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Theory in Biosciences

Hidekazu Yoshioka
A stochastic differential game model for animal migration between two habitats under uncertain environment, a new population dynamics model, is formulated. Its novelty is the use of an impulse control formalism to naturally describe migrations with different timings and magnitudes that the conventional models could not handle. Uncertainty of the environment that the population faces with is formulated in the context of the multiplier robust control. The optimal migration strategy to give the maximized minimal profit is found through a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman quasi-variational inequality (HJBQVI)...
April 11, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Hendrik Richter
Whether or not cooperation is favored in evolutionary games on graphs depends on the population structure and spatial properties of the interaction network. The population structure can be expressed as configurations. Such configurations extend scenarios with a single cooperator among defectors to any number of cooperators and any arrangement of cooperators and defectors on the network. For interaction networks modeled as regular graphs and for weak selection, the emergence of cooperation can be assessed by structure coefficients, which can be specified for each configuration and each regular graph...
March 21, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Prabir Panja
In this paper, a fractional-order predator-prey mathematical model has been developed considering Holling type II functional response. Here, we have investigated the interaction dynamics of prey, middle predator and top predator. We assume that the middle predator consumes only the prey, and the top predator consumes only the middle predator. Here, the logistic growth of prey has been considered. Then, different possible equilibrium points of our proposed system are determined. The stability of our proposed system is investigated around the equilibrium points...
March 20, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
John R Jungck, Roger Wagner, Denis van Loo, Bathsheba Grossman, Noppadon Khiripet, Jutarat Khiripet, Wongarnet Khantuwan, Margeurita Hagan
The illustrations of the late nineteenth-/twentieth-century scientist/artist Ernst Haeckel, as depicted in his book Art Forms in Nature (originally in German as Kunstformen der Natur, 1898-1904), have been at the intersection of art, biology, and mathematics for over a century. Haeckel's images of radiolaria (microscopic protozoans described as amoeba in glass houses) have influenced various artists for over a century (glass artists Leopold and Rudolph Blaschka; sculptor Henry Moore; architects Rene Binet, Zaha Hadid, Antoni Gaudi, Chris Bosse and Frank Gehry; and designers-filmmakers Charles and Ray Eames)...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Gabriel Finkelstein
Ernst Haeckel and Emil du Bois-Reymond were the most prominent champions of Darwin in Germany. This essay compares their contributions to popularizing the theory of evolution, drawing special attention to the neglected figure of du Bois-Reymond as a spokesman for a world devoid of natural purpose. It suggests that the historiography of the German reception of Darwin's theory needs to be reassessed in the light of du Bois-Reymond's Lucretian outlook.
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Elizabeth Watts, Georgy S Levit, Uwe Hossfeld
As Blackwell (Am Biol Teach 69:135-136, 2007) pointed out, multiple authors have attempted to discredit Haeckel, stating that modern embryological studies have shown that Haeckel's drawings are stylized or embellished. More importantly, though, it has been shown that the discussion within the scientific community concerning Haeckel's drawings and the question of whether embryonic similarities are convergent or conserved have been extrapolated outside the science community in an attempt to discredit Darwin and evolutionary theory in general (Behe in Science 281:347-351, 1998; Blackwell in Am Biol Teach 69:135-136, 2007; Pickett et al...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Alexandra L Rizhinashvili
The vast scientific heritage of Ernst Haeckel, evolutionist and thinker, comprises ecology as well. It is well known that it was he in 1866 introduced the term "ecology" for the science on interaction of the organisms and the environment. Haeckel built his system of the biological science (to be more precise, of the zoological science), including ecology, on the basis of Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory (the theory of natural selection). Traditionally, it is supposed that Haeckel's merit in world ecology is just the introduction of its name...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Eduard I Kolchinsky
The article aims to clarify the dynamics of the publication of E. Haeckel's works in Russia, and the evolution of their perception by the authorities, various social groups and scientists in a rapidly changing sociocultural context and in relation to the various stages of the evolutionary synthesis. It is shown that his works were reprinted nearly 50 times. Until the beginning of twentieth century, the translations of his works to some extent reflected the evolution of Haeckel's interests. His scientific ideas and concepts freely spread in the Russian-speaking world and predetermined phylogenetic studies...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Andrew S Reynolds
Nearly 150 years ago, Ernst Haeckel published a three volume monograph on the calcareous sponges. These volumes contained the results of his extensive investigation of the anatomy, reproduction, and development of these marine invertebrate organisms. This paper discusses how Haeckel's contribution to spongiology was so distinct from that of earlier writers on the natural history of sponges, by focusing on his "philosophy of sponges." This included "an analytic" proof of Darwin's theory of descent, an argument for the monophyletic origin of the Metazoa from an ancient sponge-like embryo (the "gastraea theory"), and proof of the philosophy of monism that humans are no different than lowly sponges in their perfectly natural and material origins according to the laws of ontogeny in a universe devoid of supernatural beings or purpose...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Nicolaas Rupke
In the course of the second half of the nineteenth century, following the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) and Haeckel's Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866) (General Morphology of Organisms), the two men interacted like comrades in arms, leading the theory of evolution to victory in the international arena. This relationship broke up during the early decades of the twentieth century. The cause was primarily political, not scientific, and was brought about by the nationalistic mobilization of scientists that accompanied WW I and the Russian Revolution...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Ian G Stewart, Uwe Hossfeld, Georgy S Levit
This paper offers the first ever published discussion of the ethical treatise Harmonie: Versuch einer monistischen Ethik [Harmony: an attempt at a monistic ethics] by Heinrich Schmidt (1874-1935), one of the leading figures in the circle of Ernst Haeckel. Published near the end of Schmidt's life (1931), it constituted a kind of summation of decades of intense involvement in the "project" of German monism that found its epicentre in Jena, and in Haeckel's attempts at founding it on Darwinian and Goethian lines...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Eduard Kolchinsky, Georgy S Levit
The "German Darwin" Ernst Haeckel was influential not only in Germany, but in non-German-speaking countries as well. Due to the widespread use of German as a language of science in the Russian Empire along with growing Russian-German links in various scientific fields, Haeckel directly and indirectly influenced Russian intellectual landscape. The objective of the present paper is to investigate Haeckel's impact on Russian biology before the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. We outline the transfer of Haeckelian ideas to Russia and its adaptation to a national research tradition...
