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Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741100/a-danish-version-of-the-oxford-cognitive-screen-a-stroke-specific-screening-test-as-an-alternative-to-the-moca
#1
Ro Julia Robotham, Jens Oestergaard Riis, Nele Demeyere
Cognitive deficits are common following stroke and have many negative consequences. They must be identified to provide appropriate interventions and care. In Denmark, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a dementia screening tool, is commonly used to screen for cognitive deficits following stroke, despite its limitations in this context. This study aimed to make the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS), a stroke-specific cognitive screening tool, available in Danish and to provide population appropriate normative data...
February 11, 2019: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707655/schizophrenia-cognition-and-aging-cognitive-deficits-and-the-relationship-between-test-performance-and-aging
#2
Vaka Valsdottir, Magnus Haraldsson, Haukur Freyr Gylfason, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Brynja Bjork Magnusdottir
Most measures of cognitive function decline with age during adulthood. Research indicates that people with schizophrenia experience considerable cognitive deficits. These deficits appear to become more troublesome with increasing age, but this has been debated. The aim of this research was to better understand the age related cognitive deficits of Icelandic subjects with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. Cognition of individuals 18 to 64 years of age was evaluated with 10 neuropsychological tests...
February 1, 2019: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30667345/easy-or-effective-explaining-young-adults-and-older-adults-likelihood-of-using-various-strategies-to-improve-their-memory
#3
Tara T Lineweaver, Jessica J Crumley-Branyon, Michelle Horhota, Madelynne K Wright
We examined two factors to explain why young and older adults report using different memory strategies in their everyday lives. Participants rated the likelihood of use, difficulty, and effectiveness of six categories of memory strategies that they could implement in order to improve their general memory performance. Consistent with previous literature, older adults were more likely to report utilizing "use it or lose it" approaches than young adults, whereas young adults reported a greater likelihood of using task-focused approaches such as internal strategies and effort than older adults...
January 22, 2019: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663493/influence-of-sex-differences-in-interpreting-learning-and-memory-within-a-clinical-sample-of-older-adults
#4
Hannah E Brunet, Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jason Brandt, Justin B Miller
Sex is an important factor to consider when evaluating memory with older adults. This present study aimed to examine sex differences in memory within a clinical sample of older adults (N = 1084). Raw learning and recall scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test, Revised (BVMT-R) were compared between sexes within the entire sample and cohorts stratified by age. Within the entire sample, women outperformed men in HVLT-R learning and recall, and there were no sex differences in BVMT-R performance...
January 20, 2019: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30596340/language-proficiency-does-not-modulate-executive-control-in-older-bilinguals
#5
Ramesh Kumar Mishra, Manasa Padmanabhuni, Pratik Bhandari, Shiji Viswambharan, Seema Gorur Prasad
We examined if language proficiency modulates performance in tasks that measure executive control in older Telugu-English bilinguals (n = 50, mean age = 57.15 years). We administered numerical Stroop task, Attention Network Task, Dimensional Change Card Sorting task, and stop-signal task that are known to tap into different aspects of executive functioning on healthy aging Telugu-English bilinguals. Second language (English) proficiency was calculated as a cumulative score that considered both subjective and objective measures of L2 fluency and use...
December 30, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29083261/same-face-same-place-different-memory-manner-of-presentation-modulates-the-associative-deficit-in-older-adults
#6
Amy A Overman, Nancy A Dennis, John M McCormick-Huhn, Abigail B Steinsiek, Luisa B Cesar
One of the more severe and consequential memory impairments experienced by older adults is the loss of the ability to form and remember associations. Although the associative deficit is often assumed to be unitary, memory episodes may contain different types of associations (e.g., item-item, item-context). Research in younger adults suggests that these different association types may involve different neural mechanisms. This raises the possibility that different association types are not equally affected by aging...
