Xu Huang, Yi Shen, Yiwei Liu, Hao Zhang
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is a form of mechanical circulatory support that uses a mechanical pump to partially or fully take over the function of a failed heart. In recent decades, the VAD has become a crucial option in the treatment of end-stage heart failure in adult patients. However, due to the lack of suitable devices and more complicated patient profiles, this therapeutic approach is still not widely used for pediatric populations. This article reviews the clinically available devices, adverse events, and future directions of design and implementation in pediatric VADs...
March 26, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Abedin Teimourizad, Abdosaleh Jafari, Firooz Esmaeilzadeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Matteo Lisi, Giovanni Andrea Luisi, Maria Concetta Pastore, Giulia Elena Mandoli, Giovanni Benfari, Federica Ilardi, Alessandro Malagoli, Simona Sperlongano, Michael Y Henein, Matteo Cameli, Antonello D'Andrea
International Guidelines consider left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as an important parameter to categorize patients with heart failure (HF) and to define recommended treatments in clinical practice. However, LVEF has some technical and clinical limitations, being derived from geometric assumptions and is unable to evaluate intrinsic myocardial function and LV filling pressure (LVFP). Moreover, it has been shown to fail to predict clinical outcome in patients with end-stage HF. The analysis of LV antegrade flow derived from pulsed-wave Doppler (stroke volume index, stroke distance, cardiac output, and cardiac index) and non-invasive evaluation of LVFP have demonstrated some advantages and prognostic implications in HF patients...
March 20, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Yan-Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Yu-Ling Song, Xiao-Min Song, Yu-Chen Fan, Lin Kong, Jing-Sai Zhang, Sheng Li, Yi-Ju Lv, Ze-Yang Li, Jing-Yu Dai, Zhen-Kang Qiu
Heart failure (HF) can be caused by a variety of causes characterized by abnormal myocardial systole and diastole. Ca2+ current through the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) on the membrane is the initial trigger signal for a cardiac cycle. Declined systole and diastole in HF are associated with dysfunction of myocardial Ca2+ function. This disorder can be correlated with unbalanced levels of phosphorylation / dephosphorylation of LTCC, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and myofilament. Kinase and phosphatase activity changes along with HF progress, resulting in phased changes in the degree of phosphorylation / dephosphorylation...
March 18, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Abedin Teimourizad, Abdosaleh Jafari, Firooz Esmaeilzadeh
Heart failure (HF) is increasing globally and turning out to be a serious worldwide public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to systemically review the budget impact analysis of heart failure treatments on health care expenditure worldwide. Scientific databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for budget impact analysis and heart failure treatments, over January 2001 to August 2023. The quality assessment of the selected studies was evaluated through ISPOR practice guideline...
March 16, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Ravi Vazirani, Moisés Rodríguez-González, Ana Castellano-Martinez, Mireia Andrés, Aitor Uribarri, Miguel Corbí-Pascual, Fernando Alfonso, Emilia Blanco-Ponce, Carmen Lluch-Requerey, Clara Fernández-Cordón, Manuel Almendro-Delia, Oscar Vedia Cruz, Iván J Núñez-Gil
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) in the pediatric population is an infrequent but relevant cause of morbidity and mortality, with limited studies addressing its clinical course and prognosis. We aimed to analyze the clinical features and prognosis of pediatric TTS in a nation-wide multicenter registry and considering the published literature. We included a total of 54 patients from 4 different hospitals in Spain, as well as pediatric TTS patients from the published literature. Comparisons between groups were performed in order to assess for statistically and clinically relevant prognostic differences between pediatric and adult population features...
March 14, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Ashraf M Anwar
Left atrium (LA) is a very important component of cardiovascular performance. The assessment of LA function has gathered the interest with expanding research supporting the utility as a biomarker for outcomes in heart failure (HF). Echocardiography is the main imaging modality which helps in a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the LA size and function. Recent advances in probe technology and software analysis have provided a better understanding of LA anatomy, physiology, pathology, and function. A variety of parameters have been defined as markers of LA function but there is no single parameter that best defines LA function...
