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Biocontrol Science

Harue Nomura, Sakiko Takahashi, Yuki Tohara, Yasunori Isshiki, Keisuke Sakuda, Katsuya Sakuma, Seiichi Kondo
Acanthamoeba castellanii, a ubiquitous organism in water environments, is pathogenic toward humans and also is a host for bacteria of the genus Legionella, a causative agent of legionellosis. Fragrance ingredients were investigated for their antibacterial activity against planktonic Legionella pneumophila, amoebicidal activity against A. castellanii, and inhibitory effect against L. pneumophila uptake into A. castellanii. Helional® exhibited relatively high antibacterial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) , 32...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Aya Ogura, Mihoko Iwasaki, Hirokazu Ogihara, Hajime Teramura
MC-Media PadTM EB (MMP-EB) , a novel sheet culture method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae, has been evaluated. When both inclusivity and exclusivity of MMP-EB were assessed using 104 microbes including 51 Enterobacteriaceae strains, all tested Enterobacteriaceae strains grew and formed obvious red-colored colonies and all tested non-Enterobacteriaceae strains were shown different appearance from Enterobacteriaceae strains. For the comparison study of the method, MMP-EB was compared with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) according to ISO 21528-2:2017 and PetrifilmTM Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate (Petrifilm EB) method using 100 naturally contaminated food samples...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hajime Teramura, Aya Ogura, Eizo Yasuda, Kenji Furuhata
BD mCCDA Clear-HT (CCHT; Nippon Becton Dickinson Company, Ltd.) , a novel chromogenic selective medium was evaluated for its superior capacity to isolate Campylobacter jejuni/ coli. When CCHT was assessed using 142 microbes including 42 Campylobacter jejuni/ coli strains, all Campylobacter strains were found to form purple-colored colonies on CCHT whereas all the other microbes failed to grow. CCTH was then compared with commercially available selective media using 100 stool samples including 40 Campylobacter positive samples...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takashi Hamaishi, Yoshiaki Morinaga, Hiroshi Morita
Surface-acting agents are used as bread improvers in bread making to increase the specific loaf volume. We focused on the use of fatty acid salts as surface acting agents and new food additives. Fatty acid salts are the main components of soaps and display antibacterial activity. In this study, we investigated the mold-proofing activity and baking property with fatty acid salts. We examined the influence of fatty acid salts with different lengths of carbon chains on the dough expansion ability and found that the dough expansion ability increased significantly in the presence of more than 5% potassium myristate (C14K) ...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Kazuhiro Hashimoto, Yuji Kawakami
Few studies have evaluated the performance of air purifiers in removing airborne fungi in houses. Here, we evaluated the ability of a HEPA air purifier fan to remove airborne fungi in six houses in Japan. In each house, the number of airborne fungi decreased more rapidly when the air purifier fan was on (test measurement) than when it was off (control) , demonstrating its ability to decrease the fungal concentration. The number of airborne fungi decreased between 1.5 and 6 times faster when the air purifier fan was on than when it was off (spontaneous decrease) ...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Shaheem Elahi, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Tetsuya Mizutani, Hiroshi Fujikawa
Staphylococcal food poisoning, which is still a serious health problem worldwide, is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) . Among many types of SE, staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) is known to be the most responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning. Production by SEA-producing strains in shaking culture has been studied by many investigators, whereas the kinetical differences between shaking and stationary cultures have not been studied intensively. Therefore, this difference was studied at various temperatures from 14℃ to 46℃ in the present study...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hidemi Izumi, Ayano Inoue
Viability of chlorine-injured E. coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded cabbage was evaluated during storage in air or high CO2 controlled atmospheres (CA) of 5%, 10%, and 15% at 10℃ and in a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 5℃ and 10℃. When shredded cabbage was inoculated with chlorine-injured E. coli O157:H7 (% injury = 65%) and then stored in air or CA at 10℃, counts of E. coli O157:H7 increased during storage and injured E. coli O157:H7 (% injury = 34-66%) were detected on samples throughout the storage regardless of the CO2 atmosphere...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Nobuo Hamada, Niichiro Abe
