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Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000576/medical-privacy-versus-public-safety-in-aviation
#1
Christopher A Kenedi, Jacob M Appel, Susan Hatters Friedman
Confidentiality, considered a fundamental principle of medical ethics, is potentially at odds with public safety when an airplane pilot is experiencing symptoms of mental illness. Reporting requirements for pilots vary across the world, and pilots can be subject to multiple national regulatory authorities for international flights. Stigma exists about getting treated for depression. If one's livelihood and core sense of identity is placed at risk by seeking treatment, people will naturally avoid assessments and engagement with mental health clinicians, the very treatment that could mitigate risk...
April 18, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000575/the-impact-of-the-psychiatrist-on-the-life-care-plan
#2
Shani C Missner, Ziv E Cohen
A life care plan is a tool that is used for medical treatment planning and management purposes in many settings, including legal and forensic applications. This article summarizes the life care planning process and emphasizes the role of the psychiatrist in establishing a strong medical foundation for the plan. The psychiatrist's expertise in determining the nature and extent of the evaluee's psychiatric illness, prognosis, need for and likely benefit from treatment, and costs of care inform the life care planning process...
April 18, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988022/integrating-non-psychiatric-models-of-delusion-like-beliefs-into-forensic-psychiatric-assessment
#3
Joseph M Pierre
In both clinical and forensic psychiatry, it can often be difficult to distinguish delusions from normal beliefs. The categorical approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) leaves few options to describe intermediate delusion-like beliefs (DLBs). Neurocognitive models offer an alternative view of DLBs as existing on a continuum that can be quantified based on dimensions of severity as well as underlying cognitive biases. The Internet provides broadened access to putative evidence for diverse beliefs, with filter bubbles and echo chambers that can amplify confirmation bias and strengthen conviction...
April 15, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988021/criminal-justice-and-suicide-outcomes-with-indiana-s-risk-based-gun-seizure-law
#4
Jeffrey W Swanson, Michele M Easter, Kelly Alanis-Hirsch, Charles M Belden, Michael A Norko, Allison G Robertson, Linda K Frisman, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Marvin S Swartz, George F Parker
This article examines the application and effectiveness of a 2006 Indiana law designed to prevent gun violence by authorizing police officers to separate firearms from persons who present imminent or future risk of injury to self or others, or display a propensity for violent or emotionally unstable conduct. A court hearing is held to determine ongoing risk in these cases; a judge decides whether to return the seized firearms or retain them for up to five years. The study examines the frequency of criminal arrest as well as suicide outcomes for 395 gun-removal actions in Indiana...
April 15, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988020/risk-assessment-of-online-child-sexual-exploitation-offenders
#5
Matthew E Hirschtritt, Douglas Tucker, Renée L Binder
Over the past two decades in the United States, a dramatic increase in access to the Internet has facilitated an increase in the production, viewing, and distribution of child pornography. In this context, forensic mental health professionals may be called on to estimate the risk of future violence, especially of contact sexual offenses, among individuals charged with online sexual offenses. We summarize demographic and clinical characteristics that differentiate online from contact and "mixed" offenders (those who commit both online and contact offenses), offending histories of these three groups, and the current state of knowledge regarding risk of progression from online-only to contact offending...
April 15, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988019/evaluating-and-reducing-risk-in-online-child-pornography-cases
#6
Fred S Berlin
In their article on the subject of risk assessment of online child sexual exploitation offenders, Hirschtritt and colleagues highlight an important finding derived from an analysis of group data which concludes that the vast majority of individuals convicted for accessing child pornography online (and who have had no prior conviction for a contact sexual offense) are at low risk of becoming a contact, hands-on, sexual offender. This commentary is intended to complement their observations by emphasizing the importance of performing a comprehensive psychiatric-forensic evaluation when assessing risk...
April 15, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30914437/a-review-of-statutes-and-the-role-of-the-forensic-psychiatrist-in-cyberstalking-involving-youth
#7
Paul Elizondo, Dale E McNiel, Renée Binder
Adolescents are increasingly exposed to Internet-facilitated crime as they spend more time online. The mental health risks and legal consequences for youth involved in cyberstalking are growing areas of concern. The nature of online stalking presents several challenges regarding investigation, fair adjudication, fact-finding, and legislation. Laws governing online stalking behaviors inconsistently reference the age of a victim or perpetrator as a factor for consideration in case disposition. During adjudication, the forensic psychiatrist may be asked to evaluate the victim or perpetrator involved in cyberstalking...
