Shakil Ahmad, Tanzeel Ur Rehman, Mohammad Rasheed, Nizar Jaoua
In 2010, Saudi Arabia became the first country from the Gulf Cooperation Council states to join the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, which collaborates with Harvard University and has undertaken over 33 countries. The Saudi National Mental Health Survey revealed that 80% of Saudis with severe mental health disorders do not seek treatment. Considering the strong evidence set out in Saudi national study and the recommendations for future research, this systematic literature review was initiated to examine the most studied neurodevelopmental disorders reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to explore public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors...
June 9, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Cheng-Hsien Huang, Lee-Chin Wong, Yen-Ju Chu, Chia-Jui Hsu, Hsin-Pei Wang, Wen-Che Tsai, Wang-Tso Lee
Sleep problems are common and impactful among individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) and their caregivers. We examined the sleep patterns of 29 RTT patients and their primary caregivers using various assessment tools. The study found that a majority of the patients experienced sleep disturbances, with younger patients showing more sleep difficulties. Caregivers also reported poor sleep quality. The findings emphasize the need to address sleep problems in RTT management, as improving sleep quality can positively impact the well-being of individuals with RTT and their caregivers...
June 9, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Samuelle Voltaire, Hillary Steinberg, Tamara Garfield, Kyle Chvasta, Katherine Ardeleanu, Maci Brown, Lindsay Shea
This study explores the experiences and identities of nonbinary autistic people. The relationship between autistic and nonbinary identities has not been researched in detail. Few studies focus specifically on nonbinary autistic adults. We interviewed 44 nonbinary individuals for this study. Participants had thought-out opinions on gender identity and emphasized identifying with fluidity rather than traditional gender roles. Participants discussed the connection of their autistic and nonbinary identities and how it affected how people saw them and how they saw themselves...
June 5, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Georgina Watts, Catherine Crompton, Catherine Grainger, Joseph Long, Monique Botha, Mark Somerville, Eilidh Cage
Research has suggested that autistic people enjoy spending time with other autistic people and find them easier to talk to. We wanted to find out what autistic people say about spending time with other autistic people and whether this makes their life better. We found 52 papers which described this and reviewed what they found. We found that many autistic people had positive experiences of spending time with other autistic people and these experiences had positive impact on their lives in a range of different ways...
June 3, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Benazir Meera, Beth Fields, Sean Healy, Luis Columna
Equine-assisted services use various aspects of horses, like their movement, warmth, and size, to enhance individuals' overall well-being. Many studies have underscored the positive impact of equine-assisted services on autistic children, affecting areas such as social interaction, communication, engagement, stereotypical behaviors, and motor functions. Given the growing recognition of motor functions as clinical specifiers in autism, it is imperative to specifically investigate how equine-assisted services influence these outcomes...
May 30, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Yiran Li, Tian Xie, Harold Snieder, Catharina A Hartman
What is already known about the topic? Autistic children frequently often have accompanying physical health problems. However, this has been much less studied in autistic men and women during adulthood. What does this article add? This is one of the first studies to investigate the associations between autistic and somatic problems in adults from the general population. Using a continuous measure of autistic symptom scores and a categorical definition of autism (referred to below as probable autism) which considered symptom severity, childhood age of onset, and functional impairment, we found that autistic problems and irritable bowel syndrome, food allergy, pain, and fatigue were associated in adults...
May 30, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Elena Martinez-Cayuelas, Beatriz Moreno-Vinués, Isabel Pérez-Sebastián, Teresa Gavela-Pérez, Genoveva Del Rio-Camacho, Carmen Garcés, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and different factors can contribute to its occurrence in this population. Misalignment of the biological clock (our circadian system) has been described as one possible explanation. While there is a body of research on sleep problems, relatively less is known about circadian functioning and the specific population of autistic children with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using an ambulatory circadian monitoring (ACM) system, which resembles a common watch, we gathered sleep parameters and the different rhythms obtained from measuring motor activity, light exposure and distal temperature in 87 autistic children and adolescents, 27 of whom were diagnosed with co-occurring ADHD, and 30 neurotypical children and adolescents as a comparison group...
May 30, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Ayelet Ben-Sasson, Joshua Guedalia, Keren Ilan, Meirav Shaham, Galit Shefer, Roe Cohen, Yuval Tamir, Lidia V Gabis
Timely identification of autism spectrum conditions is a necessity to enable children to receive the most benefit from early interventions. Emerging technological advancements provide avenues for detecting subtle, early indicators of autism from routinely collected health information. This study tested a model that provides a likelihood score for autism diagnosis from baby wellness visit records collected during the first 2 years of life. It included records of 591,989 non-autistic children and 12,846 children with autism...
May 29, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Eleonora Sadikova, Jim Soland, Michelle Menezes, Micah Mazurek
Autistic children are more likely to have sleep difficulties and to experience adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences can include parental divorce, bullying, or witnessing violence. We also know that children in families who are resilient (e.g. families who are connected, work together, and help each other) are less impacted by adverse childhood experiences. Our study examined whether there was a relationship between adverse childhood experiences and sleep duration in autistic children...
May 28, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Kenza Latrèche, Michel Godel, Martina Franchini, Fiona Journal, Nada Kojovic, Marie Schaer
Language development can greatly vary among autistic children. Children who struggle with language acquisition often face many challenges and experience lower quality of life. However, little is known about the early language trajectories of autistic preschoolers and their moderators. Autistic language can be stratified into three profiles. Language unimpaired experience little to no language difficulties; language impaired show significant difficulties in language; minimally verbal never develop functional language...
May 21, 2024: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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