Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Page 2

Paul Linsdell, Alexander Negoda, Elizabeth A Cowley, Yassine El Hiani
Anions enter from the cytoplasm into the channel pore of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel not via a central pathway but via a single lateral portal or fenestration. High Cl- conductance is dependent on electrostatic attraction of cytoplasmic Cl- ions by four positively charged amino acid side-chains located within this portal. Here we use a mutagenic approach to investigate the functional effects of transplanting or supplementing these positive charges at nearby portal-lining sites...
December 31, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yanhua Peng, Taobo Yang, Xixi Tang, Fei Chen, Shouyong Wang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an effective tool for gene editing. However, this conventional expression system cannot control the timing of gene editing and does not utilize resistance screening markers. Therefore, carrying out CRISPR/Cas9 experiments is extremely inconvenient. Our aim is to develop an inducible lentiviral vector-based gene-editing system for C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) by CRISPR/Cas9, and to demonstrate its function in MKN-45 cell. The DNA fragments of Blasticidin and T2A-GFP were produced using the lenti-Cas9-BLAST and PX458 plasmids as templates...
December 24, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Clement Agoni, Pritika Ramharack, Geraldene Munsamy, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The challenge in targeting human rhinoviruses (HRV) over the years has been attributed to the wide variety in HRV serotypes. Nonetheless, the search for therapeutic agents against HRV continues unabated. These efforts have been augmented by the recent discovery of the novel benzothiophene derivative shown to inhibit HRV viral replication. Bound to subtype HRV-B14, the compound showed similar inhibitory activity as Pleconaril, a known capsid inhibitor. However, the molecular and structural basis of this inhibition remains unclear...
December 13, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Varsha Raimalani, Brinda Panchamia, C Ratna Prabha
Ubiquitination is tightly regulated to control degradation, localization and function of various proteins. Ubiquitination is catalysed by three enzymes, namely E1, E2 and E3. The specificity shown by E2s for E3s holds key to regulation of ubiquitination. Here we focussed on the E2 enzymes, UBC4 and UBC5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are almost identical differing only by 11 residues. They show functional complementation in protein degradation, especially during stress response. Existence of two almost identical proteins suggests specialized requirement of one of them under selective conditions...
December 9, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Cheng Jin, Dake Dong, Zhen Yang, Rushan Xia, Shiqin Tao, Meishan Piao
Circular RNAs (cicRNAs) have been identified to play pivotal roles in several cancer types. However, functions of circRNA in malignant melanoma are poor defined. Our current study demonstrated that human circMYC was obviously upregulated in human melanoma tissue. Furthermore, circMYC promoted the proliferation of human melanoma cells and Mel-CV cells. The expression of circMYC can repress Mel-CV cell glycolysis and LDHA activities in the in vitro glycolysis and lactate production evaluations. circMYC directly bound to miR-1236 as a molecular sponge that targeting miR-1236 in Mel-CV cells via bioinformatics analysis, pull-down assay, and luciferase reporter assays...
December 6, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Masood Alam Khan, Sumbul Ahmad, Amiruddin Hashmi, Hina Younus
Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) protects us from the toxic effect of aldehydes. It has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Citral possesses many biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory effect and the mechanism of inhibition of citral on hsALDH. Citral inhibits the dehydrogenase activity of hsALDH. It decreased the substrate affinity and to a lesser extent, the catalytic efficiency of hsALDH. Citral showed linear mixed-type inhibition with a higher tendency of competitive behavior with little, but significant, non-competitive inhibition...
November 15, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ah-Won Kwak, Seung-Sik Cho, Goo Yoon, Ha-Na Oh, Mee-Hyun Lee, Jung-Il Chae, Jung-Hyun Shim
Esophageal cancer is one of the malignant cancers with a low 5-year survival rate. Licochalcone (LC) H, a chemically synthesized substance, is a regioisomer of LCC extracted from licorice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LCH might have anticancer effect on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines via apoptosis signaling pathway. After 48 h of treatment, IC50 of LCH in KYSE 30, KYSE 70, KYSE 410, KYSE 450, and KYSE 510 cells were 15, 14, 18, 15, and 16 μM, respectively...
November 9, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xu-Hui Qin, Hai-Xia Wang, Liqun Ma, Jinhua Shen, Qing-Hua Liu, Lu Xue
Candidate oncogene placenta specific 8 (PLAC8) has been identified to participate in different cellular process and human diseases. However, the effects of PLAC8 on cell proliferation and migration in human kidney cancer (KC) remained unclear. In current study, physiological effects of PLAC8 in immortalized human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T) were investigated in vitro. Two PLAC8 knockout (KO) cell lines were established via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated methods combined with fluorescence activated single cell sorting...
November 6, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hedan Han, Hai Wang, Yuemei Du, Liping Gao
Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. However, cisplatin is limited in clinical treatment because of its severe nephrotoxicity. This study reported whether O-GSP can antagonize the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells through inducing HO-1 protein expression. We previously demonstrated O-GSP can increase the survival rate of HEK293 and have protective effect on HEK293 cells. Herein, We found that O-GSP can antagonize cisplatin nephrotoxicity through regulating the expression of HO-1. O-GSP promotes the translocation of Nrf2 in the nucleus, and activates the ERKN JNK pathway and p38 MAPK pathway...
