A L Hoehn, S M Thomasy, P H Kass, T Horikawa, M Samuel, O R Shull, K A Stewart, C J Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2020: Veterinary Journal
L N Allison, J A Jaffey, N Bradley-Siemens, Z Tao, M Thompson, R C Backus
This study sought to establish a baseline understanding of immune function and its association with serum vitamin D in shelter dogs. Ten apparently healthy shelter dogs housed in the Arizona Humane Society for ≥7 days and 10 apparently healthy, age, breed, and sex-matched control dogs were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), the major circulating vitamin D metabolite, was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Whole blood samples were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid, or phosphate buffer solution, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-ɑ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were measured using a canine-specific multiplex bead-based assay...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
Nausikaa Devriendt, Gonçalo Serrano, Dominique Paepe, Hilde de Rooster
Portosystemic shunts (PSS) are congenital or acquired vascular anomalies that cause blood to bypass the liver. Liver function tests, such as fasting ammonia, ammonia tolerance test, and (paired) serum bile acids, are reliable for the diagnosis of PSS in dogs. Surgical attenuation is a common treatment for congenital PSS. Following surgical attenuation, it is useful to evaluate shunt closure. In this critical review, the ability of liver function tests to determine the presence and degree of residual shunting following surgical attenuation of canine PSS is discussed...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
W Back, L H de Jong, A Vrancken, A van Nes, C Wolschrijn, N Verdonschot
Thus far, there is a lack of scientific investigation regarding the hypothesis that biomechanical factors contribute to the cross-species pathogenesis of osteochondrosis (OC). Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether high (peak) pressures occur in the porcine femorotibial (FT) joint. In this experimental, ex vivo study, the right hind limbs of seven weaned piglets were subjected to maximal joint excursions, as a priori radiologically estimated. Subsequently, the intra-articular pressures were measured using sensors placed in both the medial and the lateral compartments of the FT joint...
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
Cristobal Navas de Solis
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are often incidental or coincidental with systemic disease. Ventricular arrhythmias are also the most likely cause of many sudden cardiac deaths in horses. This dichotomy creates challenges in the management of horses with VAs. This review presents current knowledge of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of VAs in horses.
July 2020: Veterinary Journal
V Herbrecht, N M Waldern, S Ellingsund Mikkelsen, M Kjaer, M T Dittmann, T Wiestner, M A Weishaupt
In order to improve the four-beat-rhythm and forelimb action of the tölt in Icelandic horses (ICE), special shoeing techniques are applied particularly in the front hooves by increasing hoof length and height, or by adding weight to the distal limbs. Although regulations limit dorsal hoof wall length (LDHW ) in competition ICE, their shoeing often deviates from a biomechanically optimal distal limb conformation. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively describe current shoeing practices of ICE in competition...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
Valentine Martlé, Mathias Devreese, Saskia Rauch, Luc Van Ham, Siska Croubels, Valérie Vanhoorne, Chris Vervaet, Sofie Bhatti
The purpose of the present study was to investigate if rectal administration of imepitoin in healthy dogs leads to plasma concentrations comparable to those after oral administration. Significantly lower systemic exposure and maximal plasma concentration (Cmax ) of imepitoin was achieved after rectal compared to oral administration (P≤0.001). Therefore, this study does not support the rectal administration of imepitoin in dogs.
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
J Eberhard, G Wess
The importance of atrial premature complexes (APCs) as a possible marker of occult dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Doberman Pinschers (DP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify APC in healthy DP and to investigate their role as early markers of occult DCM. Holter-ECG results from 561 examinations of 153 DP at different time points were retrospectively evaluated, with special emphasis on APCs. Holter results from 110 healthy control DPs were compared to the last normal Holter and echocardiographic examinations in 43 DP that subsequently developed DCM within 15 months (DCM group), and to the first examination in the DCM group that contained ventricular premature complexes (VPC)...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
N M Waldern, V Kubli, M T Dittmann, C Amport, C Krieg, M A Weishaupt
In Icelandic horses (ICE), high, long hooves with added weights are often used to improve gait quality in competitions. From a biomechanical point of view, excessively long hooves can be problematic as they increase forces acting on the distal limb. The study aimed to determine if hoof capsule size and angle of ICE at competitions are comparable to those of Warmblood horses (WB) requiring shoeing. Hoof dimensions and balance were quantified in 13 horses of each breed at the beginning of a shoeing period (BSP), allowing a baseline comparison between breeds, as well as for WB at the end of a shoeing period (ESP) and for ICE when shod for competition (COMP)...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
Dominiek Maes, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Anne V Gautier-Bouchardon
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic and economically important respiratory disease of pigs. Control and prevention of M. hyopneumoniae infections can be accomplished by optimization of management and housing conditions, and by vaccination. The present paper summarizes the current knowledge on the main characteristics and efficacy of antimicrobials used for the treatment of clinical M. hyopneumoniae infections, the in vitro and in vivo activities of these antimicrobials and the reported resistance mechanisms against some...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
J G Cook
A randomised controlled trial was carried out in four dairy herds located in the UK to evaluate the effect of pegbovigrastim treatment on the incidence of antimicrobial treatments during the first 30 d of lactation (DIM). Medical treatment records were analysed, and treatments identified where an antibiotic product was used. Records were available for 1865 cows, 933 of which received two injections of pegbovigrastim given approximately 14 d prior to expected calving (IMR) and again within 24 h of calving. 932 cows received no treatment (CON)...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
M J López-Martínez, D Escribano, M D Contreras-Aguilar, J D García-Martínez, S Martínez-Subiela, J J Cerón
D-dimer is a peptide found in serum and is derived from the degradation of blood clots. Even though it has been analysed in human saliva, D-dimer has not been previously evaluated in the saliva of any veterinary species, and its source and role remain unknown. The objectives of this research were firstly, to validate the use of an automated method for the measurement of D-dimer in porcine saliva, and secondly, to evaluate whether D-dimer concentration changes in pig saliva after an acute stress stimulus. For this purpose, a complete analytical validation of a commercially-available immunoturbidimetric assay was carried out...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
John A Keen
Pathological bradyarrhythmia is rare in horses but should be especially considered when presented with a horse that has signs consistent with episodic weakness or collapse. This paper reviews the literature describing our current knowledge of, and possible mechanisms causing, clinically significant bradyarrhythmia in horses.
