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Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry

Sourav Kumar Patra, Sourabh Samaddar, Nilanjan Sinha, Sanjay Ghosh
Vibrio cholerae faces nitrosative stress during successful colonization in intestine. Very little information is available on the nitrosative stress protective mechanisms of V. cholerae. Reports show that norR regulon control two genes hmpA and nnrS responsible for nitric oxide (NO) detoxification in V. cholerae. In the present study we first time report a novel role V. cholerae catalases under nitrosative stress. Using zymogram analysis of catalase we showed that KatB and KatG activity were induced within 30 min in V...
April 11, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Bárbara S Rocha, Mariana G Correia, Anabela Pereira, Isabel Henriques, Gabriela J Da Silva, João Laranjinha
Upon consumption, dietary nitrate is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity and to nitric oxide (• NO) in the stomach. Here, • NO increases mucosal blood flow, mucus thickness and prevents microbial infections. However, the impact of nitrate on gut microbiota, a pleiotropic organism essential to maintain gastrointestinal and systemic welfare, remains elusive. This study investigates the impact of nitrate on gut microbiota profile and ensued mucosal effects during dysbiosis. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 4 groups and the drinking water was supplemented for 7 days as follows: 1) antibiotic cocktail (neomycin, bacitracin and imipenem), 2) antibiotic cocktail + sodium nitrate, 3) sodium nitrate and 4) regular drinking water...
April 10, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Monika Keisham, Prachi Jain, Neha Singh, Christine von Toerne, Satish C Bhatla, Christian Lindermayr
Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signaling molecule in plants. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an established NO donor used in plant science research, simultaneously releases NO, cyanide (CN- ) and iron (Fe) in solution. Since cyanide and iron mask NO effect of SNP, its use in NO research is debatable. Deciphering the action of SNP through NO, CN- or Fe has been undertaken in the present work. Cotyledons from salt stressed sunflower seedlings grown in the presence of NO donors were subjected to spectrofluorometric analysis of NO, CN- and Fe contents, and proteome and biochemical analyses...
March 19, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Feng Zhang, Haiyang Tang, Shuo Sun, Yuru Luo, Xingsheng Ren, Aidong Chen, Yu Xu, Peng Li, Ying Han
Enhanced vasoconstriction and decreased vasodilatation due to endothelial dysfunction contribute to the progression of hypertension. Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) plays important roles in regulating the cardiovascular activity. The current study aimed to investigate the roles of Ang-(1-7) in modulating blood pressure, vascular tension and its signal pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The effects of intravenous injection of drugs were determined in rats with anesthesia in vivo. Mesenteric artery (MA), coronary artery (CA) and pulmonary artery (PA) were isolated from rats and isometric tension measurements in arteries were performed...
March 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Neeru M Sharma, Xuefei Liu, Tamra L Llewellyn, Kenichi Katsurada, Kaushik P Patel
Exercise training (ExT) is an established non-pharmacological therapy that improves the health and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Exaggerated sympathetic drive characterizes CHF due to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) produce nitric oxide (NO•), which is known to regulate the sympathetic tone. Previously we have shown that during CHF, the catalytically active dimeric form of nNOS is significantly decreased with a concurrent increase in protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN) expression, a protein that dissociates dimeric nNOS to monomers and facilitates its degradation...
March 13, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ashwini Hariharan, Yu Jing, Nicola D Collie, Hu Zhang, Ping Liu
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a key regulator of cerebral blood flow (CBF) dynamics. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS-/- ) display age-related increases in amyloid beta in the brain and memory deficits, implicating eNOS dysfunction in the neuropathogenesis and/or development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study systematically investigated behavioural, CBF and brain arginine metabolic profile changes in male and female wildtype (WT) and eNOS-/- mice at 14 months of age...
March 13, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Rafael Radi
In this review, I provide historical background on how nitric oxide (• NO) and peroxynitrite research was originated in Uruguay in the early 90's and how the investigations evolved through over more than two decades within a context related to human biology. This process involved the participation of multiple local investigators, in conjunction with collaborations at the regional (Latin American) and international levels. The discoveries have been integrated with parallel investigations from other research groups worldwide and, have provided a body of knowledge to unravel how the free radical nitric oxide (• NO) can shift its signal transduction action towards oxidative processes via its interactions with superoxide radical (O2 •- ) to yield peroxynitrite, a strong biological oxidant...
