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Journal of Neural Transmission

Artur Pałasz, Katarzyna Bogus, Aleksandra Suszka-Świtek, Andrzej Kaśkosz, Shirley Saint-Remy, Aneta Piwowarczyk-Nowak, Łukasz Filipczyk, John J Worthington, Kinga Mordecka-Chamera, Karol Kostro, Grzegorz Bajor, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
Neuropeptides are involved in various brain activities being able to control a wide spectrum of higher mental functions. The purpose of this concise structural investigation was to detect the possible immunoreactivity of the novel multifunctional neuropeptide nesfatin-1 within the human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The BNST is involved in the mechanism of fear learning, integration of stress and reward circuits, and pathogenesis of addiction. Nesfatin-1-expressing neurons were identified for the first time in several regions of the BNST using both immunohistochemical and fluorescent methods...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Joana R F Santos, Chris Bauer, Johannes Schuchhardt, Dirk Wedekind, Katharina Waniek, Ingolf Lachmann, Jens Wiltfang, Jonathan Vogelgsang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques (senile plaques) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein. This process leads to neuronal degradation and neuronal death. Phosphorylation of tau protein at threonine 231 (p-tau231) has been shown to be characteristic in post-mortem brain tissue of patients with AD and it can be sensitively detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, it may serve as a biomarker to support the diagnosis of AD...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Andrea László, Lilla Lénárt, Lilla Illésy, Andrea Fekete, János Nemcsik
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and mood disorders are common public health problems worldwide. Their connections are widely studied, and the role of neurotrophins (NTs) is already supposed in both conditions. However, data in the literature of clinical aspects are sometimes controversial and no reviews are available describing possible associations between CV risk and mood disorders based on NTs. The mostly studied NT is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Decreased level of BDNF is observed in depression and its connection to hypertension has also been demonstrated with affecting the arterial baroreceptors, renin-angiotensin system and endothelial nitric oxide synthase...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios Politis
The dementia spectrum encompasses a range of disorders with complex diagnosis, pathophysiology and limited treatment options. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provides insights into specific neurodegenerative processes underlying dementia disorders in vivo. Here we focus on some of the most common dementias: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism dementias including Parkinson's disease with dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal syndrome, and frontotemporal lobe degeneration...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Paul Bernard Foley
Dopamine is the principal transmitter of several central nervous system pathways originating in the midbrain and critically involved in motor activity, learning and motivation, disruptions of which have been implicated in a number of disorders, including Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. Dopamine played a particularly significant role in the history of neurochemistry. Following a series of investigations between 1957 and 1965, commencing in the laboratory and completed in the clinic, the significance of chemical neurotransmission for normal CNS function was first demonstrated in the case of dopamine...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Franziska Tole, Juliane Kopf, Katrin Schröter, Viola Stella Palladino, Christian P Jacob, Andreas Reif, Sarah Kittel-Schneider
Gene-environment-development interactions are suggested to play a crucial role in psychiatric disorders. However, it is not clear if there are specific risk gene interactions with particular pre-, peri-, and postnatal risk factors for distinct disorders, such as adult attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In this pilot study, the first aim was to investigate retrospective self-reports of pre-, peri-, and postnatal complications and risk factors from 126 participants (aADHD, BD, and healthy controls) and their mothers...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
M Sebold, G Spitta, T Gleich, T Dembler-Stamm, O Butler, K Zacharias, S Aydin, M Garbusow, M Rapp, F Schubert, R Buchert, J Gallinat, A Heinz
Stress plays a key role in modulating addictive behavior and can cause relapse following periods of abstinence. Common effects of stress and alcohol on the dopaminergic system have been suggested, although the precise mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated 20 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 19 matched healthy controls and assessed striatal D2/D3 availability using [18 F]-fallypride positron emission tomography and stressful life events. We found a strong association between striatal D2/D3 availability and stress in patients, but not in healthy controls...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Mohammad Alwardat, Tommaso Schirinzi, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Giulia Maria Sancesario, Donatella Franco, Paola Imbriani, Paola Sinibaldi Salimei, Sergio Bernardini, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) exerts beneficial effects on neurodegenerative processes, either as symptomatic relief or disease-modifying strategy. Actually, it may represent a viable neuroprotective intervention in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), a severe, frequent, and untreatable complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). According to such hypothesis, this cross-sectional study tested, in PD patients, the association between levels of PA and well-known risk factors for PDD, such as mood disorders and amyloid-β42 CSF content...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sashika Selvackadunco, Katie Langford, Zohra Shah, Siobhan Hurley, Istvan Bodi, Andrew King, Dag Aarsland, Claire Troakes, Safa Al-Sarraj
Early detection and accurate diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders may provide better epidemiological data, closer monitoring of disease progression and enable more specialised intervention. We analysed the clinical records and pathology of brain donations from 180 patients from two Brains for Dementia Research cohorts to determine the agreement between in-life clinical diagnosis and post-mortem pathological results. Clinical diagnosis was extracted from medical records and cases assigned into broad clinical groups; control, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (CVD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and combined diseases...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Seunghee Na, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Hyeonseok Jeong, Eek-Sung Lee, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Yong-An Chung, In-Uk Song
The authors inadvertently forgot to provide the following funding information in the original publication: This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2018R1A6A3A11041118).
