Sunjeev Uthayakumar, Mina Tadrous, Simone N Vigod, Sophie A Kitchen, Tara Gomes
BACKGROUND: Population studies have shown that rates of depressive and anxious symptoms have increased as a result of COVID-19. We analyzed trends in the dispensing rates of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in Canada to determine whether the pandemic has caused changes in rates of pharmacological treatment for depression and anxiety. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional time-series analysis of antidepressants and benzodiazepines dispensed monthly by Canadian community pharmacies between January 2017 and December 2020...
February 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Sonya B Norman, Christy Capone, Kaitlyn E Panza, Moira Haller, Brittany C Davis, Paula P Schnurr, M Tracie Shea, Kendall Browne, Gregory J Norman, Ariel J Lang, Alexander C Kline, Shahrokh Golshan, Carolyn B Allard, Abigail Angkaw
INTRODUCTION: Trauma-related guilt is common, associated with posttraumatic mental health problems, and can persist after posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. We compared the efficacy of two six-session psychotherapies, Trauma-Informed Guilt Reduction (TrIGR) and Supportive Care Therapy (SCT), for reducing trauma-related guilt. TrIGR helps patients accurately appraise their role in the trauma and re-engage in values. In SCT, patients guide session content. METHODS: A total of 184 veterans seeking VA mental health services were enrolled across two sites; 145 veterans (mean age: 39...
January 25, 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Aina Gabarrell-Pascuet, María V Moneta, José L Ayuso-Mateos, Marta Miret, Elvira Lara, Josep M Haro, Beatriz Olaya, Joan Domènech-Abella
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that social support, loneliness, and major depressive disorder (MDD) are interrelated. Little is known about the potential pathways among these factors, in particular in the case of adults aged 50 years and older and suffering from MDD. The objective was to investigate whether loneliness mediates the association between low social support and recurrent episodes of MDD. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of the Spanish general population interviewed at three time-points over a 7-year period...
January 14, 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Mark S Burton, Barbara O Rothbaum, Sheila A M Rauch
BACKGROUND: Intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) for trauma-focused therapy, such as prolonged exposure (PE), have the potential to deliver highly effective treatment, quickly and with minimal dropout. Identifying factors that predict maintenance of gains after treatment can help triage individuals who may need additional services. METHODS: Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom trajectories across the year following a 2-week IOP, delivering daily PE for PTSD for post-9/11 Veterans...
January 14, 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Jacqueline Kiewa, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Jeanette Milgrom, Jerry Guintivano, Ian B Hickie, David C Whiteman, Catherine M Olsen, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Naomi R Wray, Enda M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Distinctions between major depressive disorder (MDD) and perinatal depression (PND) reflect varying views of PND, from a unique etiological subtype of MDD to an MDD episode that happens to coincide with childbirth. This case-control study investigated genetic differences between PND and MDD outside the perinatal period (non-perinatal depression or NPD). METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study using PND cases (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥ 13) from the Australian Genetics of Depression Study 2018 data (n = 3804) and screened controls (n = 6134)...
January 5, 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Aemal Akhtar, Phiona Koyiet, Atif Rahman, Alison Schafer, Syed Usman Hamdani, Pim Cuijpers, Marit Sijbrandij, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: To address shortages of mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries, task-shifting approaches have been employed to train nonspecialists to deliver evidence-based scalable psychosocial interventions. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief transdiagnostic nontrauma focused intervention for people affected by adversity. This study reports on the capacity of PM+ to address specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Individual patient data from three randomised controlled trials were combined and analysed to observe the impacts of PM+ (n = 738) or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) (n = 742) interventions on specific PTSD symptoms at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up...
January 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Lena Pokorny, Lisa Besting, Friederike Roebruck, Tomasz Antoni Jarczok, Stephan Bender
BACKGROUND: Specific phobias have the highest prevalence among anxiety disorders. Cognitive control involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is crucial for coping abilities in anxiety disorders. However, there is little research on the DLPFC in specific phobia. METHODS: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we investigated the TMS-evoked potential component N100 in the DLPFC at rest and while watching emotional expressions. The TMS-evoked N100 provides a parameter for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B-mediated cortical inhibition...
