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Personality and Social Psychology Review

Naomi Ellemers, Jojanneke van der Toorn, Yavor Paunov, Thed van Leeuwen
We review empirical research on (social) psychology of morality to identify which issues and relations are well documented by existing data and which areas of inquiry are in need of further empirical evidence. An electronic literature search yielded a total of 1,278 relevant research articles published from 1940 through 2017. These were subjected to expert content analysis and standardized bibliometric analysis to classify research questions and relate these to (trends in) empirical approaches that characterize research on morality...
January 18, 2019: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Martin M Smith, Simon B Sherry, Vanja Vidovic, Donald H Saklofske, Joachim Stoeber, Aryn Benoit
Over 25 years of research suggests an important link between perfectionism and personality traits included in the five-factor model (FFM). However, inconsistent findings, underpowered studies, and a plethora of perfectionism scales have obscured understanding of how perfectionism fits within the FFM. We addressed these limitations by conducting the first meta-analytic review of the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and FFM traits ( k = 77, N = 24,789). Meta-analysis with random effects revealed perfectionistic concerns (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and discrepancy) were characterized by neuroticism ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
January 6, 2019: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Alison Ledgerwood, Paul W Eastwick, Leigh K Smith
Evaluation is central to human experience, and multiple literatures have studied it. This article pulls from research on attitudes, human and nonhuman mating preferences, consumer behavior, and beyond to build a more comprehensive framework for studying evaluation. First, we distinguish between evaluations of objects (persons, places, things) and evaluations of attributes (dimensions, traits, characteristics). Then, we further distinguish between summarized attribute preferences (a valenced response to a direction on a dimension, such as liking sweetness in desserts) and functional attribute preferences (a valenced response to increasing levels of a dimension in a set of targets, such as the extent to which sweetness predicts liking for desserts)...
November 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Nicholas Plusnin, Christopher A Pepping, Emiko S Kashima
Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety...
November 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Arlin J Benjamin, Sven Kepes, Brad J Bushman
A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." Since 1967, many other studies have attempted to replicate and explain the weapons effect. This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017 and uses the General Aggression Model (GAM) to explain the weapons effect. It includes 151 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. As predicted by the GAM, our naïve meta-analytic results indicate that the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression...
November 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Rebecca A Ferrer, Geoffrey L Cohen
Self-affirmation-a theory-based technique to affirm the adaptive adequacy of the self-can promote positive behavior change and adaptive outcomes, although effects are variable. We extend a novel framework (Trigger and Channel), proposing three conditions that facilitate self-affirmation-induced behavior change: (a) presence of psychological threat, (b) presence of resources to foster change, and (c) timeliness of the self-affirmation with respect to threat and resources. Using health behavior as a focus, we present meta-analytic evidence demonstrating that when these conditions are met, self-affirmation acts as a psychological trigger into a positive channel of resources that facilitate behavior change...
October 7, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Pieter Van Dessel, Sean Hughes, Jan De Houwer
Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that the performance of specific actions (e.g., approach and avoidance) in response to a stimulus can lead to changes in how that stimulus is evaluated. In contrast to the reigning idea that these effects are mediated by the automatic formation and activation of associations in memory, we describe an inferential account that specifies the inferences underlying the effects and how these inferences are formed. We draw on predictive processing theories to explain the basic processes underlying inferential reasoning and their main characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
(no author information available yet)
Benjamin, A. J., Jr., Kepes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of weapons on aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the weapons effect literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review. (Original DOI: 10.1177/1088868317725419 ).
August 12, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
August 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
June De Vaus, Matthew J Hornsey, Peter Kuppens, Brock Bastian
Lifetime rates of clinical depression and anxiety in the West tend to be approximately 4 to 10 times greater than rates in Asia. In this review, we explore one possible reason for this cross-cultural difference, that Asian cultures think differently about emotion than do Western cultures and that these different systems of thought help explain why negative affect does not escalate into clinical disorder at the same rate. We review research from multiple disciplines-including cross-cultural psychology, social cognition, clinical psychology, and psychiatry-to make the case that the Eastern holistic principles of contradiction (each experience is associated with its opposite), change (the world exists in a state of constant flux), and context (the interconnectedness of all things) fundamentally shape people's experience of emotions in different cultures...
August 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Toni Schmader, Constantine Sedikides
People seek out situations that "fit," but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person-environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors...
August 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Ciara K Kidder, Katherine R White, Michelle R Hinojos, Mayra Sandoval, Stephen L Crites
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type...
August 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
April H Bailey, Marianne LaFrance, John F Dovidio
Androcentrism refers to the propensity to center society around men and men's needs, priorities, and values and to relegate women to the periphery. Androcentrism also positions men as the gender-neutral standard while marking women as gender-specific. Examples of androcentrism include the use of male terms (e.g., he), images, and research participants to represent everyone. Androcentrism has been shown to have serious consequences. For example, women's health has been adversely affected by over-generalized medical research based solely on male participants...
July 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher James Hopwood
Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
David K Sherman, Heejung S Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Vicki S Helgeson, Brittany Jakubiak, Meredith Van Vleet, Melissa Zajdel
We present a theory of communal coping that describes an optimal pathway to patient adjustment among couples in which one person faces a chronic illness. Communal coping consists of a shared illness appraisal (i.e., person perceives illness as a joint rather than individual problem) and collaboration with a partner to manage the illness. We present a model of the communal coping process that links patient and partner shared illness appraisals to collaboration and a set of supportive interactions that might be reframed as collaboration in the presence of shared illness appraisals...
May 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Piers Steel, Vasyl Taras, Krista Uggerslev, Frank Bosco
Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary...
May 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Gurit E Birnbaum
The sexual behavioral system evolved to motivate reproductive acts by arousing sexual desire. Building on the idea that this system has also been "exploited" by evolutionary processes to promote enduring bonds between romantic partners, the present article introduces an integrative model that delineates the functional significance of sexual desire in relationship formation and maintenance. This model explains why individuals' sexual reaction to their partner is context-dependent, clarifying how changes in the nature of interdependence over the course of relationships alter the ways in which specific predictors of sexual desire tend to promote (or inhibit) desire and thereby affect relationship depth and stability...
May 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
John Rauthmann, Ryne Sherman
Situation perception represents the fulcrum of a "psychology of situations" because situation ratings are ubiquitous. However, no systematic research program exists so far, particularly because two competing traditions have not been integrated: Objectivist views stress situations' consensually shared meanings (social reality), and subjectivist views idiosyncratic meanings (personal reality). A componential framework can disentangle social from personal reality in situation perceptions: When multiple perceivers (P) rate multiple situations (S) on multiple situation characteristics (C), variance in those ratings can be decomposed according to S × C, P × S, and P × C breakdowns...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Shelly Zhou, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Arthur Aron, Anne Moyer, Miles Hewstone
According to the extended contact hypothesis, knowing that in-group members have cross-group friends improves attitudes toward this out-group. This meta-analysis covers the 20 years of research that currently exists on the extended contact hypothesis, and consists of 248 effect sizes from 115 studies. The aggregate relationship between extended contact and intergroup attitudes was r = .25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.22, .27], which reduced to r = .17, 95% CI = [.14, .19] after removing direct friendship's contribution; these results suggest that extended contact's hypothesized relationship to intergroup attitudes is small-to-medium and exists independently of direct friendship...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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