Khalifah A Aldawsari, Abdullah N Alhuzaimi, Mohammad T Alotaibi, Dimpna C Albert-Brotons
Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare cardiac condition characterized by excessive endocardial thickening secondary to fibroelastic tissues that commonly present in infants and young children. Most of endocardial fibroelastosis cases are secondary forms, which occur in conjunction with other cardiac diseases. Endocardial fibroelastosis has been associated with poor prognosis and outcomes. In light of recent advancements in understanding pathophysiology, several new data have revealed compelling evidence that abnormal endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition is the root cause of endocardial fibroelastosis...
May 24, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Mauro Riccardi, Antonio M Sammartino, Marianna Adamo, Riccardo M Inciardi, Carlo M Lombardi, Nicola R Pugliese, Daniela Tomasoni, Enrico Vizzardi, Marco Metra, Andrew J S Coats, Matteo Pagnesi
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) causes a progressive limitation of functional capacity, poor quality of life (QoL) and increased mortality, yet unlike HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) there are no effective device-based therapies. Both HFrEF and HFpEF are associated with dysregulations in myocardial cellular calcium homeostasis and modifications in calcium-handling proteins, leading to abnormal myocardial contractility and pathological remodelling. Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) therapy, based on a pacemaker-like implanted device, applies extracellular electrical stimulation to myocytes during the absolute refractory period of the action potential, which leads to an increase in cytosolic peak calcium concentrations and thereby the force of isometric contraction promoting positive inotropism...
May 18, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Parmida Sadat Pezeshki, Seyyed Mojtaba Ghorashi, Golnaz Houshmand, Mojdeh Ganjparvar, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Kiara Rezaei-Kalantari, Amir Fazeli, Negar Omidi
Feature-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (FT-CMR), with the ability to quantify myocardial deformation, has a unique role in the evaluation of subclinical myocardial abnormalities. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical use of cardiac FT-CMR-based myocardial strain in patients with various systemic diseases with cardiac involvement, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer-therapy-related toxicities, amyloidosis, systemic scleroderma, myopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, thalassemia major, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)...
May 16, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Hiroaki Hiraiwa, Daisuke Kasugai, Takahiro Okumura, Toyoaki Murohara
Studies over recent years have redeveloped our understanding of uremic cardiomyopathy, defined as left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and associated cardiac hypertrophy plus other abnormalities that result from chronic kidney disease and are often the cause of death in affected patients. Definitions of uremic cardiomyopathy have conflicted and overlapped over the decades, complicating the body of published evidence, and making comparison difficult. New and continuing research into potential risk factors, including uremic toxins, anemia, hypervolemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance, indicates the increasing interest in illuminating the pathways that lead to UC and thereby identifying potential targets for intervention...
May 12, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Christian Basile, Stefania Paolillo, Paola Gargiulo, Federica Marzano, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Vincenza Abbate, Antonio Ambrosio, Francesca Carbone, Simona Dell'Aversana, Immacolata Esposito, Maria Francesca Fierro, Pasquale Perrone-Filardi
BACKGROUND: In patients affected by heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), pharmacological treatments have been proven to alleviate symptoms and improve prognosis, while no treatment other than sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors have demonstrated significant effects in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Left atrium decompression devices (LADd) have been recently investigated as a new interventional approach in patients with HFpEF. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of LADd on soft endpoints in HF patients across the spectrum of ejection fraction...
May 10, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Jiahua Li, Qi Chen, Rong Zhang, Zhongqiu Liu, Yuanyuan Cheng
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the cardiovascular diseases with high morbidity and mortality. MI causes large amounts of apoptotic and necrotic cells that need to be efficiently and instantly engulfed by macrophage to avoid second necrosis. Phagocytic macrophages can dampen or resolve inflammation to protect infarcted heart. Phagocytosis of macrophages is modulated by various factors including proteins, receptors, lncRNA and cytokines. A better understanding of mechanisms in phagocytosis will be beneficial to regulate macrophage phagocytosis capability towards a desired direction in cardioprotection after MI...
