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Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences

Richard P Taylor
This year's cover artist, Clinton Marstall, creates fractal imagery by photographing natural patterns. He then uses a pen to highlight the patterns and projects them on to a canvas for painting. Using this precision technique, he integrates a number of biomorphic images into a unique amalgum of multi-scaled complexity.
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
M Angeles Cerezo, Gemma Pons-Salvador, Rosa M Trenado, Purificacion Sierra-Garcia
This study analyzed Maternal Sensitivity in the interaction of mother-infant dyads to distinguish different dynamics associated with their attachment group membership - Insecure-Avoidant (A), Secure (B), or Insecure-Resistant (C), with no Disorganized traits - that they developed at 15 months. Participants were 26 eight-month old infants interacting with their mothers in a free-play setting. The analyses used sequential streams of infant actions and maternal responses, and state-space grids to study the temporal organization of the sequences...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Sibel Halfon, Alev Cavdar, Giulia Paolini, Silvia Andreassi, Alessandro Giuliani, Franco F Orsucci, Giulio de Felice
A systematic single case study with a mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was conducted to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of change in play profiles of a child in psychodynamic play therapy. The first aim of the study was to cluster the different features of play characteristics (i.e., descriptive, cognitive, affective, and social characteristics of play, and the defensive strategies used in play) in order to construct the different play profiles of this child, and secondly to assess the transitions between profiles over the course of treatment...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Helmut Scholler, Kathrin Viol, Hannes Goditsch, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Marc-Thorsten Hutt, Gunter Schiepek
Mathematical modeling and computer simulations are important means to understand the mechanisms of psychotherapy. The challenge is to design models which not only predict outcome, but simulate the nonlinear trajectories of change. Another challenge is to validate them with empirical data. We proposed a model on change dynamics which integrates five variables (order parameters) (therapeutic progress or success, motivation for change, problem severity, emotions, and insight) and four control parameters (capacity to enter a trustful cooperation and working alliance, cognitive competencies and mindfulness, hopefulness, behavioral resources)...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
David Pincus, Oto Cadsky, Vincent Berardi, Catherine M Asuncion, Katheryn Wann
Since the mid 1980's, mainstream social psychology investigations of self-complexity and psychopathology have produced contradictory results. These results are likely the result of a lack of theoretical and methodological grounding in complexity theory. The current study proposes that the self has an interconnected fractal structure, and that this structure may be reflected within inverse-power law (IPL) distributions of response times to self-related questions. MMPI-2 item response sets (N = 300) were selected from a larger pool of 1,881 forensic administrations...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Colleen D Cutler, Richard W J Neufeld
In this article we study the application of nonlinear indices (sometimes called complexity indices) to univariate time series data arising from studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Specifically, we consider time series arising from EEG studies, ECG studies, and self-report mood data. As part of our analysis, we empirically examine the claim in the literature that complexity tends to be higher in the EEG of schizophrenia patients than controls and that this tendency is dampened or even inverted by medication, increasing age, and reduced symptomatology...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
David Pincus
This introduction to a special issue of Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences discusses the contributing articles within the issue from a variety of perspectives. This analysis examines each article's contribution to understanding the self, and to exploring the application of innovative nonlinear methods to clinical questions. Moving beyond the special issue, the analysis examines the role of nonlinear science in clinical psychology from the perspective of Aristotle's four types of cause: material, efficient, formal and teleological...