January 2019: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30427264/effects-of-age-on-attention-level-changes-in-performance-between-the-ages-of-12-and-90
#7
Dubi Lufi, Iris Haimov
The purpose of the present study was to assess the changes in attention level among individuals between the ages of 12 and 90 years. A cross-sectional design was used, with each participant tested once by means of the Mathematics Continuous Performance Test (MATH-CPT). Participants were 496 males and females who were divided into eight age-groups, with each group spanning a period of ten years. Attention level was assessed through comparison with nine variables assessing attention. As people aged, significant reductions in the quality of performance emerged on the five main measures of the MATH-CPT: Two of the four sustained attention variables showed an improvement with age...
November 14, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30426833/the-influence-of-motivational-priority-on-younger-and-older-adults-positive-gaze-preferences
#8
Eric S Allard, Derek M Isaacowitz
The present study investigated whether manipulating emotional goal priority within a series of divided attention tasks influenced the presence or absence of age-related positive gaze preferences. Across two experiments, participants viewed image pairs while performing an auditory version of a 3-back n-back task. In Experiment 1, four conditions were presented: full attention viewing, emotion regulation priority, n-back task priority, and equal priority. The same conditions were included for Experiment 2, with the addition of a "no priority" divided attention condition and full attention n-back condition...
November 14, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29083260/are-there-age-differences-in-attention-to-emotional-images-following-a-sad-mood-induction-evidence-from-a-free-viewing-eye-tracking-paradigm
#9
Calandra Speirs, Zorry Belchev, Amanda Fernandez, Stephanie Korol, Christopher Sears
Two experiments examined age differences in the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional images. Younger and older adults viewed sets of four images while their eye gaze was tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Images were viewed before and after a sad MI to assess the effect of a sad mood on attention to positive and negative scenes. Younger and older adults exhibited positively biased attention after the sad MI, significantly increasing their attention to positive images, with no evidence of an age difference in either experiment...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28990857/the-role-of-regional-heterogeneity-in-age-related-differences-in-functional-hemispheric-asymmetry-an-fmri-study
#10
Jiamin Gladys Heng, Chiao-Yi Wu, Josephine Astrid Archer, Makoto Miyakoshi, Toshiharu Nakai, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Neuroimaging literature has documented age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction in frontal regions during task performances. As most studies employed working memory paradigms, it is therefore less clear if this pattern of neural reorganization is constrained by working memory processes or it would also emerge in other cognitive domains which are predominantly lateralized. Using blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study used a homophone judgment task and a line judgment task to investigate age-related differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry in language and visuospatial processing respectively...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28954577/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28922094/remembering-but-not-knowing-disturbs-the-relational-bindings-newly-established-in-short-term-working-memory-an-age-group-comparison
#12
Arnaud Boujut, David Clarys
The aim of this study was to highlight that episodic memory and working memory compete for the same resource, which would be diminished in aging. Using the remember/know paradigm, we compared the interference related to the retrieval of words on the parallel processing of preestablished relational bindings (Shifting condition) or newly established relational bindings (Updating condition). Within each age-group, participants had comparable performances in remembering across recognition conditions. However, the results showed that only updating activity was impaired after a remember response was given in the younger group...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28922067/conceptual-elaboration-versus-direct-lexical-access-in-wais-similarities-differential-effects-of-white-matter-lesions-and-gray-matter-volumes
#13
Sven-Erik Fernaeus, Åke Hellström
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28914150/a-computerized-test-for-the-assessment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-in-sentence-processing
#14
Sofia Segkouli, Ioannis Paliokas, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Ioulietta Lazarou, Charalampos Karagiannidis, Filippos Vlachos, Magda Tsolaki
