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Development Genes and Evolution

Jose Maria Aguilar-Camacho, Grace P McCormack
Silicatein is the main protein responsible for the formation of spicules, tiny structures that constitute the silica skeleton of marine demosponges (Phylum Porifera). A unique innovation in Porifera that evolved from the cathepsin L family of proteins, it has been reported that two amino acids (S and H) are necessary to form the catalytic triad (SHN) to enable silica condensation. However, a diversity of silicatein sequence variants has since been reported with a variable pattern of presence/absence across sponge groups...
February 12, 2019: Development Genes and Evolution
Aurora M Nedelcu
The evolution of multicellularity is a premier example of phenotypic convergence: simple multicellularity evolved independently many times, and complex multicellular phenotypes are found in several distant groups. Furthermore, both animal and plant lineages have independently reached extreme levels of morphological, functional, and developmental complexity. This study explores the genetic basis for the parallel evolution of complex multicellularity and development in the animal and green plant (i.e., green algae and land plants) lineages...
January 26, 2019: Development Genes and Evolution
Hiromi Takahashi, Masanori Abe, Reiko Kuroda
Establishment of the body plan of multicellular organisms by the primary body axis determination and cell-fate specification is a key issue in biology. We have examined the mRNA localization of three Wnt pathway components gsk3β, β-catenin, and disheveled and investigated the effects of four selective inhibitors of these proteins on the early developmental stages of the spiral cleavage embryo of the fresh water snail Lymnaea (L.) stagnalis. mRNAs for gsk3β and β-catenin were distributed uniformly throughout the embryo during development whereas disheveled mRNA showed specific localization with intra- and inter-blastomere differences in concentration along the A-V axis during spiral cleavages...
January 10, 2019: Development Genes and Evolution
Thomas K Smylla, Markus Meier, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
During development of higher animals, the Notch signalling pathway governs cell type specification by mediating appropriate gene expression responses. In the absence of signalling, Notch target genes are silenced by repressor complexes. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, the repressor complex includes the transcription factor Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and Hairless (H) plus general co-repressors. Recent crystal structure analysis of the Drosophila Notch repressor revealed details of the Su(H)-H complex...
January 5, 2019: Development Genes and Evolution
Kenta Fujimoto, Takashi Hasebe, Mitsuko Kajita, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During amphibian intestinal remodeling, thyroid hormone (TH) induces adult stem cells, which newly generate the absorptive epithelium analogous to the mammalian one. We have previously shown that hyaluronan (HA) is newly synthesized and plays an essential role in the development of the stem cells via its major receptor CD44 in the Xenopus laevis intestine. We here focused on HA synthase (HAS) and examined how the expression of HAS family genes is regulated during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of HAS2 and HAS3, but not that of HAS1 and HAS-rs, a unique Xenopus HAS-related sequence, is upregulated concomitantly with the development of adult epithelial primordia consisting of the stem/progenitor cells during the metamorphic climax...
December 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Jianlong Ge, Changlin Liu, Jie Tan, Li Bian, Siqing Chen
Strobilation is a unique asexual reproduction mode of scyphozoan jellyfish, through which benthic polyp develops into pelagic medusa. It is an orderly metamorphosis process triggered by environmental signals. However, the knowledges of molecular mechanisms under the drastic morphological and physiological changes are still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes from polyps to juvenile medusae at different stages were characterized by RNA-seq in scyphozoan jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum. Among 96,076 de novo assembled unigenes, 7090 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during the developmental stages...
December 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
December 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Gordin Zupkovitz, Julijan Kabiljo, David Martin, Sylvia Laffer, Christian Schöfer, Oliver Pusch
Members of the Klotho gene family have been identified as modulators of the aging process. Deletion of αklotho in the mouse results in a syndrome resembling rapid human aging. Conversely, overexpression of αklotho extends mammalian lifespan. Here, we identify klotho orthologs in the vertebrate aging model Nothobranchius furzeri and provide a detailed spatio-temporal expression profile of both paralogs, α and βklotho, from embryogenesis until old age spanning the entire life cycle of the organism. Specifically, we observe low levels of expression of both paralogs during embryogenesis followed by a significant transcriptional induction as development proceeds...
December 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Valerie B Morris, Eleanor Kable, Demian Koop, Paula Cisternas, Maria Byrne
The two modes of development in sea urchins are direct development, in which the adult develops directly from the gastrula to the adult and does not feed, and indirect development, in which the adult develops indirectly through a feeding larva. In this account of the indirect, feeding larva of Heliocidaris tuberculata, the question raised is whether an evolutionary difference of unequal cell divisions contributes to the development of feeding structures in the indirect larva. In indirect development, the cell divisions at the fourth and fifth cell cycles of the zygote are unequal, with four small micromeres formed at the vegetal pole at the fifth cell division...