May 9, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Ali Naveed, Bazigh Naveed, Muhammad Atif Khan, Talal Asif
The twenty-first century has revolutionized the management of congestive heart failure with the widespread use of left ventricular assist devices and other treatment modalities that improve morbidity and mortality after the failure of medical management. These novel devices come with significant side effects. One of the most common side effects of left ventricular assist devices is the increased frequency of lower gastrointestinal bleeding compared to heart failure patients without left ventricular assist devices...
May 5, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Rosa Lillo, Francesca Graziani, Francesco Franceschi, Giulia Iannaccone, Massimo Massetti, Iacopo Olivotto, Filippo Crea, Giovanna Liuzzo
The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype encompasses a heterogeneous spectrum of genetic and acquired diseases characterized by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of abnormal cardiac loading conditions. This "umbrella diagnosis" includes the "classic" hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), due to sarcomere protein gene mutations, and its phenocopies caused by intra- or extracellular deposits, such as Fabry disease (FD) and cardiac amyloidosis (CA). All these conditions share a wide phenotypic variability which results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors and whose pathogenic mediators are poorly understood so far...
April 28, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Marisa Avvedimento, Domenico Angellotti, Federica Ilardi, Attilio Leone, Maria Scalamogna, Domenico Simone Catiello, Rachele Manzo, Andrea Mariani, Maddalena Immobile Molaro, Fiorenzo Simonetti, Carmen Anna Maria Spaccarotella, Raffaele Piccolo, Giovanni Esposito, Anna Franzone
Acute decompensation often represents the onset of symptoms associated with severe degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) and usually complicates the clinical course of the disease with a dismal impact on survival and quality of life. Several factors may derange the faint balance between left ventricular preload and afterload and precipitate the occurrence of symptoms and signs of acute heart failure (HF). A standardized approach for the management of this condition is currently lacking. Medical therapy finds very limited application in this setting, as drugs usually indicated for the control of acute HF might worsen hemodynamics in the presence of AS...
April 21, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Jenna L Taylor, Jonathan Myers, Amanda R Bonikowske
Chronic heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, disability, and health care costs. A hallmark feature of HF is severe exercise intolerance, which is multifactorial and stems from central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms. Exercise training is internationally recognized as a Class 1 recommendation for patients with HF, regardless of whether ejection fraction is reduced or preserved. Optimal exercise prescription has been shown to enhance exercise capacity, improve quality of life, and reduce hospitalizations and mortality in patients with HF...
April 18, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Walter B Wills, Ponrathi Athilingam, Theresa M Beckie
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based recommendation for patients with stable heart failure (HF). Less clear is how effective exercise-based CR is for women with HF. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence for the effects of exercise-based CR on mortality, hospitalizations, exercise capacity, and quality of life (QOL) among women with HF. We identified 18 studies comprising 4917 patients, of which 1714 were women. The interventions evaluated consisted of various combinations of supervised in-hospital and out-patient sessions as well as home-based programs that included aerobic (walking, treadmill, bicycle) and resistance training...
April 15, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Ivo Lopes, Bruno Delgado, Patrício Costa, José Miguel Padilha
Exercise performance is an essential tool for managing heart failure. Although the benefits of exercise are well documented for people with chronic and stable heart failure, there is still no consensus on their prescription in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure undergoing clinical stabilization. The aim of this study is to identify the literature on exercise programs encompassing the components of aerobic and resistance training for hospitalized patients admitted for acute heart failure. A scoping review was conducted according to the proposed methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute...
April 13, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Rachael K Nelson, Robert Solomon, Emily Hosmer, Micah Zuhl
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective for improving both primary (i.e., mortality and hospitalizations) and secondary (i.e., functional capacity and quality of life among) clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF). The mechanisms that explain these benefits are complex and are linked to exercise adaptations such as central and peripheral hemodynamics combined with improved overall medical management. Despite the benefits of CR, utilization rates are low among CR eligible patients...