March 11, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Taylor McKenzie, Genevieve M Hale, Amelia Miner, Jean Colón Colón, Garrett Evins, Jasmine Wade
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have been shown to have significant metabolic, renal, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease benefits. Recent randomized controlled trials have extended these benefits to patients with heart failure. In fact, the robust findings from these studies in patients with any type of heart failure have led to the incorporation of this drug class in currently updated evidence-based guidelines for this condition. However, given the novelty in utilizing these agents in heart failure, there is uncertainty regarding place in therapy and sequencing in treatment...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Danni Wu, Wei Chen
Wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTRwt-CM) is an underrecognized cause of heart failure due to misfolded wild-type transthyretin (TTRwt) myocardial deposition. The development of wild-type TTR amyloid fibrils is a complex pathological process linked to the deterioration of homeostatic mechanisms owing to aging, plausibly implicating multiple molecular mechanisms. The components of amyloid transthyretin often include serum amyloid P, proteoglycans, and clusterin, which may play essential roles in the localization and elimination of amyloid fibrils...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Magdi S Yacoub, Tamer El-Nakhal, Elfatih A Hasabo, Nahla Shehata, Karim Wilson, Kenzy H Ismail, Mohamed S Bakr, Maram Mohsen, Asmaa Mohamed, Eslam Abdelazim, Hossam T Ali, Ziad Soliman, Ahmed Sayed, Kerollos Abdelsayed, Kadir Caliskan, Osama Soliman
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heritable myocardial disorder worldwide. Current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Mavacamten, a first-in-class cardiac myosin inhibitor, targets the main underlying pathology of HCM. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Mavacamten in patients with HCM. PRISMA flow chart was utilized using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases for all up-to-date studies using pre-defined keywords. Pre-specified efficacy outcomes comprised several parameters, including an improvement in peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) and ≥ 1 NYHA class, the need for septal reduction therapy (SRT), change from baseline in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), changes in biochemical markers and LVEF, along with peak left ventricular outflow tract gradient at rest and after Valsalva maneuver...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Francesco Santoro, Enrica Vitale, Ilaria Ragnatela, Rosa Cetera, Alessandra Leopzzi, Adriana Mallardi, Annalisa Matera, Marco Mele, Michele Correale, Natale Daniele Brunetti
Cardiomyopathies are myocardial diseases characterized by mechanical and electrical dysfunction of the heart muscle which could lead to heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. Certainly, an accurate anamnesis, a meticulous physical examination, and an ECG are cornerstones in raising the diagnostic suspicion. However, cardiovascular imaging techniques are indispensable to diagnose a specific cardiomyopathy, to stratify the risk related to the disease and even to track the response to the therapy. Echocardiography is often the first exam that the patient undergoes, because of its non-invasiveness, wide availability, and cost-effectiveness...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Francesca Sturdà, Roberto Russo, Paolo Basile, Andrea Baggiano, Saima Mushtaq, Laura Fusini, Fabio Fazzari, Fulvio Bertandino, Francesco Monitillo, Maria Cristina Carella, Marco Simonini, Gianluca Pontone, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Giuseppe Vezzoli, Francesco Pesce
Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two pathological conditions with a high prevalence in the general population. When they coexist in the same patient, a strict interplay between them is observed, such that patients affected require a clinical multidisciplinary and personalized management. The diagnosis of HF and CKD relies on signs and symptoms of the patient but several additional tools, such as blood-based biomarkers and imaging techniques, are needed to clarify and discriminate the main characteristics of these diseases...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Frank L Dini, Erberto Carluccio, Stefano Ghio, Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Giangiacomo Galeotti, Michele Correale, Matteo Beltrami, Carlo Gabriele Tocchetti, Valentina Mercurio, Stefania Paolillo, Alberto Palazzuoli
Heart failure (HF) is a progressive condition with a clinical picture resulting from reduced cardiac output (CO) and/or elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures (LVFP). The original Diamond-Forrester classification, based on haemodynamic data reflecting CO and pulmonary congestion, was introduced to grade severity, manage, and risk stratify advanced HF patients, providing evidence that survival progressively worsened for those classified as warm/dry, cold/dry, warm/wet, and cold/wet. Invasive haemodynamic evaluation in critically ill patients has been replaced by non-invasive haemodynamic phenotype profiling using echocardiography...