January 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Thomas G Adams, Josh M Cisler, Benjamin Kelmendi, Jamilah R George, Stephen A Kichuk, Christopher L Averill, Alan Anticevic, Chadi G Abdallah, Christopher Pittenger
BACKGROUND: Exposed-based psychotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxious psychopathology. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the default mode network (DMN), which is anchored by the mPFC, promote safety learning. Neuromodulation targeting the mPFC might augment therapeutic safety learning and enhance response to exposure-based therapies. METHODS: To characterize the effects of mPFC neuromodulation on functional connectivity, 17 community volunteers completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans before and after 20 min of frontopolar anodal multifocal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
January 2022: Depression and Anxiety
Thalil Muhammad, Muhammed Rashid
BACKGROUND: Health practitioners often meet older persons suffering both from pain and depression. The study aimed to examine the factors associated with pain among older individuals and its association with major depression. In addition, the interaction between self-rated health (SRH), wealth status, and pain that is associated with depression are explored. METHODS: We used data from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI). Participants included 15,098 male and 16,366 female adults aged 60 years or older...
December 30, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Rebecca B Lawn, Shaili C Jha, Jiaxuan Liu, Laura Sampson, Audrey R Murchland, Jennifer A Sumner, Andrea L Roberts, Seth G Disner, Francine Grodstein, Jae H Kang, Laura D Kubzansky, Lori B Chibnik, Karestan C Koenen
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence linking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and head injury, separately, with worse cognitive performance, investigations of their combined effects on cognition are limited in civilian women. METHODS: The Cogstate Brief Battery assessment was administered in 10,681 women from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort, mean age 64.9 years (SD = 4.6). Psychological trauma, PTSD, depression, and head injury were assessed using online questionnaires...
December 30, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Mingqia Wang, Xiaoyu Chen, Yiru Hu, Yangling Zhou, Chengyu Wang, Wei Zheng, Weijian Liu, Xiaofeng Lan, Yuping Ning, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recently, an animal model for depression has shown that ketamine, an N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, elicits a rapid-acting antidepressant effect by blocking NMDAR-dependent bursting in the lateral habenula (Hb). However, evidence from human studies remains scarce. METHODS: This study explored the changes of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the Hb in responders and nonresponders who was diagnosed with unipolar or bipolar depression before and after ketamine treatment...
December 28, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Laura E Kunst, Joyce Maas, Anton J L M van Balkom, Marcel A L M van Assen, Brenda Kouwenhoven, Marrie H J Bekker
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, few evidence-based alternatives exist. Autonomy enhancing treatment (AET) aims to decrease the vulnerability for anxiety disorders by targeting underlying autonomy deficits and may therefore have similar effects on anxiety as CBT, but yield broader effects. METHODS: A multicenter cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted including 129 patients with DSM-5 anxiety disorders, on average 33...
December 24, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
M Tracie Shea, Robert L Stout, Madhavi K Reddy, Elizabeth Sevin, Candice Presseau, Jennifer Lambert, Amy Cameron
BACKGROUND: Problems with anger and aggression affect many veterans who have deployed to a warzone, resulting in serious impairment in multiple aspects of functioning. Controlled studies are needed to improve treatment options for these veterans. This randomized controlled trial compared an individually delivered cognitive behavioral therapy adapted from Novaco's Anger Control Therapy to a manualized supportive therapy to control for common therapeutic factors. METHODS: Ninety-two post-911 veterans deployed during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), or Operation New Dawn (OND) with moderate to severe anger problems were randomized to receive the cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) or the supportive intervention (SI)...
