Ryan Huebinger, Micah Panczyk, Normandy Villa, Rabab Al-Araji, Kevin Schulz, Amanda Humphries, Joseph Gill, David Persse, Bentley Bobrow
INTRODUCTION: First responder (FR) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important component of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care. However, little is known about FR CPR disparities. METHODS: We linked the 2014-2021 Texas Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (TX-CARES) database to census tract data. We included non-traumatic OHCAs that were not witnessed by 9-1-1 responders and did not receive bystander CPR. We defined census tracts as having >50% of a race/ethnicity: White, Black, or Hispanic/Latino...
March 7, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Sylvia Owusu-Ansah, Rickquel Tripp, Stacy Weisberg, Mary Mercer, Kimberly Whitten-Chung
Position StatementEmergency medical services (EMS), similar to all aspects of health care systems, can play a vital role in examining and reducing health disparities through educational, operational, and quality improvement interventions. Public health statistics and existing research highlight that patients of certain socioeconomic status, gender identity, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity are disproportionately affected with respect to morbidity and mortality for acute medical conditions and multiple disease processes, leading to health disparities and inequities...
March 3, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Christopher B Mercer, Matthew Ball, Jonathan R Powell, Robin E Cushing, Robert M Rossi, Hunter Black, Jordan D Kurth, Ashish R Panchal
INTRODUCTION: The transition of Army Combat Medic Specialists (Military Occupational Specialty Code: 68W) from military to civilian emergency medical services (EMS) is challenging, and the pathway is not clearly defined. Our objective was to evaluate the current military requirements for 68W and how they compare to the 2019 EMS National Scope of Practice Model (SoPM) for the civilian emergency medical technician (EMT) and advanced emergency medical technician (AEMT). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional evaluation of the 68W skill floor as defined by the Soldier's Manual and Trainer's Guide Healthcare Specialist and Medical Education and Demonstration of Individual Competence in comparison to the 2019 SoPM, which categorizes EMS tasks into seven skill categories...
March 2, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jeffrey P Phillips, Daniel J Anger, Marvin C Rogerson, Lucas A Myers, Rozalina G McCoy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of transitioning from direct laryngoscopy (DL) to video laryngoscopy (VL) on endotracheal intubation success overall and with enhanced precautions implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We examined electronic transport records from Mayo Clinic Ambulance Service, a large advanced life support (ALS) provider serving rural, suburban, and urban areas in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. We determined the success of intubation attempts when using DL (March 10, 2018 to December 19, 2019), VL (December 20, 2019 to September 29, 2021), and VL with an enhanced COVID-19 guideline that restricted intubation to one attempt, performed by the most experienced clinician, who wore enhanced personal protective equipment (April 1 to December 18, 2020)...
March 2, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Amanda L Missel, Stephen R Dowker, Madeline Chiola, Jodyn Platt, Julia Tsutsui, Kristin Kasten, Robert Swor, Robert W Neumar, Nathaniel Hunt, Logan Herbert, Woodrow Sams, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Teri Shields, Emilee I Coulter-Thompson, Charles P Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Fewer than 10% of individuals who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survive with good neurologic function. Bystander CPR more than doubles the chance of survival, and telecommunicator-CPR (T-CPR) during a 9-1-1 call substantially improves the frequency of bystander CPR. OBJECTIVE: We examined the barriers to initiation of T-CPR. METHODS: We analyzed the 9-1-1 call audio from 65 EMS-treated OHCAs from a single US 9-1-1 dispatch center...
March 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Sean Morgan, J Jordan Gray, Woodrow Sams, Kevin Uhl, Michael Gundrum, Jason McMullan
BackgroundTenets of high-quality out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation include early recognition and treatment of shockable rhythms, and minimizing interruptions in compressions. Little is known about how use of a mechanical compression device affects these elements. We hypothesize that use of such a device is associated with prolonged pauses in compressions to apply the device, and long compression intervals overall.MethodsWe systematically abstracted CPR metrics from 4 months of adult non-traumatic OHCA cases, each of which had at least 10 minutes of resuscitation, used a LUCAS device, and had a valid monitor file attached to the patient care report...
