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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Dayasagar Das, Shamima Akhtar, Santosh Kurra, Somesh Gupta, Alpana Sharma
Autoimmune skin diseases are a group of disorders that arise due to a deregulated immune system resulting in skin tissue destruction. In the majority of these conditions, either autoreactive immune cells or the autoantibodies are generated against self-antigens of the skin. Although the etiology of these diseases remains elusive, biochemical, genetic, and environmental factors such as infectious agents, toxins damage the skin tissue leading to self-antigen generation, autoantibody attack and finally results in autoimmunity of skin...
February 8, 2019: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Batoul Farran, Eluri Pavitra, Prameswari Kasa, Sujatha Peela, Ganji Seeta Rama Raju, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
The glycoprotein FRα is a membrane-attached transport protein that is shielded from the immune system in healthy cells. However, it is upregulated in various malignancies, involved in cancer development and is also immunogenic. Furthermore, FRα is a tumor-associated antigen endowed with unique properties, thus rendering it a suitable target for immunotherapeutic development in cancer. Various anti- FRα immunotherapeutic strategies are thus currently being developed and clinically assessed for the treatment of various solid tumors...
February 7, 2019: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yazhou Cui, Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Chuan-Ju Liu
Progranulin (PGRN), a widely expressed glycoprotein with pleiotropic function, has been linked to a host of physiological processes and diverse pathological states. A series of contemporary preclinical disease models and clinical trials have evaluated various therapeutic strategies targeting PGRN, highlighting PGRN as a promising therapeutic target. Herein we summarize available knowledge of PGRN targeting in various kinds of diseases, including common neurological diseases, inflammatory autoimmune diseases, cancer, tissue repair, and rare lysosomal storage diseases, with a focus on the functional domain-oriented drug development strategies...
January 30, 2019: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yun Ge, Man Huang, Yong-Ming Yao
The IL-1 family comprises two anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-37, IL-38), two receptor antagonists (IL-1ra, IL-36ra), and seven ligand agonists (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ). The members of this family exert pleiotropic effects on intercellular signaling, leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses. They initiate potent inflammatory and immune responses by binding to specific receptors in the IL-1 receptor family, and their activities are repressed by naturally occurring inhibitors. Various immune cells produce and are regulated by these crucial molecules, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including cancer as well as inflammatory and autoimmune disorders...
December 19, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Sara Ibrahim, Thomas S Weiss
Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated process that is triggered by tissue loss due to trauma or surgical resection and by hepatocellular death induced by toxins or viral infections. Due to the central role of the liver for body homeostasis, intensive research was conducted to identify factors that might contribute to hepatic growth and regeneration. Using a model of partial hepatectomy several factors including cytokines and growth factors that regulate this process were discovered. Among them, a protein was identified to specifically support liver regeneration and therefore was named ALR (Augmenter of Liver Regeneration)...
December 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yan-Mei Mao, Chan-Na Zhao, Jing Leng, Rui-Xue Leng, Dong-Qing Ye, Song Guo Zheng, Hai-Feng Pan
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) was previously thought to be a redundant presence of IL-4, but in recent years its role in immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, and allergic diseases has become increasingly prominent. IL-13 can regulate several subtypes of T helper (Th) cells and affect their transformation, including Th1, Th2, T17, etc., thus it may play an important role in immune system. Previous studies have revealed that IL-13 is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), ulcerative colitis (UC), type 1 diabetes (T1D), sjogren's syndrome (SS), etc...
December 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Markus F Neurath
Studies in recent years have identified a pivotal role of the cytokine IL-23 in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn´s disease, ulcerative colitis) and colitis-associated colon cancer. Genetic studies revealed that subgroups of IBD patients have single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-23R gene suggesting that IL-23R signaling affects disease susceptibility. Furthermore, increased production of IL-23 by macrophages, dendritic cells or granulocytes has been observed in various mouse models of colitis, colitis-associated cancer and IBD patients...
December 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nancy Au-Yeung, Curt M Horvath
In response to virus infections, a cell-autonomous, transcription-based antiviral program is engaged to create resistance, impair pathogen replication, and alert professional cells in innate and adaptive immunity. This dual phase antiviral program consists of type I interferon (IFN) production followed by the response to IFN signaling. Pathogen recognition leads to activation of IRF and NFκB factors that function independently and together to recruit cellular coactivators that remodel chromatin, modify histones and activate RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at target gene loci, including the well-characterized IFNβ enhanceosome...
December 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Qi Tan, Qi Huang, Yan Ling Ma, KaiMin Mao, GuangHai Yang, Ping Luo, GuanZhou Ma, PeiYuan Mei, Yang Jin
The interleukin-(IL)-1 subfamily consists of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra and IL-33. These cytokines are the main members of the IL-1 family and have been widely recognized as having significant roles in pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions. Mounting evidence has revealed that these cytokines also play key roles in the regulation of glycolysis, which is an important metabolic pathway in most organisms that provides energy. Dysregulation of glycolysis is associated with various diseases, including type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer...
November 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Huan Ting Ong, Rodney J Dilley
With chronic wounds remaining a substantial healthcare issue, new therapies are sought to improve patient outcomes. Various studies have explored the benefits of promoting angiogenesis in wounds by targeting proangiogenic factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) family members to improve wound healing. Along similar lines, Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) secretions, usually containing VEGF, have been used to improve angiogenesis in wound healing via a paracrine mechanism. Recent evidence for keratinocyte VEGF receptor expression, as well as proliferative and chemotactic responses by keratinocytes to exogenous VEGFA in vitro implies distinct non-angiogenic actions for VEGF during wound healing...
November 15, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
F De Santis, M Del Vecchio, L Castagnoli, F De Braud, D Franceschini, G Fucà, J Hiscott, K J Malmberg, N McGranahan, F Pietrantonio, L Rivoltini, S Sangaletti, E Tagliabue, C Tripodo, C Vernieri, L Zitvogel, S M Pupa, M Di Nicola
The eighth annual conference of "Innovative therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and beyond" was held in Milan on Jan. 26, 2018, and hosted by Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (Fondazione IRCCS INT). The conference was divided into two main scientific sessions, of i) pre-clinical assays and novel biotargets, and ii) clinical translation, as well as a third session of presentations from young investigators, which focused on recent achievements within Fondazione IRCCS INT on immunotherapy and targeted therapies...
October 30, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Rik Janssens, Sofie Struyf, Paul Proost
CXCL12 is a CXC chemokine that traditionally has been classified as a homeostatic chemokine. It contributes to physiological processes such as embryogenesis, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In contrast to these homeostatic functions, increased expression of CXCL12 in general, or of a specific CXCL12 splicing variant has been demonstrated in various pathologies. In addition to this increased or differential transcription of CXCL12, also upregulation of its receptors CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) contributes to the onset or progression of diseases...
October 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Tiantian Wang, Chengqi He
Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by joint malfunction and chronic disability, is the most common form of arthritis. Clinical and animal experiments reveal that age-related OA is associated with many factors such as age, sex, trauma, and obesity. One of the most influential and modifiable risk factors is obesity. