Halah Ahmed Abdulqader, Zainab Hekmatt Abood
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus hominis is an opportunistic pathogen that expresses surface proteins, which are adhesive proteins that play a major role in biofilm formation. Biofilm is a protective layer that provides S. hominis bacteria with greater antibiotic resistance and promotes its adherence to biomedical surfaces, facilitating its entry into the bloodstream. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to investigate the activity of Salicylic Acid (SA) and its effect on the gene expression of biofilm genes (FnbA and FnbB genes)...
June 4, 2024: Human Antibodies
Aymn T Abbas, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Ashraf A Tabll, Anwar M Hashem, Tagreed L Al Subhi, Mohammed Alsaadi, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus is a highly pathogenic virus that poses a significant threat to public health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop and characterize novel mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting the spike protein S1 subunit of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV). METHODS: In this study, three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MERS-CoV were generated and characterized using hybridoma technology...
May 2, 2024: Human Antibodies
Randy Chance, Angray Singh Kang
Monoclonal antibody biologics have significantly transformed the therapeutic landscape within the biopharmaceutical industry, partly due to the utilisation of discovery technologies such as the hybridoma method and phage display. While these established platforms have streamlined the development process to date, their reliance on cell transformation for antibody identification faces limitations related to library diversification and the constraints of host cell physiology. Cell-free systems like ribosome display offer a complementary approach, enabling antibody selection in a completely in vitro setting while harnessing enriched cellular molecular machinery...
May 1, 2024: Human Antibodies
Nouhaila Najimi, Chaimae Kadi, Noureddine Elmtili, Fouad Seghrouchni, Youssef Bakri
Following infection and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, humoral components of the adaptive immune system play a key role in protecting the host. Specifically, B cells generate high-affinity antibodies against various antigens of the virus. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of immunity initiation through both natural infection and vaccination, shedding light on the activation of B cell subsets in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The innate immune system serves as the initial line of primary and nonspecific defence against viruses...
April 28, 2024: Human Antibodies
Hawraa Allawi Luaibi, Bushra Jasim Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a crucial physiologic regulator of immune responses, and several disorders have been associated with its dysregulation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand TNFα gene expression in adult patients with liver and pancreas disorders and examine the impact of TNFα-238 genotypes on this population. METHODS: At the Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital in Baghdad, blood samples were collected from forty patients who were diagnosed with beta thalassemia together with pancreatic disease, forty patients who were diagnosed with thalassemia together with liver disorder, and forty patients who were diagnosed with thalassemia without pancreas or liver disorder...
April 10, 2024: Human Antibodies
Amira Hagras, Dia Mohasseb, Raghda Taleb, Rim Bastawi, Rehab Elnemr
BACKGROUND: Anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibodies have recently been recommended as a better arthritis diagnostic marker. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between anti-MCV antibodies and the clinical, functional, and radiographic characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 40 RA patients and 40 healthy subjects. All patients were subjected to an assessment of disease using the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), function by HAQ-DI, physical activity by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), fatigue by Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT), serological tests as well as anti-MCV Abs measurement...
April 10, 2024: Human Antibodies
Ulrich Storz
BACKGROUND: Patent protection of therapeutic antibodies and T cell receptors is an important tool to enable the path to the market. In view of the substantial spendings for R&D and regulatory approval, sponsors expect exclusivity for their drug for a given period of time. Different categories exist to protect therapeutic antibodies and T cell receptors. One of these categories are epitope-based patent claims, with regard to which in the different jurisdictions, different patentability standards exist, which, furthermore, are constantly changed by courts and lawmakers...
April 1, 2024: Human Antibodies
Mervet B Jasim, Asmaa B Al-Obaidi, Enas Adnan Abdulrasul, Haider Faisal Ghazi
INTRODUCTION: The antibody that crosses transplacentally from mother to fetus is very important origin of protective passive immunity against infection neonatal with enterovirus. Important varieties of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) are responsible for infections in newborns. The purpose from this study is to investigate in the prevalence of Coxsackie B virus in a sample of Iraqi women with miscarriage and potential role of miscarriage risk. METHODS: Between November 2022 and June 2023, we included 91 parturient women (gestational age: 4-20 weeks) who were between the ages of 15 and 40...
March 22, 2024: Human Antibodies
Halah Kadhim, Abdulameer Ghareeb, Mohammed Alhilal
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is influenced by genetic and epigenetic factors, including miR-155, which affects immune cell and virus functions and laboratory biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: T0 evaluates miR-155's role as a biomarker for SARS-CoV-2 detection and monitoring, examining its significance in identifying infection in both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals using ROC curve analysis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 70 patients who attended Medical City Hospital in Baghdad from June 2022 to April 2023 and were determined to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 (35 patients were hospitalized at the Intensive Care Units due to the severity of their symptoms while the other 35 were left hospital upon treatment...
March 6, 2024: Human Antibodies
Ömer Şevgin, Songül Özer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been proposed as a new alternative to chemical adjuvants. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between regular exercise and post-vaccination antibody response in the elderly. METHODS: The study was conducted with the elderly over the age of 65. 30 participants we randomized into 2 groups and divided into exercise and control groups. The experimental group received a 12-week exercise program...
January 25, 2024: Human Antibodies
Hassan Hachim Naser, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Hazem Almhanna
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are currently posing a worldwide health concern by affecting millions of people. The genetic variant rs2234671 in the CXCR1-interleukin-8 receptor is closely related to a raised UTI risk. OBJECTIVES: In this work, the impact of CXCR1 (rs2234671) on UTI individuals was examined. METHODS: The demographic features of 30 recurrent UTI patients and 20 controls were thoroughly investigated. Bacterial isolation and identification were performed by the implementation of cultural and biochemical methods...
January 23, 2024: Human Antibodies
Zahraa Kadhim Lafi And, Bushra Jasim Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis Known as MS, this chronic inflammatory demyelinating condition affects the nervous system. It is a heterogenic and multifactorial disease. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between MS patients' IL18 gene expression and the vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism (FOK1rs2228570). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study to investigate the association of Vitamin D receptor (FOK1rs2228570) gene Polymorphism and pro inflammatory cytokine (IL18) gene expression among multiple sclerosis Iraqi Patients...
January 20, 2024: Human Antibodies
Hiba Sh Ahmed, Hind Sh Ahmed, Haylim N Abud
BACKGROUND: The number of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) positive patients and fatalities keeps rising. It is important to recognize risk factors for severe outcomes. Evidence linking vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 is tangential but substantial - relating to race, obesity, and institutionalization. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the function of vitamin D and nutritional defense against infections such as COVID-19, which is the goal of this research...
2024: Human Antibodies
Hawraa Allawi Luaibi, Bushra Jasim Mohammed
BACKGROUND: TNF-α has been considered as the key regulator of inflammatory responses and is known to be participated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of (rs1800629) gene polymorphism associated to liver and pancreas disorders in sample of β-thalassemia major adult Iraqi Patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 40 patients suffered from beta thalassemia with pancreas disorder, along with 40 patient suffered from thalassemia with liver disorder, and 40 patient suffered from thalassemia without pancreas or liver, from Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital, Baghdad, and 40 samples from age and gender-matched apparently healthy individuals as control group, all subjects with age more than 18 years...
December 25, 2023: Human Antibodies
Riya Patel, Pratibha Verma, Anil Kumar Nagraj, Akshata Gavade, Om Prakash Sharma, Jaspal Patil
Immunotherapy has become increasingly popular in recent years for treating a variety of diseases including inflammatory, neurological, oncological, and auto-immune disorders. The significant interest in antibody development is due to the high binding affinity and specificity of an antibody against a specific antigen. Recent advances in antibody engineering have provided a different view on how to engineer antibodies in silico for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In order to improve the clinical utility of therapeutic antibodies, it is of paramount importance to understand the various molecular properties which impact antigen targeting and its potency...
December 25, 2023: Human Antibodies
Khalid Bahram Arif, Summer Said, Nawfal Khiro, Salih Ibrahem, Saleh Al-Ghamdi
BACKGROUND: World-wide Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer with one million new cases a year. Historically, a higher incidence of this disease has been recorded among the elderly in the western countries, but it is increasing in developing countries and in younger age groups. AIM: This study aims to find whether CRC cancer is progressively affecting the younger age groups known as early onset (< 50 years). In addition, it describes the pathological characteristics of CRC in early onset CRC cases...
December 25, 2023: Human Antibodies
Razieh Fatehi, Farinaz Khosravian, Mansoor Salehi, Mohammad Kazemi
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the new virus of the coronavirus family, SARS-CoV-2, could lead to acute respiratory syndrome. The molecular mechanisms related to this disorder are still debatable. METHODS: In this study to understand the pathogenicity mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, using the bioinformatics approaches, we investigated the expression of involved genes, their regulatory, and main signaling pathways during the time on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 of SARS-CoV infected cells...
November 30, 2023: Human Antibodies
Sara El Fakihi, Aicha El Allam, Hicham Tahoune, Nouhaila Najimi, Chaimae Kadi, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Jamal-Eddine Bourkadi, Fouad Seghrouchni
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that mostly affects the lungs. Advanced tissue injury caused by this disease can progress to pulmonary fibrosis with similar characteristics shared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The initial presentations of both sarcoidosis and IPF may be shared with other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Two populations of macrophages have been described in the alveolar space: small alveolar macrophages (AMs) and large alveolar macrophages...
July 28, 2023: Human Antibodies
Majid Mokhtari, Mahdi Gholipour, Solat Eslami, Atefe Abak, Bashdar Mahmud Hussen, Azadeh Rakhshan, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been found to be associated with deregulation of several non-coding genes and mRNA coding genes. OBJECTIVE: To assess expressions of CYTOR and CDKN2B in breast cancer and adjacent samples and find their relevance with clinical data. METHODS: We enumerated expression level of CDKN2B and CYTOR in 43 newly diagnosed breast cancer samples and their adjacent specimens using real-time PCR method Expression data was judged using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test...
July 14, 2023: Human Antibodies
Adeq K Hachim, Aesha Saber Ali, Khalid B Arif
OBJECTIVE: SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is combined with a high death rate and morbidity in different regions across the world. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine secreted in response to tissue injury, primarily produced by macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a part of innate immunity and is elevated in response to infection and cancer. METHODS: This study includes one hundred patients infected with the viral pathogen known as SARS-CoV-2 and fifty healthy individuals attending Al-Salam Hospital in Baghdad...
July 10, 2023: Human Antibodies
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