April 11, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Mohammed Mhanna, Michael C Sauer, Ahmad Al-Abdouh, Ahmad Jabri, Waiel Abusnina, Mohammed Safi, Azizullah Beran, Shareef Mansour
Major depression (MD) is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and contributes to increased risk of hospitalization and mortality. The implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has become a key strategy for treating HF patients' depression. We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies that evaluated the efficacy of adjunctive CBT compared to the standard of care (SOC) in HF patients with MD. The primary outcome was the depression scale (post-intervention and by the end of follow-up)...
April 5, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Ray W Squires
Cardiac transplantation is the final therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Most patients experience a favorable functional ability post-transplant. However, episodes of acute rejection, and multiple comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and cardiac allograft vasculopathy are common. The number of transplants has increased steadily over the past two decades with 3,817 operations performed in the United States in 2021. Patients have abnormal exercise physiologic responses related to surgical cardiac denervation, diastolic dysfunction, and the legacy of reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and impaired peripheral and coronary vasodilatory reserve resulting from pre-transplant chronic heart failure...
April 4, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Nqoba Tsabedze, Michele Ramsay, Amanda Krause, Quinn Wells, Dineo Mpanya, Pravin Manga
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of cardiac muscle disorders that result in dilated, hypertrophic, or restrictive pathophysiological entities. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common form in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, population-specific research studies reporting the actual burden of DCM in this region are still lacking. Also, little is known about the genetic basis of DCM in this population, and genetic testing is still not readily accessible. This review describes the common pathogenic genes implicated in DCM globally and discusses the evidence-based management of patients with DCM...
March 14, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Jun-Zhang Chen, Bo Liang
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome, whose signs and symptoms are caused by functional or structural impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. Due to the interaction among anticancer treatment, patients' cardiovascular background, including coexisting cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, and cancer itself, cancer patients develop heart failure. Some drugs for cancer treatment may cause heart failure directly through cardiotoxicity or indirectly through other mechanisms. Heart failure in turn may make patients lose effective anticancer treatment, thus affecting the prognosis of cancer...
March 13, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Sofia Bezati, Maria Velliou, Ioannis Ventoulis, Panagiotis Simitsis, John Parissis, Effie Polyzogopoulou
As the prevalence of heart failure (HF) continues to rise, prompt diagnosis and management of various medical conditions, which may lead to HF exacerbation and result in poor patient outcomes, are of paramount importance. Infection has been identified as a common, though under-recognized, precipitating factor of acute heart failure (AHF), which can cause rapid development or deterioration of HF signs and symptoms. Available evidence indicates that infection-related hospitalizations of patients with AHF are associated with higher mortality, protracted length of stay, and increased readmission rates...
March 10, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Nikias Milaras, Panagiotis Dourvas, Ioannis Doundoulakis, Zoi Sotiriou, Vasileios Nevras, Anastasia Xintarakou, Aggeliki Laina, Stergios Soulaidopoulos, Panagiotis Zachos, Athanasios Kordalis, Petros Arsenos, Stefanos Archontakis, Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Dimitrios Tsiachris, Polychronis Dilaveris, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Skevos Sideris, Konstantinos Gatzoulis
Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in dilated cardiomyopathy is a field of constant debate, and the currently proposed criteria have been widely questioned due to their low positive and negative predictive value. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of the literature utilizing the PubMed and Cochrane library platforms, in order to gain insight about dilated cardiomyopathy and its arrhythmic risk stratification utilizing noninvasive risk markers derived mainly from 24 h electrocardiographic monitoring...
March 6, 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
Han Naung Tun, Hafiza Khan, Daryna Chernikova, Yury Mareev, Santabhanu Chakrabarti, May Thant, Antonio Cannata
Cardiac conduction system pacing provides physiological ventricular activation by directly stimulating the conduction system. This review describes the two types of conduction system pacing: His bundle pacing (HBP) and left bundle area pacing (LBAP). The most significant advantage of HB pacing is that it can provide a regular, narrow QRS; however, the disadvantages are challenging implantation and a high risk of re-intervention due to lead dislodgement and the development of high pacing threshold. LBAP provides optimum physiological activation of the left ventricle by engaging the left bundle/fascicular fibers...
March 2023: Heart Failure Reviews
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