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Veterinary Journal

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606445/disseminated-canine-mold-infections
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Elad
Disseminated canine mold infections are reviewed. Case inclusion criteria were dogs as hosts, two or more non-adjacent organs affected and identification of the etiological agent at least to the genus level. Of the 157 cases identified, 59.3% were caused by Aspergillus spp. of which 36.3% belonged to the section Terrei. German Shepherd breed dogs constituted 67.8% of the cases, 89.7% of which were caused by fungi of the section Terrei. Female dogs constituted 72.7% of the cases. The average age was 4.3years (range 1-13years)...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606444/effects-of-oral-versus-parenteral-cobalamin-supplementation-on-methylmalonic-acid-and-homocysteine-concentrations-in-dogs-with-chronic-enteropathies-and-low-cobalamin-concentrations
#2
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L Toresson, J M Steiner, E Spodsberg, G Olmedal, J S Suchodolski, J A Lidbury, T Spillmann
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of parenteral (PE) versus oral (PO) cobalamin supplementation on serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY) concentrations in dogs with hypocobalaminaemia. Thirty-six dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations below 285ng/L (reference interval (RI): 244-959ng/L) were treated with PO (0.25-1.0mg daily) or PE cobalamin (0.25-1.2mg/injection) using a block-randomized schedule. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were analysed at day 0, 28 and 90 after start of supplementation...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606443/urinary-heat-shock-protein-72-a-novel-marker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-cats
#3
H Chen, Y Avital, Y Bruchim, I Aroch, G Segev
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats is associated with high mortality, partially attributed to late recognition of the disease when using currently available markers. Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a variable progression rate. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio (uHSP72:uCr) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in feline AKI, and as a prognostic indicator in feline CKD. The study included 63 cats, divided into five groups: healthy controls (n=10), urethral obstruction (UO; n=7), CKD (n=15), AKI (16 cats) and acute decompensating CKD (ACKD; n=15)...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606442/initial-antimicrobial-treatment-of-foals-with-sepsis-do-our-choices-make-a-difference
#4
Mathijs J P Theelen, W David Wilson, Barbara A Byrne, Judy M Edman, Philip H Kass, K Gary Magdesian
The study objectives were to provide cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data at the patient level and to evaluate the effect of initial antimicrobial treatment on survival in foals with sepsis. Foals below 30days of age with a diagnosis of sepsis, confirmed by isolation of bacteria from normally sterile sites on the day of hospital admission, were included. Susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution procedure. In total, 213 foals and 306 bacterial isolates were included. The likelihood of survival for foals from which all bacteria were susceptible to the initial antimicrobial treatment was 65...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606441/an-open-label-randomised-clinical-trial-to-compare-the-efficacy-of-dietary-caloric-restriction-and-physical-activity-for-weight-loss-in-overweight-pet-dogs
#5
M Chapman, G R T Woods, C Ladha, C Westgarth, A J German
Canine obesity is usually managed with a combination of dietary caloric restriction and increasing physical activity, but no previous study has compared both of these strategies in a prospective randomised controlled trial. Thirteen overweight dogs (body condition score 6-9/9) were randomised to one of two interventions: dietary caloric restriction or physical activity. The dietary caloric restriction intervention comprised feeding a therapeutic weight loss diet, while the physical activity intervention comprised increasing the dog's current physical activity pattern by at least a third...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606440/interstitial-lung-diseases-in-dogs-and-cats-part-ii-known-cause-and-other-discrete-forms
#6
REVIEW
Carol Reinero
In addition to idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) can occur secondary to known causes or be classified as discrete syndromes. Also known as diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, the ILDs represent a heterogenous group of non-infectious, non-neoplastic disorders characterized by varied patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. Characteristically associated with the true interstitium (i.e. the anatomic space lined by alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells and the loose-binding connective tissue), it is important to understand ILDs are associated with pathology of the distal lung parenchyma and thus lesions can be bronchiolocentric or resemble alveolar filling disorders...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606439/interstitial-lung-diseases-in-dogs-and-cats-part-i-the-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias
#7
REVIEW
Carol Reinero
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), also called diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, are a large heterogenous group of non-infectious, non-neoplastic disorders characterized by varied patterns of inflammation and fibrosis (Travis et al., 2002). In humans, accurate classification of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) requires multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. The same is likely to be true for canine and feline ILDs; however, this collaborative approach is rarely taken, leading to a paucity of knowledge of ILDs in small animal species...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606438/characterization-of-gene-expression-in-naturally-occurring-feline-degenerative-joint-disease-associated-pain
