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Depression and Anxiety

Annelieke M Roest, Ymkje Anna de Vries, Carmen C W Lim, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Dan J Stein, Tomasz Adamowski, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Evelyn J Bromet, Maria Carmen Viana, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G Karam, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Norito Kawakami, Jean Pierre Lépine, Daphna Levinson, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Marina Piazza, José A Posada-Villa, Tim Slade, Yolanda Torres, Ronald C Kessler, Kate M Scott, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM-5) definition of agoraphobia (AG) as an independent diagnostic entity makes it timely to re-examine the epidemiology of AG. Study objective was to present representative data on the characteristics of individuals who meet DSM-IV criteria for AG (AG without a history of panic disorder [PD] and PD with AG) but not DSM-5 criteria, DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria, or both sets of criteria. METHODS: Population-based surveys from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative including adult respondents (n = 136,357) from 27 countries across the world...
February 6, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
A A A Manik J Djelantik, Donald J Robinaugh, Rolf J Kleber, Geert E Smid, Paul A Boelen
BACKGROUND: Although bereavement is likely a common stressor among patients referred to a psychotrauma clinic, no study has yet examined the co-occurrence and relationships between symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder symptoms in this population. METHOD: In a sample of patients seeking treatment following psychological trauma (n = 458), we used latent class analysis to identify classes of patients sharing the same profile of PGD, PTSD, and depression symptoms...
February 6, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Thomas H McCoy, Amelia M Pellegrini, Roy H Perlis
BACKGROUND: Identification of individuals at increased risk for suicide is an important public health priority, but the extent to which considering clinical phenomenology improves prediction of longer term outcomes remains understudied. Hospital discharge provides an opportunity to stratify risk using readily available clinical records and details. METHODS: We applied a validated natural language processing tool to generate estimated Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) scores for a cohort of 444,317 individuals drawn from 815,457 hospital discharges between 2005 and 2013...
February 2, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Lauren Anderson, Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Xiaoying Sun, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Paul D Bliese, Oscar I Gonzalez, Gary H Wynn, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Prior investigations have found negative associations between military unit cohesion and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, most relied on cross-sectional data and few examined relationships of unit cohesion to other mental disorders. This study evaluates prospective associations of perceived unit cohesion with a range of mental health outcomes following combat deployment. METHODS: U.S. Army soldiers were surveyed approximately 1-2 months before deployment to Afghanistan (T0); and 1 month (T1), 3 months (T2), and 9 months (T3) after return from deployment...
January 29, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Delin Sun, Rachel D Phillips, Hannah L Mulready, Stephen T Zablonski, Jessica A Turner, Matthew D Turner, Kathryn McClymond, Jason A Nieuwsma, Rajendra A Morey
Moral injury is closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and characterized by disturbances in social and moral cognition. Little is known about the neural underpinnings of moral injury, and whether the neural correlates are different between moral injury and PTSD. A sample of 26 U.S. military veterans (two females: 28-55 years old) were investigated to determine how subjective appraisals of morally injurious events measured by Moral Injury Event Scale (MIES) and PTSD symptoms are differentially related to spontaneous fluctuations indexed by amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as well as functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
January 28, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Anna C Barbano, Willem F van der Mei, Terri A deRoon-Cassini, Ettie Grauer, Sarah Ryan Lowe, Yutaka J Matsuoka, Meaghan O'Donnell, Miranda Olff, Wei Qi, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Ulrich Schnyder, Soraya Seedat, Ronald C Kessler, Karestan C Koenen, Arieh Y Shalev
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently associated with depression and anxiety, but the nature of the relationship is unclear. By removing mood and anxiety diagnostic criteria, the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) aims to delineate a distinct PTSD phenotype. We examined the effect of implementing ICD-11 criteria on rates of codiagnosed depression and anxiety in survivors with recent PTSD. METHOD: Participants were 1,061 survivors of traumatic injury admitted to acute care centers in Israel...