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Morgana Scheffer, Jefferson Becker, Lucas Araújo de Azeredo, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
In multiple sclerosis (MS), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be dysregulated due to the high cortisol levels involved in the disease activity. HPA axis dysregulation can affect cognitive performance, including executive functions. This study aimed to evaluate hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress as well as verify the association with the performance of executive function in both individuals diagnosed with MS and control individuals. Hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress were evaluated and their association with the performance of healthy individuals (n = 33) and those with MS (n = 64), most of them with remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RRMS) assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Georg Ebersbach, Chi Wang Ip, Stephan Klebe, Jiri Koschel, Stefan Lorenzl, Christoph Schrader, Christian Winkler, Christiana Franke
Delirium is an acute and fluctuating disturbance of attention and awareness. Pre-existing cognitive disturbances or dementia are the most significant risk factors for developing delirium and precipitating factors such as drug treatment, infections, trauma, or surgery may trigger delirium. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at an increased risk for delirium which may be underdiagnosed due to phenomenological overlap between delirium and chronic neuropsychiatric features of PD or side effects of dopaminergic medication...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Estelle Dellapina, Jean Pellaprat, Djilali Adel, Jerome Llido, Estelle Harroch, Jean Baptiste Martini, Aurélie Kas, Anne Sophie Salabert, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Pierre Payoux, Christine Brefel-Courbon
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal activations of nociceptive brain areas and lowered pain thresholds were reported, probably reflecting a central modification of pain processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between the striatal and extrastriatal dopaminergic system and pain threshold in PD patients. We included 25 PD patients with various intensities of central pain (visual analog scale). Subjective pain threshold (thermotest) and a motor examination (UPDRS III) were performed...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Nobutaka Hattori, Atsushi Takeda, Shinichi Takeda, Akira Nishimura, Tadayuki Kitagawa, Hideki Mochizuki, Masahiro Nagai, Ryosuke Takahashi
Rasagiline is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with demonstrated efficacy and safety in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently conducted the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rasagiline in Japanese patients with early PD and now report the results of its open-label extension (, NCT02337751). In the double-blind trial, patients aged 30-79 years with PD diagnosis within 5 years and Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part II + Part III total score ≥ 14 were randomized to placebo or rasagiline 1 mg/day for 26 weeks...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Doreen Gruber, Lisa Calmbach, Andrea A Kühn, Patricia Krause, Ute A Kopp, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andreas Kupsch
Normal cognition is an established selection criteria for subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), while concern has been raised as to aggravated cognitive decline in PD patients following STN-DBS. The present longterm study investigates cognitive status in all patients (n = 104) suffering from PD, who were treated via continuous bilateral STN-DBS between 1997 and 2006 in a single institution. Preoperative neuropsychological results were available in 79/104 of the patients...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Chad A Bousman, Andreas Menke, Daniel J Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Fanni F Geibl, Martin T Henrich, Wolfgang H Oertel
Neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and concurrent dopamine (DA) deficiency in the basal ganglia represent core features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite the central role of DA in the pathogenesis of PD, dopaminergic systems outside of the midbrain have not been systematically investigated for Lewy body pathology or neurodegeneration. Dopaminergic neurons show a surprisingly rich neurobiological diversity, suggesting that there is not one general type of dopaminergic neuron, but rather a spectrum of different dopaminergic phenotypes...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe
The adenosine homo, iso and heteroreceptor complexes in the basal ganglia play a highly significant role in modulating the indirect and direct pathways and the striosomal projections to the nigro-striatal DA system. The major adenosine receptor complexes in the striato-pallidal GABA neurons can be the A2AR-D2R and A2AR-D2R-mGluR5 receptor complexes, in which A2AR protomers and mGluR5 protomers can allosterically interact to inhibit D2R protomer signaling. Through a reorganization of these heteroreceptor complexes upon chronic dopaminergic treatment a pathological and prolonged inhibition of D2R receptor protomer signaling can develop with motor inhibition and wearing off of the therapeutic effects of levodopa and dopamine receptor agonists...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Nobutaka Hattori, Atsushi Takeda, Shinichi Takeda, Akira Nishimura, Ryou Nakaya, Hideki Mochizuki, Masahiro Nagai, Ryosuke Takahashi
Rasagiline is a monoamine oxidase type-B inhibitor in development in Japan for Parkinson's disease (PD). This open-label study evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of rasagiline in Japanese patients with PD receiving levodopa. Patients were aged 30-79 years and had wearing-off or weakened effect. Patients received rasagiline 1 mg/day for 52 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate safety. Secondary endpoints included MDS-UPDRS Part II and Part III total scores (ON-state) and change from baseline in mean daily OFF-time...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Hannes Noack, Leandra Nolte, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ute Habel, Birgit Derntl
Processing of acute stress has potential implications for mental and physical health. At the same time, individuals differ largely in how strongly they react to stress. Neuroimaging paradigms have been developed to characterize the neural underpinnings of the stress response in general and to understand the mechanisms that differentiate high and low susceptible individuals. The goal of the present review was to summarize the current literature on psychosocial stress in the brain imaging environment. That is, we focused on the most common neuroimaging paradigms that have been used to induce acute stress and map out the questions that have been addressed with respect to the determinants, the consequences, and the processing of stress...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
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