January 2019: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Arno Willems, Petri Embregts, Maarten Wijnants, Lex Hendriks, Anna Bosman
In relationships between staff members and clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behavior (CB) it is important to study their bidirectional dynamic interactions. In the present study three staff members were recorded on video during a daily bathing session with the same client with ID and CB. The video codings were analyzed using Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA) and based on the categories of Leary and Banjamin's interpersonal models. CRQA analyses demonstrated different synchronization levels of the three dyads with respect to affiliation and control...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Carlota Torrents, Assumpta Ensenyat, Angel Ric, Merce Mateu, Robert Hristovski
The aim of this study was to establish whether various types of play equipment differentially constrain exploratory behavior and spontaneous physical activity patterns in preschoolers when they play freely with them. Fourteen children, 3-4 years old, played with four different types of equipment. The children wore an accelerometer and data were analyzed taking into account overall physical activity, the time spent at different intensity levels of move-ment, and the entropy of the time series. All trials were video-recorded and a systematic observation instrument was used to register actions and interactions with partners and equipment...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Yuan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Xin Zheng
The present study explored the potential growth pattern of reading development from kindergarten to high school using the publicly available dataset from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K). We extended the piecewise growth mixture model (PGMM) with a single unknown knot into the situation with more than one knot. The results showed that the PGMM with more than one knot could be used to study reading development. Students' reading development had fast growth before entering elementary school, but development slowed after...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stephen J Guastello, Lucas Mirabito
Time series analysis, nonlinear or otherwise, requires an appropriate lag length between observations. The choice of lag length is contingent to some extent on whether the source data are under- or over-sampled. For neuro-cognitive data, the time granularity should represent psychologically meaningful units. Automatic methods for determining optimal lag length are not readily available, particularly for potentially oversampled data and if the eventual goal is to compare linear versus nonlinear models in large quantities across experimental conditions...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
G N Derry, P S Derry
In previous work, we found evidence that chaotic dynamics characterize the human menstrual cycle. Here, we examine chaotic dynamics in menstruation year-by-year over the lifespan, with special attention to later life. Using data in the Tremin research program archives, lifelong menstrual cycle histories known for 143 subjects beginning at about age 20 through the final menstrual period (FMP) provided data for time series analysis. Cycle lengths were aggregated and analyzed by year prior to the FMP. Time series data was analyzed with procedures developed by Grassberger-Procaccia and by Judd, and the results summarized by a new measure defined herein, the inter-event correlation parameter (Icp)...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stanislaw Raczynski
The prey-predator model in the form of Lotka-Volterra equation represents a nonlinear description of the dynamics of two or more interacting populations. In this article, several versions of the Lotka-Volterra model are analyzed from the point of view of parameter uncertainty. The uncertainty treatment is quite different from the common approach. We do not treat uncertain parameters as random. Instead, we analyze the behavior of the models supposing that the uncertain parameters may change in time within given limits...
October 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Cees Diks, Xindan Li, Chengyao Wu
In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Anthony F Peressini, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez
The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels within dyads and larger teams has become a potentially important variable in the explanation of team performance and group processes. Synchronization research with groups of three or more members has been challenging because of limited means for quantifying relationships that are more extensive than dyads. This article presents an empirical investigation of group performance and participation using a new synchronization coefficient that is grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Sofia-Eleftheria N Gonida
The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Aina Fiol-Veny, Jordi Llabrés, Xavier Bornas
The risk of suffering anxiety disorders is associated with sustained subthreshold symptoms of anxiety. This study evaluated the stability of anxiety scores (high, moderate or low) across a six-month period in early adolescents (N = 95). The associations between sustained anxiety, vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), sympathetic activity, and heart rate fractal dynamics in everyday life conditions were analyzed. The anxiety scores from 71.50% of participants remained at the same level. The linear correlations between anxiety and cardiac measures were weak but a group-based approach revealed that the fractal dimension (FD) from stable-low anxiety participants was higher than the FD from participants with stable-moderate anxiety scores but not higher than the FD from the stable-high anxiety group...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Xinguang Chen, Bin Yu, Ding-Geng Chen
A growing number of young people smoke electronic (e-) cigarettes, presenting an emerging challenge to tobacco control. Analyses are needed to better understand the dynamics of mutual transitions between e-cigarette and conventional combustible (c-) cigarette smoking to advance evidence-based tobacco control. In this study we modeled the nonlinear dynamics of c- and e-cigarette smoking behavior transitions using the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) data. A model with five Markov-Chain transition stages linked by 21 transitional paths/probabilities was constructed, guided by the probabilistic discrete event systems (PDES) theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
R P Taylor
Artists have a long tradition of capturing the essence of Nature in their creative works. This year's cover artist, Tallmadge Doyle, uses copper plates to create prints of the complex visual textures found in Nature's scenery. Originating from careful observation, her images then undergo a stylistic evolution toward a personalized artistic vision of Nature's textures.
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Havard R Glattre, Eystein Glattre
This paper is about how fractal connections between words can be identified and hidden fractal word-networks uncovered in corpus texts. The basis for this 'search-and-find' procedure is the hypothesis Complexity Connections in Corpuses (CCIC) consisting of four separate sub-hypotheses, each the basis of a procedure for uncovering a special part of such networks. The validity and applicability of CCIC are demonstrated by showing that each sub-hypothesis holds good for twenty-four masterpieces, selected from the world's great library of novels and treatises...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
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