November 16, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Philip L Hertzler, Jiankai Wei, Andrew P Droste, Jianbo Yuan, Jianhai Xiang
Gastrulation occurs by a variety of morphogenetic movements, often correlated with diverse expression of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (Bra). Bra may be expressed in ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm, but its role in cell fate specification or regulation of gastrulation movements has not been studied in the development of crustaceans. Penaeid shrimp (Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata: Penaeidae) develop by complete cleavage and gastrulation by invagination to a free-swimming nauplius larva. Penaeid gastrulation diverges from other decapods and from insects, occurring early at a low cell number with the formation of a radial invagination...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Hye-Jin Tak, Zhengguo Piao, Hak-Jin Kim, Sang-Hwy Lee
The epithelial disintegration and the mesenchymal bridging are critical steps in the fusion of facial prominences during the upper lip development. These processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and programmed cell death are mainly influenced by Wnt signals. Axis inhibition protein2 (Axin2), a major component of the Wnt pathway, has been reported to be involved in lip development and cleft pathogenesis. We wanted to study the involvement of Axin2 in the lip development, especially during the epithelial disintegration of facial prominences...
September 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Rie Kusakabe, Kunio Inoue
Limb muscles are formed from migratory muscle precursor cells (MMPs) that delaminate from the ventral region of dermomyotomes and migrate into the limb bud. MMPs remain undifferentiated during migration, commencing differentiation into skeletal muscle after arrival in the limb. However, it is still unclear whether the developmental mechanisms of MMPs are conserved in teleost fishes. Here, we investigate the development of pectoral fin muscles in the teleost medaka Oryzias latipes. Expression of the MMP marker lbx1 is first observed in several somites prior to the appearance of fin buds...
July 14, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Austen A Barnett, Richard H Thomas
The arthropod body plan is comprised of several repeating segments along the anteroposterior body axis. This high degree of conservation, however, obfuscates the wide degree of underlying developmental variation present across and within arthropod groups. In chelicerates, the arthropod clade containing mites, spiders, scorpions, and horseshoe crabs, development is the most similar at the stages following early germ band segmentation. Comparative studies of chelicerate segmentation prior to these events, however, remain scarce...
July 10, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Susanne Thümecke, Reinhard Schröder
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown serves as an effective technique for the functional analysis of developmental genes that is well established in many organisms. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, double-stranded RNA is applied by simple injection and distributes systemically within the tissue. Thus, systematic testing for RNAi specificity and efficiency is easily possible in this organism. Generally, the use of non-overlapping dsRNA fragments yielding qualitatively identical phenotypes is the method of choice to verify target-specific knockdown effects...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Ralf Janssen, Linushiya Lionel
Recent research has shown that Toll genes, and in particular a newly defined class of Toll genes, the so-called Long Toll Genes (Loto genes), are crucial factors in embryogenesis. In arthropods, they are involved in axis formation via a process called convergent extension (CE). A hallmark of Loto genes is their relatively (compared to other Toll genes) high number of leucine-rich repeat elements (LRRs) coupled with the fact that they are expressed in transverse stripes in all segments, or a subset of segments, patterns that are reminiscent of classical segmentation genes such as the pair-rule genes...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Anna Maria Labecka, Mateusz Sobczyk
There is a growing amount of empirical evidence on the important role of cell size in body size adjustment in ambient or changing conditions. Though the adaptive significance of their correspondence is well understood and demonstrated, the proximate mechanisms are still in a phase of speculation. We made interesting observations on body/cell size adjustment under stressful conditions during an experiment designed for another purpose. We found that the strength of the body/cell size match is condition-dependent...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
July 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Vladimir Soukup, Simona Mrstakova, Zbynek Kozmik
The epithalamic region of fishes shows prominent left-right asymmetries that are executed by nodal signaling upstream of the asymmetry-determining transcription factor pitx2. Previous reports have identified that nodal controls the left-sided pitx2 expression in the lateral plate mesoderm through an enhancer present in the last intron of this gene. However, whether similar regulation occurs also in the case of epithalamic asymmetry is currently unresolved. Here, we address some of the cis-regulatory information that control asymmetric pitx2 expression in epithalamus by presenting a Tg(pitx2:EGFP) 116-17 transgenic medaka model, which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of an intronic enhancer...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Zhen Zhang, Hongwei Sun, Yu Chen, Tianqi Cao, Zhou Songyang, Junjiu Huang, Yan Huang
About 70% of zebrafish (Danio rerio) genes are orthologues of the human's, which are of great interests, but still largely unknown for their functions. Recently, a report on human histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1/C4orf27) showed that it is involved in DNA damage response along with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). However, its function in living organism remains unclear. Given that zebrafish has showed its values in modeling human diseases and physiology, we characterized a zebrafish homolog of human HPF1 by sequence alignment...
March 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
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