#8
M Ashwell, M Freire, A T O'Nan, J Benito, J Hash, R S McCulloch, B D X Lascelles
Degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated-pain is a clinically relevant and common condition affecting domesticated cats and other species including humans. Identification of the neurobiological signature of pain is well developed in rodent pain models, however such information is lacking from animals or humans with naturally occurring painful conditions. In this study, identification of housekeeping genes (HKG) for neuronal tissue and expression levels of genes considered associated with chronic pain in rodent models were explored in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritic pain...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606437/quantitative-sensory-testing-in-dogs-with-painful-disease-a-window-to-pain-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
James Hunt, David Knazovicky, B Duncan X Lascelles, Jo Murrell
Evaluation of the response to externally applied physical stimuli, such as pressure, heat, or cold is termed quantitative sensory testing (QST). QST may be used to identify and quantify alterations (gain or loss) in function of the sensory systems which detect and mediate these phenomena in both man and animals, and potentially discriminate peripheral and central sensitisation. It has been postulated that evaluation of QST parameters may predict response to analgesics, ultimately increasing the individualisation of treatment for pain...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606436/evaluation-of-reticuloruminal-ph-measurements-from-individual-cattle-sampling-strategies-for-the-assessment-of-herd-status
#10
Nicholas N Jonsson, Joachim L Kleen, R John Wallace, Ivan Andonovic, Craig Michie, Marianne Farish, Malcolm Mitchell, Carol-Anne Duthie, Dan B Jensen, Matthew J Denwood
The application of pH observations to clinical practice in dairy cattle is based on criteria derived primarily from single time-point observations more than 20 years ago. The aims of this study were to evaluate these criteria using data collected using continuous recording methods; to make recommendations that might improve their interpretation; and to determine the relationship between the number of devices deployed in a herd and the accuracy of the resulting estimate of the herd-mean reticuloruminal pH. The study made use of 815,475 observations of reticuloruminal pH values obtained from 75 cattle in three herds (one beef and two twice-daily milking herds) to assess sampling strategies for the diagnosis of sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA), and to evaluate the ability of different numbers of bolus devices to accurately estimate the true herd-mean reticuloruminal pH value at any time...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606435/holter-monitoring-demonstrates-that-ventricular-arrhythmias-are-common-in-cats-with-decompensated-and-compensated-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#11
U Bartoszuk, B W Keene, M Baron Toaldo, N Pereira, N Summerfield, J Novo Matos, T M Glaus
Arrhythmias can complicate cardiac disease in cats and are a potential cause of sudden death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and nature of cardiac arrhythmias, and the potential correlation between plasma serum troponin I (cTnI) concentrations and the presence or severity of arrhythmias in cats with decompensated (dHCM) and compensated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (cHCM). Forty one client-owned cats were studied: 16 with cHCM, 15 with dHCM and 10 healthy control cats. Physical examination, echocardiography, cTnI and 24-h Holter recordings were obtained in all cats and thoracic radiographs in cats with dHCM...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606434/serum-cobalamin-and-folate-as-prognostic-factors-in-canine-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-an-observational-cohort-study-of-299-dogs
#12
N Soetart, D Rochel, A Drut, L Jaillardon
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a gastrointestinal condition leading to a severe impairment of nutrient absorption. The disease is frequently associated with vitamin disturbances especially regarding cobalamin and folate. Dogs with EPI need daily expensive supportive treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors for EPI in dogs, through a long-term survival study of 299 dogs, taking into account epidemiological, clinical, biological and therapeutic data, with particular emphasis on serum cobalamin and folate concentration...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606433/bone-marrow-fat-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-to-document-ante-mortem-starvation
#13
REVIEW
Troy I Raglus, Bert De Groef, Simone Rochfort, Grant Rawlin, Christina McCowan
Veterinary diagnostic clinicians are increasingly presented with emaciated animals involved in suspected neglect cases. A rise in public awareness and media attention towards animal welfare, combined with changes in legislation and a demand for a higher standard of evidence be presented in animal neglect cases submitted for prosecutions, have created a need for an objective measurement of starvation, particularly given the lack of quantitative assessments at post-mortem examinations. Bone marrow fat (BMF) is the final fat reserve to be mobilised for energy by a calorie-deprived animal during a state of emaciation...