March 7, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Olivier Rieppel
Biological individuality was a hotly debated concept in nineteenth-century German biology, both in botany and in zoology. Much discussion centered on a comparison of higher plants with colonial organisms that are subject to polymorphism and exhibit division of labor among their parts. Building on the work of Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Johannes Müller, Rudolf Leuckart, and especially the botanist Alexander Braun, Haeckel in his writings continued to refine his theory of relative individuality. Haeckel recognized three kinds of individuality: physiological, morphological, and genealogical, the latter two hierarchically structured...
February 27, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Ulrich Kutschera, Thomas Hoppe
Detailed analyses into the life cycle of the soil-dwelling microbe Dictyostelium discoideum led to the conclusion that this "social amoeba" practices some form of "non-monoculture farming" via the transfer of bacteria to novel environments. Herein, we show that in myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) a similar "farming symbiosis" has evolved. Based on laboratory studies of two representative species in the genera Fuligo and Didymium, the sexual life cycle of these enigmatic microbes that feed on bacteria was reconstructed, with reference to plasmo- and karyogamy...
February 27, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Uwe Hossfeld, Karl Porges, Georgy S Levit, Lennart Olsson, Elizabeth Watts
In our era of computers and computer models, the importance of physical or graphical models for both research and education in developmental biology (embryology) is often forgotten or at least underappreciated. Still, one important aspect of embryology is the (evolutionary) developmental anatomy of both human and animal embryos. Here, we present a short history of the visualization of Ernst Haeckel's "biogenetic law" and his "gastraea theory" in biology textbooks from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) between 1951 and 1988...
February 24, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Lennart Olsson, Uwe Hossfeld
The Haeckel reception in different European countries has received some attention from historians of biology, but the reception in Scandinavia remains relatively unknown. We have found letters to and from Haeckel to Swedish scientists and students in the Ernst Haeckel House in Jena and in the archives of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (RSAS) in Stockholm. Here we present correspondence with Wilhelm Leche, Sven Lovén, and M. G. Retzius, all prominent scientists in Stockholm at the time and members of the RSAS...
February 24, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Ulrich Kutschera, Georgy S Levit, Uwe Hossfeld
The year 1919 marks the 100th anniversary of the death of Ernst Haeckel, a German zoologist, artist, and philosopher of science, who defended and supplemented Charles Darwin's system of theories regarding the mechanisms of biological evolution. We briefly recapitulate Haeckel's remarkable career and reproduce the Laudatio read by the President of the Linnean Society of London (1 July 1908), when Haeckel was awarded the Darwin-Wallace Medal. Finally, we summarize the importance of Haeckel's original concepts, insights, and theories with reference to our current knowledge in the areas of evolutionary biology, molecular phylogenetics, systematic zoology, and philosophical issues today...
February 24, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Anastasio Salazar-Bañuelos
Ageing is the leading risk factor for the emergence of cancer in humans. Accumulation of pro-carcinogenic events throughout life is believed to explain this observation; however, the lack of direct correlation between the number of cells in an organism and cancer incidence, known as Peto's Paradox, is at odds with this assumption. Finding the events responsible for this discrepancy can unveil mechanisms with potential uses in prevention and treatment of cancer in humans. On the other hand, the immune system is important in preventing the development of clinically relevant tumours by maintaining a fine equilibrium between reactive and suppressive lymphocyte clones...
February 15, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Sylvestre Aureliano Carvalho, Stella Olivia da Silva, Iraziet da Cunha Charret
Dengue is, in terms of death and economic cost, one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. So, its mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool to help us to understand the dynamics of the disease and to infer about its spreading by the proposition of control methods. In this paper, control strategies, which aim to eliminate the Aedes aegypti mosquito, as well as proposals for the vaccination campaign are evaluated. In our mathematical model, the mechanical control is accomplished through the environmental support capacity affected by a discrete function that represents the removal of breedings...
February 10, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Veronika Benedek, Péter Englert
Clonal plants grow horizontally by producing multiple physiological individuals (ramets). We studied clonal growth in a homogeneous environment using a dynamic spatial model based on a stochastic cellular automaton. We investigated different growth forms from the aspect of ramet mortality. Non-steady-state and quasi-steady-state cases were defined, and we determined the number of steps suitable for making a reliable difference between these two types of cases. This given number of steps was used when testing for the proportion of quasi-steady-state cases in 1000 repetitions...
February 8, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
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