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
R T Kinobe, Y Miyake
The neurotransmitter Substance P, and its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the regulation of many pathophysiological processes including emesis, inflammation and nociceptive processing. This review provides a brief summary of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of experimental NK-1R antagonists followed by a systematic review and meta-analysis on maropitant, the only NK-1R antagonist with a label indication for emesis in veterinary patients. There is very limited evidence based information on the putative clinical utilisation of maropitant for pain and inflammation...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
M López-Arjona, F Tecles, S V Mateo, M D Contreras-Aguilar, S Martínez-Miró, J J Cerón, S Martínez-Subiela
Two sensitive assays based on AlphaLISA technology were developed and validated for the measurement of cortisol and cortisone in hair of pigs, that also enabled estimation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity. These assays were applied to hair samples from sows (n = 32) collected at 5 days before, and at 23 and 59 after farrowing, in reproductive cycles in two different periods: spring-summer (n = 16) and winter-spring (n = 16). The assays were precise (imprecision <12%) and accurate (recovery range, 80-115%) for cortisol and cortisone determination...
May 2020: Veterinary Journal
G Van Steenkiste, Vera L, A Decloedt, S Schauvliege, T Boussy, G van Loon
Understanding the depolarisation pattern of the equine heart under normal physiologic conditions, and its relationship to the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), is of uppermost importance before any further research can be done about the pathophysiology of complex arrhythmias. In the present study, a 3D electro-anatomical mapping system was used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative depolarisation patterns and correlation to the surface ECG of both the atrial and ventricular endocardium in seven healthy horses in sinus rhythm under general anaesthesia...
April 2020: Veterinary Journal
C M Chan, K M Rassnick, A E Frimberger, S M Nguyen, A S Moore
Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used to treat cats with lymphoma, carcinomas and sarcomas. However, no clear consensus exists regarding the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral cyclophosphamide in cats. Toxicities are rarely reported at published oral dosages of cyclophosphamide (200-300 mg/m2 ). The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine the MTD of oral cyclophosphamide in tumour-bearing cats via a modified phase I trial. A secondary aim was to define any toxicity. Forty-six client-owned tumour-bearing cats were enrolled...
April 2020: Veterinary Journal
Annette L Litster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2020: Veterinary Journal
M J Reimann, J E Møller, J Häggström, L L B Åkerström, T Martinussen, L H Olsen
In young Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS), intermittent mitral regurgitation (iMR; defined as moderate to severe mitral regurgitation [MR] in a small proportion of heartbeats), has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac death due to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). It is associated with increased R-R interval variability. Little is known about response to physiological factors and whether iMR is a precursor for developing significant MR. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress testing on the presence of iMR and heart rate, and short-term (1-2 year) progression of MR in CKCS with and without iMR...
April 2020: Veterinary Journal
E F Bode, G R Markby, A M Boag, Y Martinez-Pereira, B M Corcoran, C Farquharson, K Sooy, N Z M Homer, P M Jamieson, G J Culshaw
The enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme 2 (11BHSD2) is responsible for converting the active glucocorticoid cortisol to inactive cortisone and in the renal medulla protects the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from activation by cortisol. Derangements in 11BHSD2 activity can result in reduced conversion of cortisol to cortisone, activation of the MR by cortisol and, consequently, sodium and water retention. The objective of this study was to examine glucocorticoid metabolism in canine congestive heart failure (CHF), specifically to evaluate whether renal 11BHSD2 activity and expression were altered...
April 2020: Veterinary Journal
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