March 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
David J Barton, Patrick J Coppler, Nadine N Talia, Alexi Charalambides, Brian Stancil, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Clifton W Callaway, Francis X Guyette, Jonathan Elmer
OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important to facilitate time-sensitive care. Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify TBI, but feasibility of EEG has not been evaluated in prehospital settings. We tested the feasibility of obtaining single-channel EEG during air medical transport after trauma. We measured association between quantitative EEG features, early blood biomarkers, and abnormalities on head computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: We performed a pilot prospective, observational study enrolling consecutive patients transported by critical care air ambulance from the scene of trauma to a Level I trauma center...
March 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
John Frawley, Ashima Goyal, Revelle Gappy, Sariely Sandoval, Nai-Wei Chen, Remle Crowe, Robert Swor
Objective/IntroductionKetamine is an opioid-alternative used for analgesia in the prehospital setting. There are knowledge gaps regarding its use during emergency medical services (EMS) encounters for pediatric patients. Our objective was to compare pain reduction, adverse events, and prehospital deaths between ketamine and opioids when used for analgesia administered by any route among pediatric patients.MethodsThis was a retrospective review of 9-1-1 EMS records of injured pediatric patients (≤17 years of age) who received ketamine or opioids for analgesia using the ESO Data Collaborative (calendar years 2019-2020)...
March 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Angelica Cercone, Sriram Ramgopal, Christian Martin-Gill
BACKGROUND: Pediatric prehospital encounters are proportionally low-frequency events. National pediatric readiness initiatives have targeted gaps in prehospital pediatric assessment and management. Regional studies suggest that pediatric vital signs are inconsistently obtained and documented. We aimed to assess national emergency medical services (EMS) data to evaluate completeness of assessment documentation for pediatric versus adult patients and to identify the documentation of condition-specific assessments...
March 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Andrew Liu, Alexander R Nelson, Matthew Shapiro, Jeffrey Boyd, Geneva Whitmore, Daniel Joseph, David C Cone, Katherine Couturier
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is an ongoing public health emergency, exacerbated in recent years by the introduction and rising prevalence of synthetic opioids. The National EMS Scope of Practice Model was changed in 2017 to recommend allowing basic life support (BLS) clinicians to administer intranasal (IN) naloxone. This study examines local IN naloxone administration rates for 4 years after the new recommendation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and respiratory rates before and after naloxone administration...
February 28, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Aaron K Sibley, William McQuaid, Trevor N Jain, April Mills, Andrew Travers
OBJECTIVE: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, when primary PCI is not available in a timely fashion, fibrinolysis and early transfer for routine PCI is recommended. Prince Edward Island (PEI) is the only province in Canada without a PCI facility, and distances to the nearest PCI-capable facilities are between 290 and 374 kilometers. This results in prolonged out-of-hospital time for critically ill patients...
February 16, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Dave W Lu, Jenny Shin, Christopher Wan, Thomas D Rea, Remle P Crowe, Hendrika W Meischke, Catherine R Counts
OBJECTIVE: Burnout has detrimental consequences for health care organizations, clinicians, and the quality of care that patients receive. Prior work suggests that workplace incivility (negative interpersonal acts) contributes to burnout. While workplace incivility is linked to EMS practitioner job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and planned attrition, the relationship between workplace incivility and burnout has not been evaluated among EMS practitioners. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and association of burnout and workplace incivility among EMS practitioners...
February 16, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Philip W Walker, Magdalena Burdette, Laura Susi, Francis X Guyette, Christian Martin-Gill
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated first-pass endotracheal intubation (ETI) success within the critical care transport (CCT) environment using a natural experiment created by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our primary objective was to evaluate if the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) or the COVID-19 time period was associated with differences in first-pass success rates of ETI within a large CCT system with a high baseline ETI first-pass success rate. We hypothesized that pandemic-related challenges would be associated with decreased first-pass success rates...