The molecular, morphological, and physiological characters of 55 Ochroconis strains collected from indoor and outdoor environments were studied. In Japan, Ochroconis species are often found in indoor detergent-rich environments, such as bathrooms and washing machines, and the predominant species have been identified as O. humicola, similar to that in other Asian and European countries. Although Ochroconis species have rarely been found in outdoor environments such as mountains, forests, and agricultural fields, in the present study, Ochroconis strains were specifically isolated from the soils of urban city parks...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Elamin Abdelrahman, Kosuke Takatori, Yasunori Matsuda, Masahiko Tsukada, Fumiyoshi Kirino
In storage of modern museums, collections are packed and stored with acid-free paper-based materials for keeping safe and stable conditions. Direct contact of fungal contaminated packing and storing materials with the collections is concerned about expanding of infection in storage facilities. In this study, fungicidal effects of UV light irradiation on the materials such as archival board and Japanese tissue paper contaminated with Penicilliun commune and Chaetomium globosum were tested. The analyzed materials were divided into two groups; Group 1 was examined with 20 μl of spore suspensions of fungi (106 cfu/ml) ; and Group 2 was tested on Czapek- Dox agar medium modified without sugar and inoculated with 100 μl of the spore suspensions of fungi (106 cfu/ml) ...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hiroaki Kawano, Toshihiro Takamatsu, Yuriko Matsumura, Hidekazu Miyahara, Atsuo Iwasawa, Akitoshi Okino
In this study, the relationship between plasma gas temperature and the bactericidal effects on five of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus (spore)) in liquid was investigated using a temperature-controllable plasma source. We determined that the bactericidal ability improved as the plasma gas temperature increased. Specifically, the bactericidal ability on E. coli of 80-℃ plasma was enhanced by as much as 6.3 times compared to that of 10-℃ plasma...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Yuri Nomoto, Shun Sawada, Shinya Abe, Jin Wakazawa, Mikio Kikuchi, Jun Sawai
Scallop shells subjected to heat treatment exhibit antimicrobial activity, and heated scallop-shell powder (HSSP) has recently been reported to be effective for disinfecting food. However, because the main component of these shells is calcium oxide, there is a problem that scales of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) become established on the surface of equipment used for food processing. In this study, we thus investigated whether the addition of sugar to HSSP slurry suppressed CaCO3 scale generation and whether the sugar-supplemented HSSP could be applied to the disinfection and preservation of fresh lettuce...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Shiho Aoki, Kohei Yamakawa, Kenji Kubo, Junpei Takeshita, Miki Takeuchi, Yuka Nobuoka, Risei Wada, Mikio Kikuchi, Jun Sawai
 Silicone is widely used in packing materials, medical equipment, and separation membranes. Since microbial cells easily adhere to the surface of silicone materials and form biofilms, techniques for incorporating antimicrobial activity into silicone materials are in high demand. This study describes the preparation of silver (Ag)/silicone composite membranes through a simple two-step immersion process, utilizing an iodine solution followed by a silver nitrate solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that particles with sizes of several nanometers to several tens of nanometers were present on the silicone membrane surface; these particles were identified as silver iodide using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) ...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Hitomi Kuwahara, Junko Ninomiya, Hiroshi Morita
Studies have reported that cell density, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and redox reactions, can induce bioluminescence in bacteria. Conversely, the relationship between seawater components and luminescence is not well understood. The efficacy of marine luminous bacteria as biosensors, and their reactivity to fungicides (for example postharvest pesticides) are also unknown. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the luminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri and the composition of artificial seawater media and analyzed the toxicity of fungicides using A...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Shusaku Suzuki, Yoko Mano, Nobuhiko Furuya, Katsumi Fujitani