October 28, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Marija Raguz, Suresh N Kumar, Mariusz Zareba, Nada Ilic, Laxman Mainali, Witold K Subczynski
The cholesterol (Chol) content in the fiber cell plasma membranes of the eye lens is extremely high, exceeding the solubility threshold in the lenses of old humans. This high Chol content forms pure Chol bilayer domains (CBDs) and Chol crystals in model membranes and membranes formed from the total lipid extracts from human lenses. CBDs have been detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling approaches. Here, we confirm the presence of CBDs in giant unilamellar vesicles prepared using the electroformation method from Chol/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphocholine and Chol/distearoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures...
October 17, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
John J Evans, Maan M Alkaisi, Peter H Sykes
Appropriate mechanical forces on cells are vital for normal cell behaviour and this review discusses the possibility that tumour initiation depends partly on the disruption of the normal physical architecture of the extracellular matrix (ECM) around a cell. The alterations that occur thence promote oncogene expression. Some questions, that are not answered with certainty by current consensus mechanisms of tumourigenesis, are elegantly explained by the triggering of tumours being a property of the physical characteristics of the ECM, which is operative following loading of the tumour initiation process with a relevant gene variant...
October 9, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Anatoly F Vanin
Here, I present the data testifying that the conversion of free radical NO molecules to nitrosonium ions (NO+ ), which are necessary for the realization of one of NO biological effects (S-nitrosation), may occur in living organisms after binding NO molecules to loosely bound iron (Fe2+ ions) with the subsequent mutual one-electron oxidation-reduction of NO molecules (their disproportionation). Inclusion of thiol-containing substances as iron ligands into this process prevents hydrolysis of NO+ ions bound to iron thus providing the formation of stable dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol ligands...
October 4, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Chisa Y Okada, Akio Nakamura, Kyoko Ogawa, Kazuhiro Kohama, Takako S Kaneko
This study aimed to investigate for the first time, the profile of Physarum microplasmodial phosphatase (PPH) activity toward the phosphorylated light chain of Physarum myosin II (PLCM) at pH 7.6, the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming, and PPH expression in spherule formation during dark starvation (DS). In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of PPH using polymerase chain reaction, based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1245 bp, corresponding to 415 amino acids...
September 27, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
K Rohini, K Ramanathan, V Shanthi
Influenza virus is known for its intermittent outbreaks affecting billions of people worldwide. Several neuraminidase inhibitors have been used in practice to overcome this situation. However, advent of new resistant mutants has limited its clinical utilization. In the recent years drug repurposing technique has attained the limelight as it is cost effective and reduces the time consumed for drug discovery. Here, we present multi-dimensional repurposing strategy that integrates the results of ligand-, energy-, receptor cavity, and shape-based pharmacophore algorithm to effectively identify novel drug candidate for influenza...
September 26, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Maryam Kianpour, Reza Yousefi
The elevated lenticular level of methylglyoxal (MGO) in diabetic patients is an important risk factor for the development of age-related (senile) cataract disorders. Carnosine (β-alanyl L-histidine), a natural antioxidant dipeptide product, has been indicated to prevent the development of cataract diseases. Therefore, it is possible that the anti-cataract activity of this naturally occurring compound is mediated by its anti-glycoxidation effect. In this study, the eye lens proteins were treated with MGO in the presence of carnosine...
September 18, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Laura Calvert, Helen Atkinson, Leslie Berry, Anthony Chan
Alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a glycosylated broad spectrum inhibitor of numerous proteases, including those involved in blood coagulation. Glycosylation characteristics can affect protein structure and function. This study compares glycosylation characteristics of A2M in newborn umbilical cord (NUCP) and adult pooled plasmas. Peptide N-Glycosidase F treatment was used to evaluate the total N-glycan content of the molecules. Neuraminidase treatment, and affinity for Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I were used to examine terminal sialic acid and galactose content, respectively...
September 5, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Musunuru Suneel Kumar Reddy, Uma V Manjappara
Satiety peptides convey information about short-term energy reserves in the gut to the hypothalamus and aid in regulation of appetite and food intake. Obestatin is one such gastro peptide that has been shown to upregulate glycerolipid metabolism and PPARγ signalling. Obestatin brings about moderate reduction in circulating and stored triglyceride levels and reduction in gain in body weight in mice. We wanted to test whether obestatin could be further potentiated by co-administration with nutraceuticals genistein and capsaicin that are well known to reduce triglyceride levels...
September 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Shama Khan, Imane Bjij, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Covalent inhibition targeting noncatalytic residues is rapidly gaining attention in drug discovery. Protein tyrosine phosphatases 1B (PTP1B) is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in cancer and other diseases. Two binding sites of PTP1B enzyme were identified, catalytic and allosteric. The catalytic site is deep and narrow which protects the active site amino acid residue Cys215 from covalent inhibition, whereas the allosteric site is more hydrophobic and less conserved with Cys121 residue, to which covalent inhibitors can bind...
August 24, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Dan Tse, Periannan Kuppusamy
Oxygen-sensing implants, composed of paramagnetic microcrystals embedded in a biocompatible polymer, are increasingly being used for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry in animal models and human subjects. The implants are stable and designed to stay in the tissues for indefinite periods. However, it is not known whether the crystals that may be exposed on the surface of the implants or leached out from the implants will induce cytotoxicity thereby compromising their biocompatibility over the long term...
August 23, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Michal Gonet, Boris Epel, Howard J Halpern, Martyna Elas
This paper presents a survey of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) image registration. Image registration is the process of overlaying images (two or more) of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints and/or different techniques. EPR-imaging (EPRI) techniques belong to the functional-imaging modalities and therefore suffer from a lack of anatomical reference which is mandatory in preclinical imaging. For this reason, it is necessary to merging EPR images with other modalities which allow for obtaining anatomy images...
August 22, 2019: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
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