March 11, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Pamela Ehrenfeld, Francisco Cordova, Walter N Duran, Fabiola A Sanchez
S-nitrosylation, the modification by nitric oxide of free sulfhydryl groups in cysteines, has become an important regulatory mechanism in carcinogenesis and metastasis. S-nitrosylation of targets in tumor cells contributes to metastasis regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion. In the tumor environment, the role of S-nitrosylation in endothelium has not been addressed; however, the evidence points out that S-nitrosylation of endothelial proteins may regulate angiogenesis, adhesion of tumor cells to the endothelium, intra and extravasation of tumor cells and contribute to metastasis...
March 9, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Itamar Goren, Yvette Köhler, Ahmed Aglan, Josef Pfeilschifter, Karl-Friedrich Beck, Stefan Frank
The gaseous mediators nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and lately also hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) have been described to contribute to the interplay of protein type- and lipid mediators in the regulation of wound healing. In particular, the recently reported role of H2 S in skin repair remains largely unresolved. Therefore we assessed the expressional kinetics of potential H2 S-producing enzymes during undisturbed skin repair: the cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), the cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)...
March 9, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
B Thomas, S Smallwood, C Cutler, R Bescos
Interest in inorganic nitrate and nitrite has grown substantially over the past decade as research has revealed the role of these anions in enhancing nitric oxide (NO) availability through an oral pathway. Nitrite synthesis in the mouth seems to be an important mechanism to feed the circulatory system with this anion. This is interesting since greater plasma nitrite concentration has been associated with better fitness levels in humans, but this question has not been investigated in relation to salivary nitrite concentration...
March 7, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jie Zhao, Jinming Wu, Zhen Yang, Lei Ouyang, Lihua Zhu, Zhonghong Gao, Hailing Li
Amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is one of the most common pathological features of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increasing evidences have shown that the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play an important role in the development of the T2D. Interestingly, our previous studies indicated that heme could bind to hIAPP, and the complex might induce the nitration of tyrosine residue (Y37) of hIAPP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite...
March 5, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ivan Szadvari, Sona Hudecova, Barbora Chovancova, Miroslava Matuskova, Dana Cholujova, Lubomira Lencesova, David Valerian, Karol Ondrias, Petr Babula, Olga Krizanova
We explored possibility that sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) is involved in pH modulation and apoptosis induction in GYY4137 treated cells. We have shown that although 10 days treatment with GYY4137 did not significantly decreased volume of tumors induced by colorectal cancer DLD1 cells in nude mice, it already induced apoptosis in these tumors. Treatment of DLD1 and ovarian cancer A2780 cells with GYY4137 resulted in intracellular acidification in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed increased mRNA and protein expression of both, NCX1 and sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) in DLD1-induced tumors from GYY4137-treated mice...
March 5, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tsuyoshi Takata, Ayaka Tsukuda, Yukihiro Tsuchiya, Takaaki Akaike, Yasuo Watanabe
Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) I is activated by the phosphorylation of a crucial activation loop Thr177 by upstream kinases, CaMK kinase (CaMKK), and regulates axonal or dendritic extension and branching. Reactive sulfur species (RSS) modulate protein functions via polysulfidation of the reactive Cys residues. Here, we report that the activity of CaMKI was reversibly inhibited via its polysulfidation at Cys179 by RSS. In vitro incubation of CaMKI with the exogenous RSS donor Na2 S3 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the phosphorylation at Thr177 by CaMKK and inactivation of the enzymatic activity...
March 4, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Cindy Meziat, Doria Boulghobra, Eva Strock, Sylvain Battault, Isabelle Bornard, Guillaume Walther, Cyril Reboul
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated in obese rats the effect of exercise training on eNOS expressed in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and its consequences on vascular function. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (standard diet), obese (high fat/high sucrose diet, HFS for 15 weeks), and exercised obese (HFS diet and exercise from week 6 to week 15, HFS-Ex) rats. The eNOS-adiponectin pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. Vascular reactivity was assessed on isolated aortic rings with or without PVAT and/or endothelium and exposed or not to the conditioned media of PVAT...