December 8, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Koraly Pérez-Edgar, Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Julia W Felton, Karen T G Schwartz, Lauren E Oddo, Carl W Lejuez, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano
BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent, debilitating disorder that runs in families. Yet, empirical support for bidirectional mechanisms linking mother-adolescent depression symptoms remains limited. This study examined longitudinal bidirectional relations among emotion regulation (ER) constructs and depressive symptoms among mother-adolescent dyads over time. Pathways for girls and boys were explored separately, given extant research on sex differences in the intergenerational transmission of depression...
December 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Grace C George, Taylor J Keding, Sara A Heyn, Ryan J Herringa
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified functional brain abnormalities in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (pPTSD) suggesting altered frontoparietal-subcortical function during emotion processing. However, little is known about how the brain functionally changes over time in recovery versus the persistence of pPTSD. METHODS: This longitudinal study recruited 23 youth with PTSD and 28 typically developing (TD) youth (ages: 8.07-17.99). Within the PTSD group, nine remitted by the 1-year follow-up (Remit) while the remaining 14 persisted (PTSD)...
November 29, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Wenbin Li, Huaiqiang Sun, Kun Qin, Jing Yang, Lingjiang Li, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have identified various alterations in white matter (WM) microstructural organization. However, it remains unclear whether these are localized to specific regions of fiber tracts, and what diagnostic value they might have. This study set out to explore the spatial profile of WM abnormalities along defined fiber tracts in PTSD. METHODS: Diffusion tensor images were obtained from 77 treatment-naive noncomorbid patients with PTSD and 76 demographically matched trauma-exposed non-PTSD (TENP) controls...
November 18, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Jutta Joormann, Hannah N Ziobrowski, Andrew J King, Sarah M Gildea, Sue Lee, Nancy A Sampson, Stacey L House, Francesca L Beaudoin, Xinming An, Jennifer S Stevens, Donglin Zeng, Thomas C Neylan, Gari D Clifford, Sarah D Linnstaedt, Laura T Germine, Kenneth A Bollen, Scott L Rauch, John P Haran, Alan B Storrow, Paul I Musey, Phyllis L Hendry, Sophia Sheikh, Christopher W Jones, Brittany E Punches, Meghan E McGrath, Lauren A Hudak, Jose L Pascual, Mark J Seamon, Anna M Chang, Claire Pearson, David A Peak, Robert M Domeier, Niels K Rathlev, Brian J O'Neil, Leon D Sanchez, Steven E Bruce, Mark W Miller, Robert H Pietrzak, Deanna M Barch, Diego A Pizzagalli, Steven E Harte, James M Elliott, Karestan C Koenen, Samuel A McLean, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the extent to which prior occurrences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) predict psychopathological reactions to subsequent traumas might be useful in targeting posttraumatic preventive interventions. METHODS: Data come from 1306 patients presenting to 29 U.S. emergency departments (EDs) after a motor vehicle collision (MVC) in the advancing understanding of recovery after trauma study...
November 15, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Nicole E Lorenzo, Danielle R Novick, Kaylee Seddio, Kathryn A Degnan, Heather A Henderson, Alisa N Almas, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Nathan Fox
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that certain parenting behaviors are best suited to promote optimal child development, depending on a child's distinctive temperamental presentation. This multimethod, longitudinal study examines the interactive effect of parenting and temperament in early childhood on the developmental trajectory of social anxiety in adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal growth modeling was used to examine the developmental trajectory of child social anxiety from age 9-15 and the interactive effect of parenting and child temperament at 36 months on the developmental trajectory of child social anxiety from age 9-15...
November 11, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
Samuel T Wilkinson, Daniel Trujillo Diaz, Zachary W Rupp, Anubhav Kidambi, Karina L Ramirez, José M Flores, Victor J Avila-Quintero, T Greg Rhee, Mark Olfson, Michael H Bloch
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a public health crisis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of psychopharmacologic and somatic therapies on suicide risk. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE for studies evaluating the effects of pharmacologic (excluding antidepressants) or somatic interventions on suicide risk was conducted. Studies were included if they used a comparison group, reported on suicide death, assessed a psychopharmacological or somatic intervention, and included adults...
November 11, 2021: Depression and Anxiety
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