This study examines thesentence processing ability of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes. In addition to standard MCI neuropsychological tests, an experimental approach was applied to assess language. 133 people (93 MCI/40 controls) participated in novel computerized sentence processing tasks. Results presented statistically significant differences between MCI/controls andMCI subtypes (ANOVA):(a) duration F(2,92) = 19.259,p < .001) in sentence construction; (b) correct answers (F(2, 89) = 8.560,p < ...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28914146/effects-of-age-and-type-of-picture-on-visuospatial-working-memory-assessed-with-a-computerized-jigsaw-puzzle-task
#15
Pilar Toril, José M Reales, Julia Mayas, Soledad Ballesteros
We investigated the effect of age and color in a computerized version of the jigsaw-puzzle task. In Experiment 1, young and older adults were presented with puzzles in color and black-and-white line drawings, varying in difficulty from 4 to 9 pieces. Older adults performed the task better with the black-and-white stimuli and younger adults performed better with the color ones. In Experiment 2, new older and young adults identified the same fragmented pictures as fast and accurately as possible. The older group identified the black-and-white stimuli faster than those presented in color, while the younger adults identified both similarly...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28895783/the-relationship-between-autobiographical-memory-cognition-and-emotion-in-older-adults-a-review
#16
Yong-Chun Bahk, Kee-Hong Choi
Over the past 30 years, the concept of "autobiographical memory" has been highlighted in numerous behavioral and neuroanatomical studies. Importantly, episodic autobiographical memory, an aspect of autobiographical memory, has been shown to decrease with age but can be improved by training. Autobiographical memory is deeply associated with the default mode network (especially posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex), which is particularly interesting in the context of better understanding the relationship between autobiographical memory, cognition, and emotion in older adults...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28877653/why-do-older-adults-have-difficulty-with-semantic-fluency
#17
Jean K Gordon, Megan Young, Carly Garcia
Aging involves many cognitive declines, particularly in fluid intelligence, with relative maintenance of crystallized intelligence. This paradox is evident in the language domain: lexical retrieval becomes slower and less accurate, despite well preserved vocabularies. Verbal fluency assesses both crystallized and fluid aspects of language. Semantic fluency hypothetically reflects semantic knowledge, while letter fluency putatively reflects executive functioning, which would predict a greater impact of aging on the latter...
November 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30372660/exercise-type-relates-to-inhibitory-and-error-processing-functions-in-older-adults
#18
Dan Li, Chung-Ju Huang, Sin-Chi Liu, Kung-Hung Chang, Tsung-Min Hung
This study investigated the association between exercise type and inhibition of prepotent responses and error detection. Totally, 75 adults (M = 68.88 years) were classified into one of three exercise groups: those who were regular participants in open- or closed-skill forms of exercise, and those who exercised only irregularly. The participants completed a Stroop and task-switching tasks with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded. The results revealed that regular exercisers displayed faster reaction times (RTs) in the Stroop task compared with irregular exercisers...
October 29, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30370825/the-virtual-kitchen-challenge-preliminary-data-from-a-novel-virtual-reality-test-of-mild-difficulties-in-everyday-functioning
#19
Tania Giovannetti, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Emily Roll, Tetsuya Harada, Sarah Seligman Rycroft, Ross Divers, Jacob Hulswit, Chiu C Tan, Anastasia Matchanova, Lillian Ham, Katherine Hackett, Rachel Mis
BACKGROUND: Efficient, objective measures of mild functional difficulties are lacking. Preliminary data from a novel, non-immersive virtual reality, performance-based task (Virtual Kitchen Challenge; VKC) were obtained to address this gap. METHODS: 14 older and 21 younger adults completed cognitive tests and two everyday tasks (breakfast, lunch) in the VKC with virtual objects and a touch-screen and in the Real Kitchen with real objects (order counterbalanced). Automated performance measures were obtained from the VKC program and human coders scored VKC and Real Kitchen videos for errors...
October 28, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30355055/age-related-changes-in-processing-speed-modulate-context-use-during-idiomatic-ambiguity-resolution
#20
Christopher M Grindrod, Adina L Raizen
The goal of the current study was to investigate whether age-related changes in processing speed, as indexed by verbal fluency, modulate context use in the resolution of ambiguous idioms (e.g., tie the knot). Younger and older adults completed a cross-modal priming experiment where they decided whether visual word targets were related in meaning to idiomatically or literally biased auditory sentence primes. Older adults with high verbal fluency, similar to younger adults, showed context-dependent facilitation in both biasing sentence contexts...
October 24, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
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