January 2019: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503549/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-canine-parvovirus-infection-comparison-of-kidney-injury-biomarkers-with-routine-renal-functional-parameters
#14
M F van den Berg, J P Schoeman, P Defauw, Z Whitehead, A Breemersch, K Goethals, S Daminet, E Meyer
Dogs with naturally occurring canine parvovirus (CPV) infection are at risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) due to several factors, including severe dehydration, hypotension and sepsis. Serum creatinine (sCr) and serum urea are insensitive markers for the assessment of early kidney injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential kidney injury in dogs with CPV infection using both routine renal functional parameters and several kidney injury biomarkers. Twenty-two dogs with CPV infection were prospectively enrolled and compared with eight clinically healthy control dogs...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503548/diclazuril-nonlinear-mixed-effects-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-plasma-concentrations-after-oral-administration-to-adult-horses-every-3-4-days
#15
Laszlo Hunyadi, Mark G Papich, Nicola Pusterla
The purpose of this study was to determine if a low dose of diclazuril (0.5mg/kg of 1.56% diclazuril pellets) given to six healthy adult horses every 3-4 days for a total of five administrations would achieve steady-state plasma concentrations known to be inhibitory to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum. Blood was collected via venipuncture immediately before (trough concentrations) and 10h after (peak concentrations) each diclazuril administration and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean population-derived peak concentration was 0...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503547/characteristics-of-hyperfibrinolysis-in-dogs-and-cats-demonstrated-by-rotational-thromboelastometry-rotem
#16
N E Sigrist, R J Jud Schefer, A P N Kutter
Hyperfibrinolysis (HFL) is a pathophysiological mechanism that has not been described in dogs or cats extensively. The aim of this study was to describe rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters and underlying diagnosis in dogs and cats with HFL and evaluate association with bleeding diathesis. The ROTEM database was retrospectively searched for EXTEM (ROTEM activated with proprietary tissue factor) tracings with maximum lysis at 60min ≥15%. Concurrent ROTEM and plasma coagulation tests, thrombocyte number, diagnosis and survival to hospital discharge were extracted from medical records...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503546/comparison-of-ultrasonic-pachymetry-and-fourier-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-for-measurement-of-corneal-thickness-in-dogs-with-and-without-corneal-disease
#17
A L Hoehn, S M Thomasy, P H Kass, T Horikawa, M Samuel, O R Shull, K A Stewart, C J Murphy
Several ultrasonic and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) pachymeters are used to measure corneal thickness in canine patients and research subjects. This study assessed the reliability of and consistency between two ultrasonic pachymetry (USP) devices, Pachette 3 and Accupach VI, as well as automated and manual measurements obtained using FD-OCT in dogs with and without corneal disease. Corneal thickness measurements were compiled from 108 dogs and analyzed using mixed effects linear regression, with Bonferonni adjustments for post-hoc comparisons, to determine the effects of age, weight and disease state...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503545/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-west-highland-white-terriers-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Cécile Clercx, Aline Fastrès, Elodie Roels
Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) affects middle-aged to older dogs of a single breed, mainly the West Highland white terrier (WHWT), which is suggestive of a genetic predisposition. CIPF causes exercise intolerance, restrictive dyspnoea and coughing. Coarse crackles are heard on thoracic auscultation. Abnormal blood gas parameters and a shortened '6-min-walking test' distance are common; secondarily induced pulmonary hypertension and/or airway collapse are frequent. These features of CIPF mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in humans and therefore identify CIPF as a possible spontaneously arising model for study of human IPF...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503544/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-signalment-and-owner-reported-impairment-level-on-accelerometer-measured-changes-in-activity-in-osteoarthritic-dogs-receiving-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory
#19
C Muller, J A Gines, M Conzemius, R Meyers, B D X Lascelles
In veterinary medicine, evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA) treatment efficacy remains challenging. Measurement of activity, utilizing accelerometers, provides a surrogate measure of pain through measuring effects on activity, and the objective data collected can be used to assess the efficacy of treatments. However, little is known about how dog characteristics impact the accelerometry-measured response to treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of signalment and initial impairment level on accelerometer-measured changes in activity in osteoarthritic dogs after receiving a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID)...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30503543/effect-of-storage-on-long-term-stability-of-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-lysozyme-lactate-dehydrogenase-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dogs
#20
R Ricci, A Perazzi, T Badon, S Bedin, I Iacopetti
Research or diagnostic conditions may require the storage of salivary samples for long periods before analysis is processed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of canine salivary α-amylase, lysozyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total calcium and phosphorus after storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at -20°C. Available saliva samples were 75 immediately after collection (T0) and 46 at 1 month (T1), 31 at 3 months (T3) and 18 at 6 months (T6) of storage, according to the number of aliquots collected from each saliva sample...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
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