February 13, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Tanner Smida, James Menegazzi, Remle Crowe, James Scheidler, David Salcido, James Bardes
INTRODUCTION: While various supraglottic airway devices are available for use during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation, comparisons of patient outcomes by device are limited. In this study, we aimed to compare outcomes of OHCA patients who had airway management by emergency medical services (EMS) with the iGel or King-LT. METHODS: We used the 2018-2021 ESO Data Collaborative public use research datasets for this retrospective study. All patients with non-traumatic OHCA who had iGels or King-LTs inserted by EMS were included...
February 13, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jennifer N Fishe, Carmen Smotherman, Shannon Burcham, Christian Martin-Gill, Christopher T Richards, Jonathan R Powell, Ashish R Panchal, Ramzi G Salloum
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital research and evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) have grown in recent decades, yet there is still a paucity of prehospital implementation research. While recent studies have revealed EMS agency leadership perspectives on implementation, the important perspectives and opinions of frontline EMS clinicians regarding implementation have yet to be explored in a systematic approach. The objective of this study was to measure the preferences of EMS clinicians for the process of EBG implementation and whether current agency practices align with those preferences...
February 10, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Martin A C Manoukian, Bryn E Mumma, Jenny L Wagner, Matthew T Linvill, John S Rose
AIM: This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the off-balancing vectors experienced during ambulance transport and comparing them to high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HQ-CPR) metrics. METHODS: Ten participants completed a total of 20 evolutions of compression-only HQ-CPR in an ambulance driven in a manner that minimized or increased linear and angular off-balancing vectors. Linear and angular velocity, linear and angular acceleration, and linear jerk were recorded...
February 9, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Joseph Charles Watso, Mu Huang, Joseph Maxwell Hendrix, Luke Norman Belval, Gilbert Moralez, Matthew Nathaniel Cramer, Josh Foster, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Craig Gerald Crandall
Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable battlefield and civilian trauma deaths. Ketamine, fentanyl, and morphine are recommended analgesics for use in the prehospital (i.e., field) setting to reduce pain. However, it is unknown whether any of these analgesics reduce hemorrhagic tolerance in humans. We tested the hypothesis that fentanyl (75 µg) and morphine (5 mg), but not ketamine (20 mg), would reduce tolerance to simulated hemorrhage in conscious humans. Each of the three analgesics was evaluated independently among different cohorts of healthy adults in a randomized, crossover (within drug/placebo comparison), placebo-controlled fashion using doses derived from the Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines for Medical Personnel...
February 7, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Benjamin W Weston
OBJECTIVE: Inequities have been described in areas of prehospital care ranging from pain medication administration and scene time, to stroke and cardiac arrest management. Though a critical element in understanding inequity, race and ethnicity information are often missing from the prehospital patient care report. This study aimed to characterize and understand demographic trends among records with missing race and ethnicity information. METHODS: This before-and-after retrospective review compared patient care reports prior to and after an intervention that mandated the recording of patient race and ethnicity...
February 3, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Erin Hanlin, David E Meyer, Nicolas Heft, Hutch Stilgenbauer, Bryan Cotton, Michele Bourgeois, Rodolfo Cabrera, Lesley Osborn
INTRODUCTION: The Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score is a previously validated scoring system designed to predict which severely injured trauma patients will require massive transfusion. When the ABC score is used in the prehospital setting to activate massive transfusion at the receiving hospital, a 23% decrease in mortality has been demonstrated. However, the ABC score was developed and validated using hospital data from the emergency department (ED). The sensitivity and specificity of the ABC score when calculated using data from the prehospital setting are unknown...
February 1, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
Grace Corcoran, Paul Bernard, Lawrence Kenna, Ailish Malone, Frances Horgan, Claire O'Brien, Peter Ward, Willie Howard, Laura Hogan, Rebecca Mooney, Siobhan Masterson
OBJECTIVE: Older people experience high rates of adverse outcomes following emergency department (ED) presentation. There is growing evidence to support alternative care pathways for certain types of emergency medical services (EMS) calls. Pathfinder is one such service and targets patients aged 65 years and over, whose presenting issues can be safely managed at home by immediate paramedic, occupational therapy, and/or physiotherapy interventions. The aim of this service evaluation was to understand how older people feel about being treated at home as a result of EMS calls and to understand their experiences of the Pathfinder service...
January 27, 2023: Prehospital Emergency Care
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