January 25, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Suresh Durgam, Changzheng Chen, Raffaele Migliore, Chandran Prakash, Michael E Thase
BACKGROUND: Levomilnacipran extended release (ER) is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. This study was designed to evaluate relapse prevention with levomilnacipran ER in patients with MDD. METHODS: Patients (≥18 years) with MDD (N = 644) received 20 weeks of open-label treatment with levomilnacipran ER 40, 80, or 120 mg/d (8 weeks flexible dosing; 12 weeks fixed dosing). Patients with a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≤12 from the end of week 8 to week 20 were randomized to 26 weeks of double-blind treatment with levomilnacipran ER (same dosage; n = 165) or placebo (n = 159)...
January 23, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Déborah Ducasse, Déborah Dassa, Philippe Courtet, Véronique Brand-Arpon, Audrey Walter, Sébastien Guillaume, Isabelle Jaussent, Emilie Olié
BACKGROUND: The management of suicidal crisis remains a major issue for clinicians, driving the development of new strategies. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial based on a 7-day add-on positive psychology program: gratitude diary (intervention) versus food diary (control) in adults hospitalized for current suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. The primary effectiveness outcome was between-group differences for mean change of current psychological pain, between the beginning and the end of the 7-day intervention...
January 18, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Sheehan D Fisher, Dorothy K Sit, Amy Yang, Jody D Ciolino, Jackie K Gollan, Katherine L Wisner
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a heterogeneous disorder in phenotype and etiology. Characterizing the longitudinal course of depressive symptoms over the first year after birth and identifying variables that predict distinct symptom trajectories will expedite efficient mental health treatment planning. The purpose was to determine 12-month trajectories of postpartum depressive symptoms, identify characteristics that predict the trajectories, and provide a computational algorithm that predicts trajectory membership...
January 15, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Luana V M Aparicio, Vivianne Rosa, Lais M Razza, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Lucas Borrione, Leandro Valiengo, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Benseñor, Renerio Fraguas, Adriano H Moffa, Wagner F Gattaz, André Russowsky Brunoni
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a continuation therapy for the maintenance phase of the depressive episode is low and insufficiently investigated in literature. We investigated whether it could be enhanced by using a more intensive treatment regimen compared to previous reports. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (16 with unipolar depression and eight with bipolar depression) who presented acute tDCS response (≥50% depression improvement in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS]) after receiving 15 tDCS sessions were followed for up to 6 months or until relapse, defined as clinical worsening and/or HDRS > 15...
January 14, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Angela Fang, Elizabeth A Lawson, Sabine Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder with specific impairments in social cognition related to excessive concerns about one's appearance. Individuals with BDD have difficulty identifying emotional expressions and attribute internal factors for others' emotional expressions in self-referent (but not other-referent) scenarios. Given the role of oxytocin in regulating social approach behavior and social salience, we hypothesized that oxytocin would improve biases in emotion recognition, attributions, and threat interpretations in individuals with BDD, compared to healthy controls (HCs)...
January 7, 2019: Depression and Anxiety
Naji C Salloum, Maurizio Fava, Marlene P Freeman, Martina Flynn, Bettina Hoeppner, Rebecca S Hock, Cristina Cusin, Dan V Iosifescu, Madhukar H Trivedi, Gerard Sanacora, Sanjay J Mathew, Charles Debattista, Dawn F Ionescu, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of high baseline anxiety on response to ketamine versus midazolam (active placebo) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: In a multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 99 subjects with TRD were randomized to one of five arms: a single dose of intravenous ketamine 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg, or midazolam 0.045 mg/kg. The primary outcome measure was change in the six-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD6)...
December 30, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Timothy J Geier, Joshua C Hunt, Lindsay D Nelson, Karen J Brasel, Terri A deRoon-Cassini
BACKGROUND: The posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) is among few validated measures of PTSD severity in line with the DSM-5. Validation efforts among veteran samples have recommended cut scores of 33 and 38 to indicate PTSD; cut scores vary across populations depending on factors such as trauma type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of and identify optimal cut scores for the PCL-5 in relation to the gold standard Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) among traumatically injured individuals 6 months after discharge from a level I trauma center...