March 26, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782606/clozapine-reduces-self-injurious-behavior-in-a-state-prison-population
#8
Theodore R Zarzar, Terri L Catlett, Maria G O'Connell, Bryan H Harrelson, Vincent P Wilson, Genell N Rashad, Dustin B Morris, Joseph B Williams, Susan S Peebles, Brian B Sheitman
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a common, disruptive, and costly occurrence in U.S. prisons. In this study, we describe the use of clozapine to treat 10 offenders with chronic, repetitive self-injury refractory to other medications and behavioral therapies. The primary diagnosis for all 10 offenders was a personality disorder. Eight of the 10 inmates allowed weekly blood draws and took medication regularly (approximately 95% adherence), whereas two inmates discontinued treatment within the first two weeks...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782605/sharing-violent-thoughts-on-the-internet
#9
Rami Abukamil, Jennifer L Piel
The anonymity of the Internet enables people to explore and share certain thoughts they may not feel comfortable sharing through traditional means. This is true for socially unacceptable thoughts, including violent and sexually sadistic fantasies. Despite one's relative freedom to explore virtually any subject anonymously, some Internet activities can attract unwanted attention from the media and law enforcement authorities. The case of former New York City police officer Gilberto Valle is illustrative of the problems that can be generated by online activities...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760480/a-seat-at-the-table
#10
Christopher R Thompson
Organized medicine and psychiatry have a long tradition of governmental advocacy and public engagement. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), since its founding 50 years ago, has made some forays into these fields. However, its involvement has been less substantial than other similarly situated professional organizations. With its increasing membership and expertise, AAPL now possesses the capacity to dedicate some of its organizational attention, energy, and resources to educating policymakers and the public on current and future topics related to forensic mental health...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760479/examining-racial-disparities-in-juvenile-justice
#11
Barbara Robles-Ramamurthy, Clarence Watson
Decades of research have focused on understanding and addressing racial disparities that occur at every stage of processing in the juvenile justice system. Leaders in the field have raised concerns about the differential treatment and selection of youth based on race. Taking into consideration Sussman and colleagues' results regarding the use of manifest injustice in Washington State, we review briefly the legislative changes that have occurred nationally to address the problem of disproportionate minority contact...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745325/involving-forensic-patients-in-treatment-planning-increases-cooperation-and-may-reduce-violence-risk
#12
Daniel J Papapietro
Risk assessment in a forensic hospital is a complex process. Decisions made about individuals and their lives cannot be made lightly and must include relevant information from as many sources as possible. The forensic hospital and the greater legal system that oversees forensic treatment have an obligation to protect the safety of the community. Thus, any decision about a forensic patient's progress from high to low security or eventual transition and discharge into the community must be thoughtful and balanced, and must include input from the patients themselves...
February 11, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737296/prevalence-rates-of-acute-stress-disorder-symptomatology-and-association-to-juvenile-crime-involvement
#13
Bronte Torres Pagan, Kayla Wyant, Joseph Chien, Kendell L Coker
Little is known about the relationship between acute stress disorder and criminal behavior among youth. This study examined data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Participants in this survey, which took place between February 2001 and January 2003, consisted of 10,148 youth between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Because the NCS-A was conducted prior to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder from the fourth edition of the DSM were mapped to DSM-5 criteria for ASD...
February 8, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737295/use-of-manifest-injustice-in-the-washington-state-juvenile-rehabilitation-administration
#14
Nicole I Sussman, Terry G Lee, Kevin A Hallgren
In the Washington State Juvenile Code, the Manifest Injustice (MI) provision allows judges to sentence youth outside of the standard guidelines. We compared rates of Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration (JRA) involvement and MI between racial minority youth and Caucasian youth. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward African American and multiracial youth having MI used to decrease their sentence less frequently than Caucasian youth. African American youth were about half as likely to have MI used to intensify their sentence compared with Caucasian youth (rate ratio = ...
February 8, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733231/professional-boundaries-in-corrections
#15
Brian K Cooke, Ryan C W Hall, Susan Hatters Friedman, Abhishek Jain, Ryan Wagoner
Boundary violations occurring in corrections settings require special attention. There is a unique relationship between officers and inmates, governed by policies and procedures as well as ethics in general (e.g., the lack of ability for a person in a controlled environment to consent to a relationship due to power imbalance). Recent high-profile cases between corrections officers and inmates demonstrate the complexities inherent in these relationships. We examine several recent cases and offer analysis of the factors leading to these dangerous encounters...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852559/graphic-history
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852558/invoking-history-and-structural-competency-to-minimize-racial-bias
#17
EDITORIAL
Sonya M Shadravan, Eraka Bath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737294/competency-restoration-for-adult-defendants-in-different-treatment-environments
#18
Graham S Danzer, Elizabeth M A Wheeler, Apryl A Alexander, Tobias D Wasser
The optimization of trial competency restoration is a topic of growing interest and controversy in the fields of forensics, psychology, criminal law, and public policy. Research has established that adult defendants who have severe psychotic disorders and cognitive impairments are more likely than defendants without these conditions to be found incompetent to stand trial and are less likely to be restored to competency thereafter. Research has also identified some of the benefits of attempting restoration in hospitals, jails, or outpatient settings for defendants with different diagnoses or levels of cognitive functioning...
March 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658966/talking-to-forensic-patients-about-risk
#19
Gwen M J Adshead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658965/shared-risk-formulation-in-forensic-psychiatry
#20
Ipsita Ray, Alexander I F Simpson
Patients in forensic mental health care have a difficult journey through inpatient rehabilitation and re-integration into the community. Risk assessment guides this progress, usually with clinician-based processes that use structured risk-assessment tools. Patients' understanding of their own risk is important to inform risk assessment and the chances of successful rehabilitation. The emergence of shared decision-making approaches provides an opportunity to consider shared risk assessment and formulation. We reviewed the literature to explore models of patients' involvement in risk assessment and the impact on outcomes in forensic mental health care...
January 18, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
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