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Motor Control

Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek, Cheryl A Cott
Human movement is complex, presenting clinical and research challenges regarding how it is described and investigated. This paper discusses the commonalities and differences on how human movement is conceptualized from neuroscientific and clinical perspectives with respect to postural control; the limitations of linear measures; movement efficiency with respect to metabolic energy cost and selectivity; and, how muscle synergy analysis may contribute to our understanding of movement variability. We highlight the role of sensory information on motor performance with respect to the base of support and alignment, illustrating a potential disconnect between the clinical and neuroscientific perspectives...
January 29, 2019: Motor Control
Ran Zheng, Ilana D Naiman, Jessica Skultety, Steven R Passmore, Jim Lyons, Cheryl M Glazebrook
Although there are consistent reports that motor skills are affected in individuals with autism, the details are still debated; specifically, why individuals spend more time preparing movements and whether or not movement execution takes longer. The present study investigated if the conflicting reports were related to: (a) differences in movement type and (b) if longer reaction times were related to the time for motor planning or for force-generation processes. Participants performed three different movement types...
January 29, 2019: Motor Control
Pedro Paulo Deprá, Avelino Amado, Richard E A van Emmerik
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postural regulation and tracking accuracy under static and moving visual target conditions in unipedal and bipedal standing postures. Postural time-to-contact stability boundaries decreased under more challenging visual target conditions for the unipedal posture, but this decrease was associated with lower visual tracking error. During bipedal support, there was independent control of the head and foot center of pressure, as higher frequencies at the head during the static visual task were associated with longer time-to-contact...
January 24, 2019: Motor Control
Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki, Mark L Latash
We explored the effects of voluntary coactivation of agonist-antagonist leg and trunk muscles on stability of vertical posture. Young healthy subjects performed several tasks while standing with no additional muscle coactivation, low coactivation, and high coactivation. Postural stability was estimated using indices of postural sway and of intertrial variance in the space of muscle groups with parallel scaling of activation levels (M-modes). An increase in coactivation led to a significant increase in the postural sway speed reflected in faster rambling and trembling trajectories...
January 6, 2019: Motor Control
Courtney L Pollock, Michael A Hunt, Taian M Vieira, Alessio Gallina, Tanya D Ivanova, S Jayne Garland
BACKGROUND: Ankle plantarflexor muscle impairment contributes to asymmetrical postural control poststroke. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship of plantarflexor electromyography (EMG) with anterior-posterior center of pressure (APCOP) in people poststroke during progressive challenges to standing balance. METHODS: Ten people poststroke and 10 controls participated in this study. Anteriorly directed loads of 1% body mass (BM) were applied to the pelvis every 25-40 s until 5%BM was reached...
January 1, 2019: Motor Control
Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega, Astrid Zech
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a cognitive dual task on minimum toe clearance (MTC) variability while walking. In a randomized cross-over design, gait kinematics of 25 older (70 ± 6 years) and 45 younger adults (25 ± 2 years) were captured during normal walking and dual-task walking. Variability of stride time, stride length, and MTC were calculated. Differences between normal versus dual-task walking were assessed using Wilcoxon tests. Compared with normal walking, dual-task walking caused an increase in stride time variability (older adults: p < ...
January 1, 2019: Motor Control
Ana F Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert, Ricardo J Fernandes
To analyze young swimmers' performance regarding sex and skill level, 23 boys and 26 girls (15.7 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 0.8 years old, respectively) were assessed for anthropometry, flexibility, strength, drag, coordination, and biomechanical variables. During a 50-m maximal front-crawl bout, seven aerial and six underwater Qualisys cameras assessed kinematics, and a load cell was used to measure drag (Tedea, United Kingdom) and tethered swimming force. A multivariate analysis of variance test (p < ...
January 1, 2019: Motor Control
Reynold W L Lee, Andy C Y Tse, Thomson W L Wong
This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying analogy instruction for older adults in learning the badminton high serve. It was hypothesized that acquiring this motor skill by analogy instruction would bring the benefits of more robust and durable motor performance under stress and over time. A group of older adults learned badminton high serves by either a set of explicit instructions or an analogy instruction that represented the biomechanical metaphor of the badminton high serve. They were then invited to perform the motor task in two testing conditions: a stress transfer test and a retention test...
January 1, 2019: Motor Control
Anne-Marie Heugas, Isabelle A Siegler
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of energy cost in locomotion, specifically the rate of perceived exertion and movement variability in gait transition for eight race walkers (RW) and seven nonrace walkers (NRW). We hypothesized that a group of correlated variables could serve as combined triggers. Participants performed a preferred transition speed (PTS) test, exhibiting a higher PTS for RW (10.35 ± 0.28 km/hr) than for NRW (7.07 ± 0.69 km/hr), because RW engaged in race walking before switching to running...
December 12, 2018: Motor Control
Anat V Lubetzky, Bryan D Hujsak, Gene Fu, Ken Perlin
Postural sway does not differentiate between balance disorders. Head kinematics within a salient, immersive environment could potentially help identifying movement patterns that are unique to vestibular dysfunction. We describe a virtual park scene, where participants are asked to avoid a virtual ball approaching their head, to target dynamic balance and quantify head movement strategy. Sixteen patients with vestibular dysfunction and 16 healthy controls were wearing the Oculus Rift and performed the "park" scene on floor and stability trainers...
December 5, 2018: Motor Control
Philip W Fink, Sarah P Shultz, Eva D'Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir, Andrew P Hills
Multifractal analyses have been used in recent years as a way of studying balance, with the goal of understanding the patterns of movement of the center of pressure at different spatial scales. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to compare obese and nonobese children to investigate the cause of previously demonstrated deficiencies in balance for obese children. Twenty-two children (11 obese and 11 nonobese), aged 8-15 years, performed 30-s trials of bilateral static balance on a plantar pressure distribution measuring device...
December 5, 2018: Motor Control
Cameron T Gibbons, Polemnia G Amazeen, Aaron D Likens
The common practice of standardizing foot placement in postural research and in clinical practice may serve to increase postural sway. The focus of this study was to investigate foot placement strategies in the tandem (anteroposterior, AP) and side-to-side (mediolateral, ML) stance in healthy adults. Foot placement was either experimenter-controlled or selected by the participant. Greater sway was observed for the AP stance than the ML stance, where sway was minimal. When foot placement was self-selected, participants recruited additional degrees of freedom by rotating both feet outward to expand the base of support; they narrowed their stance width in the AP stance only...
December 5, 2018: Motor Control
Christopher K Rhea, Jed A Diekfuss, Jeffrey T Fairbrother, Louisa D Raisbeck
Falls in older adults are a public health challenge due to their influence on well-being and health-care costs. One way to address this challenge is to discover new methods to enhance postural control in older adults so they are better prepared to maintain an upright stance. Older and younger adults (N = 32) performed a static balance task on a force plate with no instructions, internal focus instructions, or external focus instructions. Center of pressure displacement time series were analyzed using sample entropy and standard deviation...
December 5, 2018: Motor Control
Kajetan J Słomka, Slobodan Jaric, Grzegorz Sobota, Ryszard Litkowycz, Tomasz Skowronek, Marian Rzepko, Grzegorz Juras
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced effort on maximum countermovement jumps. Groups of unskilled and skilled jumpers performed countermovement jumps without an arm swing at 100% and 50% effort. The results revealed markedly reduced jump height and work performed at 50% effort, although the maximum force and power output remained virtually unchanged. The observed differences were consistent across individuals with different jumping skills. A possible cause of differences in changes across the tested variables was a reduced countermovement depth associated with the 50% effort jumps...
October 24, 2018: Motor Control
Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Luiz Alberto Batista
PURPOSE: To analyze the interrelationships among motor coordination, body fat, and physical activity in adolescent boys. METHODS: A total of 69 boys aged 12-14 years were recruited. Motor coordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Correlations (bivariate and partial) and mediation analysis were used to examine the interrelationships among the selected variables. RESULTS: Body fat was significantly correlated with global motor coordination, walking backward (Motor Quotient 1), and one-legged hopping (Motor Quotient 2) scores with and without controlling for physical activity level...
October 13, 2018: Motor Control
Masafumi Terada, Megan Beard, Sara Carey, Kate Pfile, Brian Pietrosimone, Elizabeth Rullestad, Heather Whitaker, Phillip Gribble
This study aimed to compare time-to-boundary and sample entropy during a single-leg balance task between individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), lateral ankle sprain copers, and healthy controls. Twenty-two participants with CAI, 20 lateral ankle sprain copers, and 24 healthy controls performed a single-leg balance task during an eyes-closed condition. Participants with CAI exhibited lower time-to-boundary values compared with lateral ankle sprain copers and healthy controls. However, we did not find differences in sample entropy variables between cohorts...
October 13, 2018: Motor Control
Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha Dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
This study aimed to determine the relationship between postural asymmetry and falls in Parkinson's disease (PD). In total, 28 patients with PD were included. Postural control was analyzed in bipedal, tandem, and unipedal standing. Center of pressure (CoP) parameters were calculated for both limbs, and asymmetry was assessed using the asymmetry index. Logistic regression was used to predict/classify fallers through postural asymmetry. The Spearman correlation was performed to relate asymmetry and falls number...
October 1, 2018: Motor Control
Katya Trousset, David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
Proprioception is assessed more often through joint position sense and kinesthesia than force sense. The purpose of this study is to investigate force sense at the shoulder. A total of 12 subjects were recruited. An ipsilateral force reproduction protocol at the shoulder at 50°, 70°, and 90° and 120%, 140%, and 160% baseline torque. Dependent variables were constant error (CE) and root mean square error. An effect was found for load on absolute (p = .001) and normalized CE (p < .001). CE decreased with increased load...
October 1, 2018: Motor Control
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, Joshua R Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates, Andrew Zaman
Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music...
October 1, 2018: Motor Control
Roland van den Tillaar
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of four different shooting techniques (slap, sweeper, drag, and wrist shots) in floorball on velocity and accuracy in experienced floorball players, and to investigate whether target height has an influence on these shooting performances. Ten experienced male floorball players (age, 21 ± 4 years; body mass, 81.5 ± 10 kg; body height, 1.85 ± 0.07 m; and years of experience, 6.9 ± 3.1 years) shot as hard as possible and tried to hit the upper and lower targets with four different shooting techniques from a 4-m distance...
October 1, 2018: Motor Control
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