December 30, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Qiang Wang, Joann S Poh, Daniel J Wen, Birit F P Broekman, Yap-Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Lynette P Shek, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Anqi Qiu
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that the lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortices (lOFC and mOFC) may contribute distinct neural mechanisms in depression. This study investigated the relations of their functional and structural organizations with postnatal maternal depressive symptoms in young children. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired in children at age 4 (n = 199) and 6 years (n = 234)...
December 30, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Paula P Schnurr, Carole A Lunney
BACKGROUND: Despite the effectiveness of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), some symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, can be difficult to treat regardless of treatment type. METHODS: We examined residual PTSD symptoms in 235 female veterans and soldiers who were randomized to receive 10 weekly sessions of either Prolonged Exposure (PE) or Present-Centered Therapy (PCT). PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale...
December 21, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
James A Naifeh, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Alan M Zaslavsky, Matthew K Nock, Catherine L Dempsey, Danielle Bartolanzo, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Pablo A Aliaga, Kelly L Zuromski, Hieu M Dinh, Carol S Fullerton, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Holly B Herberman Mash, Nancy A Sampson, Gary H Wynn, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Most people with suicide ideation (SI) do not attempt suicide (SA). Understanding the transition from current/recent SI to SA is important for mental health care. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate SA from 30-day SI among representative U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Using a unique case-control design, soldiers recently hospitalized for SA (n = 132) and representative soldiers from the same four communities (n = 10,193) were administered the same questionnaire...
December 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
David D Ebert, Claudia Buntrock, Philippe Mortier, Randy Auerbach, Kiona K Weisel, Ronald C Kessler, Pim Cuijpers, Jennifer G Green, Glenn Kiekens, Matthew K Nock, Koen Demyttenaere, Ronny Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) in college students is associated with substantial burden. AIMS: To assess 1-year incidence of MDD among incoming freshmen and predictors of MDD-incidence in a representative sample of students. METHOD: Prospective cohort study of first-year college students (baseline: n = 2,519, 1-year follow-up: n = 958) RESULTS: The incidence of MDD within the first year of college was 6.9% (SE = 0.8). The most important individual-level predictors of onset were prior suicide plans and/or attempts (OR = 9...
December 6, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Brian Chi-Fung Wong, Carlos Kwan-Long Chau, Fu-Kiu Ao, Cheuk-Hei Mo, Sze-Yung Wong, Yui-Hang Wong, Hon-Cheong So
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have suggested associations between depression and cardiometabolic (CM) diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this comorbidity, and whether the relationship differs by depression subtypes. METHODS: Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression, we investigated the genetic overlap of various depression-related phenotypes with a comprehensive panel of 20 CM traits. GWAS results for major depressive disorder (MDD) were taken from the PGC and CONVERGE studies, with the latter focusing on severe melancholic depression...
December 6, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Suzanne C van Bronswijk, Lotte H J M Lemmens, John R Keefe, Marcus J H Huibers, Robert J DeRubeis, Frenk P M L Peeters
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a highly recurrent nature. After successful treatment, it is important to identify individuals who are at risk of an unfavorable long-term course. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus yet on the clinically relevant predictors of long-term outcome in MDD, and no prediction models are implemented in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create a prognostic index (PI) to estimate long-term depression severity after successful and high quality acute treatment for MDD...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Katie L Burkhouse, Jonathan P Stange, Rachel H Jacobs, Runa Bhaumik, Katie L Bessette, Amy T Peters, Natania A Crane, Kayla A Kreutzer, Kate Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, Robert C Welsh, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Three well-established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in cognitive-affective processing include the cognitive control network (CCN), default mode network (DMN), and salience and emotional network (SEN). Despite recent advances in understanding developmental changes in these ICNs, the majority of research has focused on single seeds or networks in isolation with limited age ranges. Additionally, although internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as anxiety and depression, are often characterized by maladaptive cognitive-affective processing styles, it is not clear how IP history influences age-related changes in brain networks...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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