This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine low susceptibility Trichophyton rubrum, BGUTR13, in Japan collected from the whole sole of the elderly over 65s with cotton swab sampling method at the special nursing care-home in 2016. We revealed BGUTR13 showed low susceptibility (MIC, >128 μg/mL) against terbinafine. But, BGUTR13 exhibited normal susceptibility to itraconazole, did not showed cross-resistance. Also, the squalene epoxidase gene of terbinafine low susceptibility strain BGUTR13 which is the target of terbinafine contained newly confirmed one mismatch...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takahito Ohmine, Seika Narai, Toshiki Matsubara, Toshihito Nomura, Kosuke Oda, Masaya Fukushi, Takashi Irie, Takayuki Komatsu, Yukinobu Tohya, Takemasa Sakaguchi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is frequently used as a surrogate of human norovirus. We investigated eligibility of FCV for anti-viral assay by investigating the stability of infectivity and pH sensitivity in comparison with other viruses. We found that infectivities of FCV and murine norovirus (MNV) are relatively unstable in infected cells compared with those of coxsackievirus (CoV) and poliovirus (PoV) , suggesting that FCV and MNV have vulnerability. Western blotting indicated that inactivation of FCV was not due to viral protein degradation...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Yoko Sato, Masayuki Ishihara, Koichi Fukuda, Shingo Nakamura, Kaoru Murakami, Masanori Fujita, Hidetaka Yokoe
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 -N) are constituents of the nitrogen cycle. NO3 -N is toxic to humans, primarily due to its reduction to NO2 -N. In Japan, NO3 -N and NO2 -N levels in tap water must not exceed 10 mg/L and only NO2 -N alone not 0.04 mg/L, respectively. In this study, we verified the effect of microorganisms and ultraviolet (UV) to increase of NO2 -N in water. First, all tested drinking-waters including tap water and commercial mineral water in PET bottles had < 2 mg/L NO3 -N and undetectable levels (< 0...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Izumi Matsumoto, Takahiro Arai, Yui Nishimoto, Vichai Leelavatcharamas, Masakazu Furuta, Masao Kishida
The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, growing at high temperature (45℃) , showed stronger survival under heat shock at 50℃ than the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was unable to grow at 45℃. The survival rate of K. marxianus decreased to 10% during heat shock at 50℃ for 20 min, and to less than 0.01% at 60℃ for 20 min. Cells with damaged cellular membranes were infrequently observed at 50℃ and had decreased significantly from heat shock at 60℃. The metabolic activity of K...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Yasutaka Mori, Masashi Shirokawa, Shoya Sasaki
In this study, antibacterial polyelectrolyte/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite powder was mixed with epoxy resins as fillers to impart antibacterial activity. Either an anhydride-type or a polyamideamine-type curing agent was applied to a bisphenol A-type base compound to prepare the epoxy resins. Antibacterial assays of these resins against Escherichia coli were performed using the shake tube technique; suppression of antibacterial activity was found for the anhydride-type resin, although the polyamideamine-type resin did exhibit antibacterial activity...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Toshio Sakai, Tetsuaki Tsuchido, Masakazu Furuta
Inhibitory effects of the powders of paprika, red pepper, black pepper, sage, oregano and thyme in a solid medium after heat treatment and gamma-irradiation on the development from spore of Bacillus subtilis were examined using calorimetry. Based on the f(t) curve (Antoce et al., 1996) from the thermogram obtained, two parameters, the growth rate constant and the growth retardation time, were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effects of paprika and red pepper powders were enhanced by the spore pretreatment with heat, but not significantly with irradiation...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Takahiro Yamakawa, Kazuhisa Tomita, Jun Sawai
We assessed the properties of biofilms (BFs) formed by mono- and co-cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (L+P-BF) at low temperatures and examined their sensitivity to several antibacterial substances. L. monocytogenes viable counts comprised only 1-10% of total L+P-BF viable counts at 10℃ and 15℃, indicating the significant prevalence of P. aeruginosa in co-cultures. L+P-BF formed at 10℃ and 15℃ showed very high resistance to antibiotics and NaClO. Examination of the effects of nattokinase and nisin, natural food additives with antibacterial properties, showed that their application alone failed to inhibit L+P-BF development at 10℃ and 15℃...
2018: Biocontrol Science
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