A L Hoehn, S M Thomasy, P H Kass, T Horikawa, M Samuel, O R Shull, K A Stewart, C J Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2020: Veterinary Journal
Annelies Decloedt, Glenn Van Steenkiste, Lisse Vera, Rikke Buhl, Gunther van Loon
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia in horses, with a reported prevalence up to 2.5%. The pathophysiology has mainly been investigated in experimental animal models and human medicine, with limited studies in horses. Atrial fibrillation results from the interplay between electrical triggers and a susceptible substrate. Triggers consist of atrial premature depolarizations due to altered automaticity or triggered activity, or local (micro)reentry. The arrhythmia is promoted by atrial myocardial ion channel alterations, Ca2+ handling alterations, structural abnormalities, and autonomic nervous system imbalance...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
N Masset, F Meurens, M Marie, P Lesage, A Lehébel, N Brisseau, S Assié
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI3V) are major causes of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in newborn calves worldwide. Vaccination is widely used to prevent BRD, and intranasal vaccines for BRSV and bPI3V were developed to overcome interference from BRSV and bPI3V-specific maternally derived antibodies. Many experimental challenge trials have demonstrated that intranasal vaccines for BRSV and bPI3V are efficacious, but effectiveness under field conditions has been demonstrated less often, especially for newborn beef calves...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
M Perego, D M Porteiro Vàzquez, L Ramera, S F Lombardo, C Pane, L V Bontempi, R A Santilli
The identification of the heart rhythm during an episode of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is considered the reference standard method to elucidate the underlying aetiology. This study aimed to characterise heart rhythm in dogs during TLOC using Holter and external loop recorder monitoring. We retrospectively reviewed 24-h Holter monitoring and external loop recorder tracings from 8084 dogs. Heart rhythms from dogs that experienced TLOC during the recording was analysed to identify rhythm disturbances that occurred during episodes of TLOC...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
Bérénice Conversy, Marie-Claude Blais, Marilyn Dunn, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Jérôme R E Del Castillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
L Cattaneo, V Lopreiato, E Trevisi, A Minuti
The objective of this study was to assess how uterine disorders alter the lying behaviour and plasma biomarkers in dairy cows. 34 multiparous cows were retrospectively classified into three groups according to the first uterine disorder that cows were diagnosed with: retained placenta (RP), metritis (MET), or healthy (H; cows without any clinical disease). Lying time (LT) and duration of lying bouts (LB) were monitored between 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after calving via the AfiAct II pedometer. Blood samples were collected routinely between 14 days before and 28 days after calving...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
J A Jaffey, R S Hess, C R Webster, S L Blois, E T Hostnik, R M Heilmann, C Jacobs, J M Steiner, C E Reusch, E Rogers, A Royal, T Piech, C Musella, L Carvalho, M J Fink, G E Motta, S N Kilkucki, A Cigarro, F S Roedler, T Seidel, A E DeClue
There is limited information regarding the value of constitutive components of the ACTH stimulation test (ACTHST) and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) including serum baseline cortisol (BC), difference between post-ACTH stimulation cortisol (PC) and BC (ΔACTHC), cortisol concentration 4h after dexamethasone administration (4HC), difference between 4HC and BC (Δ4C), and the difference between cortisol concentration 8h after dexamethasone administration and 4HC (Δ8C). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if these components can predict hyperadrenocorticism, pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), or functional adrenocortical tumor (FAT) in dogs...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
Gunther van Loon, Glenn Van Steenkiste, Lisse Vera, Annelies Decloedt
Minimally-invasive catheter-based interventional cardiology is a mainstay for the diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in human medicine. Very accurate imaging using fluoroscopy, CT and MRI is essential during interventional cardiology procedures. Because these imaging techniques are either not possible or provide too little anatomical detail in horses, echocardiography is currently the best technique to visualize catheters in horses. Over the past decades, catheter-based techniques have been applied to induce arrhythmias using pacing and to perform arrhythmia research using electrophysiological studies...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
K R S Morgan, G Monteith, S Raheb, M Colpitts, S Fonfara
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of congestive heart failure (CHF) on echocardiographic variables in dogs with moderate or severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). The secondary objective was to investigate the preliminary use of left ventricular early inflow-outflow index (LVEIO) and L-waves as indicators of CHF. Forty-five dogs with moderate or severe MR without (n = 23) or with (n = 22) CHF were retrospectively included. Echocardiographic variables of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures and cardiac function, LVEIO and the presence of L-waves were obtained and statistically compared between the two groups...