March 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Nihar Desai, Elzbieta Olewinska, Agata Famulska, Cécile Remuzat, Clément Francois, Kerstin Folkerts
This review provides a comprehensive overview of heart failure with mildly reduced and preserved ejection fraction (HFmrEF/HFpEF), including its definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology; clinical, humanistic, and economic burdens; current pharmacologic landscape in key pharmaceutical markets; and unmet needs to identify key knowledge gaps. We conducted a targeted literature review in electronic databases and prioritized articles with valuable insights into HFmrEF/HFpEF. Overall, 27 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 66 real-world evidence studies, 18 clinical practice guidelines, and 25 additional publications were included...
February 27, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
George Bazoukis, Athanasios Saplaouras, Polyxeni Efthymiou, Andronicos Yiannikourides, Tong Liu, Konstantinos P Letsas, Michael Efremidis, Konstantinos Lampropoulos, Sotirios Xydonas, Gary Tse, Antonis A Armoundas
Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies showed that electric currents applied during the absolute refractory period can modulate cardiac contractility. In preclinical studies, cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) was found to improve calcium handling, reverse the foetal myocyte gene programming associated with heart failure (HF), and facilitate reverse remodeling. Randomized control trials and observational studies have provided evidence about the safety and efficacy of CCM in patients with HF. Clinically, CCM therapy is indicated to improve the 6-min hall walk, quality of life, and functional status of HF patients who remain symptomatic despite guideline-directed medical treatment without an indication for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and have a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ranging from 25 to 45%...
February 23, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Kengo Z Soghoyan, Maya Guglin
The worldwide experience with mechanical circulatory support in adult patients with single ventricle and Fontan palliation is limited. We aimed to see the outcomes in such patients on durable left ventricular assist device. We systematically reviewed the English language literature found on PubMed and Google Scholar, searching the terms "Fontan," "single ventricle," "ventricular assist device," "LVAD," and "mechanical circulatory support," and selected all individual cases with reported outcomes. We identified 4 patients on pulsatile left ventricular assist device, all of whom were successfully bridged to transplant, and 15 patients on continuous flow LVAD, age 25...
February 11, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Carlotta Sciaccaluga, Maria Cristina Procopio, Luciano Potena, Marco Masetti, Sonia Bernazzali, Massimo Maccherini, Federico Landra, Francesca Maria Righini, Matteo Cameli, Serafina Valente
The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has significantly increased in the last years, trying to offer a therapeutic alternative to heart transplantation, in light also to the significant heart donor shortage compared to the growing advanced heart failure population. Despite technological improvements in the devices, LVAD-related mortality is still fairly high, with right heart failure being one of the predominant predictors. Therefore, many efforts have been made toward a thorough right ventricular (RV) evaluation prior to LVAD implant, considering clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and invasive hemodynamic parameters...
February 8, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Alberto Aimo, Paolo Morfino, Chiara Arzilli, Giuseppe Vergaro, Valentina Spini, Iacopo Fabiani, Vincenzo Castiglione, Claudio Rapezzi, Michele Emdin
Over the last years, there has been a growing interest in the clinical manifestations and outcomes of cardiomyopathies in women. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is the only women-specific cardiomyopathy. In cardiomyopathies with X-linked transmission, women are not simply healthy carriers of the disorder, but can show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild to severe manifestations because of heterogeneous patterns of X-chromosome inactivation. In mitochondrial disorders with a matrilinear transmission, cardiomyopathy is part of a systemic disorder affecting both men and women...
February 3, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Annamaria Del Franco, Giulia Iannaccone, Maria Chiara Meucci, Rosa Lillo, Francesco Cappelli, Chiara Zocchi, Maurizio Pieroni, Francesca Graziani, Iacopo Olivotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
Gonzalo Ramírez-Guerrero, Claudio Ronco, Anna Lorenzin, Alessandra Brendolan, Luca Sgarabotto, Monica Zanella, Thiago Reis
Acute decompensated heart failure and fluid overload are the most common causes of hospitalization in heart failure patients, and often, they contribute to disease progression. Initial treatment encompasses intravenous diuretics although there might be a percentual of patients refractory to this pharmacological approach. New technologies have been developed to perform extracorporeal ultrafiltration in fluid overloaded patients. Current equipment allows to perform ultrafiltration in most hospital and acute care settings...
January 30, 2024: Heart Failure Reviews
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