March 2, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Zhiyuan Wang, Ye Wu, Suli Zhang, Yuhui Zhao, Xiaochen Yin, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AA) cause endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder. It is well understood that impairment of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder. However, it is still unclear whether AT1-AA induces endothelial-dependent smooth muscle relaxation disorder via the impairment of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway. In addition, adiponectin exerts vascular endothelial protection through the NO-cGMP signaling pathway...
March 1, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Mauricio A Retamal, Viviana P Orellana, Nicolás J Arévalo, Cristóbal G Rojas, Rodolfo J Arjona, Constanza A Alcaíno, Wendy González, Jonathan G Canan, Rodrigo Moraga-Amaro, Jimmy Stehberg, Luis Reuss, Guillermo A Altenberg
Under normal conditions, connexin (Cx) hemichannels have a low open probability, which can increase under pathological conditions. Since hemichannels are permeable to relatively large molecules, their exacerbated activity has been linked to cell damage. Cx46 is highly expressed in the lens and its mutations have been associated to cataract formation, but it is unknown whether Cx46 has a role in non-genetic cataract formation (i.e. aging and diabetes). Nitric oxide (NO) is a key element in non-genetic cataract formation and Cx46 hemichannels have been shown to be sensitive to NO...
February 21, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Joicy S Dos Santos, Loyanne C Ramos, Lucimara P Ferreira, Vanessa Campos, Lucas C D de Rezende, Flávio da Silva Emery, Roberto Santana da Silva
This work investigates how the luminescent ruthenium-nitrite complexes cis-[Ru(py-bodipy)(dcbpy)2 (NO2 )](PF6 ) (I) and cis-[Ru(py-bodipy)(dcbpy-aminopropyl-β-lactose)2 (NO2 )](PF6 ) (II) behave toward the melanoma cancer cell line B16F10. The chemical structure and purity of the synthesized complexes were analyzed by UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy, MALDI, HPLC, and 1 H NMR. Spectrofluorescence helped to determine the fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of each of these complexes. In vitro MTT cell viability assay on B16F10 cancer cells revealed that the complexes possibly have a tumoricidal role...
February 18, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Palloma Mendes Conceição, Alison Felipe Alencar Chaves, Marina Valente Navarro, Daniele Gonçalves Castilho, Juliana Cristina P Calado, Ana Elisa Coronel Janu Haniu, Patricia Xander, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the major systemic mycosis in Latin America. The capacity to evade the innate immune response of the host is due to P. brasiliensis ability to respond and to survive the nitrosative stress caused by phagocytic cells. However, the regulation of signal transduction pathways associated to nitrosative stress response are poorly understood. Ras GTPase play an important role in the various cellular events in many fungi...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Alice V Araújo, Fernanda A Andrade, Michele Paulo, Tiago D de Paula, Simone R Potje, Amanda C Pereira, Lusiane M Bendhack
PURPOSE: This study investigated the intracellular mechanisms involved in the vasodilatation induced by the classic NO donor SNP and the non-classic NO donor cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)(NO2)](PF6) (or RuBPY) in mesenteric resistance arteries obtained from renal hypertensive (2K-1C) and normotensive (2K) rats. METHODS: On the basis of fluorimetric assays in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from 2K-1C and 2K rats, we measured NO release from SNP and RuBPY, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]c), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the selective probes DAF-2DA, Fluo-3AM and the more selective probe for peroxynitrite (7-CBA), respectively...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Fatma Aydinoglu, Elif Özveren Adıbelli, Didem Yılmaz-Oral, Nuran Ogulener
Rho-kinase activity is a key regulator in the maintenance of corporal vasoconstriction and penile detumescense. Also, importance of l-cysteine/H2 S pathway in erectile tissue has been shown; however it is currently unknown the role RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in H2 S-induced inhibition in cavernosal tissue. We investigated the role of RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the inhibitory effect of l-cysteine and NaHS, as endogenous and exogenous H2 S, respectively, on phenylephrine-induced contractions of mouse cavernosal strips...
February 12, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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