September 2020: Veterinary Journal
M J Vilar, P J Rajala-Schultz
The cessation of milking at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy herds, and the importance of the dry period for milk production and udder health, has long been recognized. Among countries and herds, drying-off practices differ and include various milk cessation methods, such as changes in milking frequency and in feeding, the use of antibiotic dry cow therapy and teat sealants, and changes in housing. Published studies reporting methods of stopping milk production are scarce, and there are no uniform recommendations on optimal procedures to dry cows off for good udder health, cow welfare, and milk production...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
Hiromi Kusaka, Ryo Hasegawa, Namiko Nishimoto, Masatoshi Kawahata, Kazuhiro Bandai, Hiroshi Miura, Motohiro Kikuchi, Minoru Sakaguchi
Endometrial cytobrush cytology has been recommended as a reliable method for determining the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN%) in cattle smears to diagnose cytological endometritis (CE). In this study, the clarity of cytobrush cytological smears and the influence of different sample evaluation methods (number and types of cells counted) on CE diagnosis were evaluated. Samples from 28 lactating Holstein cows were collected weekly between 3 and 7 weeks postpartum. Smear clarity, based on cell density, quality of cell morphology, and red blood cell contamination, was significantly poorer at 3 weeks than between 5 and 7 weeks postpartum...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
S Burti, V Longhin Osti, A Zotti, T Banzato
The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) device based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect cardiomegaly from plain radiographs in dogs. Right lateral chest radiographs (n = 1465) were retrospectively selected from archives. The radiographs were classified as having a normal cardiac silhouette (No-vertebral heart scale [VHS]-Cardiomegaly) or an enlarged cardiac silhouette (VHS-Cardiomegaly) based on the breed-specific VHS. The database was divided into a training set (1153 images) and a test set (315 images)...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
M E Verkade, E Hazeleger, C H A van de Lest, W Back
Throughout the ages, humans have selected different horse breeds for their locomotor capacities. Consequently, the properties of equine locomotor tissues could have diversified because of the specific requirements of different disciplines. Therefore, this study aimed to compare biochemical properties of tendons in different equine breeds traditionally selected for racing or sports performance. We hypothesised that tendons in racing breeds would have biochemical properties that would increase strength, whereas those in sporting breeds would have more elastic properties...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
A L Hatke, D R Green, K Stasiak, R T Marconi
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-transmitted disease caused by Borreliella burgdorferi (Bb). Temporal studies of maternal antibody (Ab) profiles in Bb infected pregnant dogs and their pups have not been conducted. In this study, Ab profiles of a client-owned Bb C6 Ab positive Rottweiler and her nine pups were assessed. The dam presented with lameness 12 days prior to parturition and was C6 Ab positive with a Quant C6 Ab concentration of 237U/mL. Treatment with amoxicillin was initiated and 11 days later nine pups were delivered...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
Mark Rishniw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
J L Gonçalves, C Kamphuis, H Vernooij, J P Araújo, R C Grenfell, L Juliano, K L Anderson, H Hogeveen, M V Dos Santos
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic subclinical mastitis (CSM) on milk production and component yields in dairy cows. A total of six herds located in the Midwest area of São Paulo State, Brazil were selected. Herds were visited once every 2 weeks to measure milk yield and to collect milk samples from lactating Holstein cows. Milk samples were collected at two stages (1 and 2), and each stage comprised three milk samplings. In stage 1, a total of 117 of 647 cows were diagnosed with CSM based on at least two of three repeated somatic cell counts (SCC) > 2000,000 cells/mL and positive bacterial milk culture results (BC)...
August 2020: Veterinary Journal
L N Allison, J A Jaffey, N Bradley-Siemens, Z Tao, M Thompson, R C Backus
This study sought to establish a baseline understanding of immune function and its association with serum vitamin D in shelter dogs. Ten apparently healthy shelter dogs housed in the Arizona Humane Society for ≥7 days and 10 apparently healthy, age, breed, and sex-matched control dogs were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), the major circulating vitamin D metabolite, was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Whole blood samples were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid, or phosphate buffer solution, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-ɑ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were measured using a canine-specific multiplex bead-based assay...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
Nausikaa Devriendt, Gonçalo Serrano, Dominique Paepe, Hilde de Rooster
Portosystemic shunts (PSS) are congenital or acquired vascular anomalies that cause blood to bypass the liver. Liver function tests, such as fasting ammonia, ammonia tolerance test, and (paired) serum bile acids, are reliable for the diagnosis of PSS in dogs. Surgical attenuation is a common treatment for congenital PSS. Following surgical attenuation, it is useful to evaluate shunt closure. In this critical review, the ability of liver function tests to determine the presence and degree of residual shunting following surgical attenuation of canine PSS is discussed...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
W Back, L H de Jong, A Vrancken, A van Nes, C Wolschrijn, N Verdonschot
Thus far, there is a lack of scientific investigation regarding the hypothesis that biomechanical factors contribute to the cross-species pathogenesis of osteochondrosis (OC). Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether high (peak) pressures occur in the porcine femorotibial (FT) joint. In this experimental, ex vivo study, the right hind limbs of seven weaned piglets were subjected to maximal joint excursions, as a priori radiologically estimated. Subsequently, the intra-articular pressures were measured using sensors placed in both the medial and the lateral compartments of the FT joint...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
Cristobal Navas de Solis
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are often incidental or coincidental with systemic disease. Ventricular arrhythmias are also the most likely cause of many sudden cardiac deaths in horses. This dichotomy creates challenges in the management of horses with VAs. This review presents current knowledge of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of VAs in horses.
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
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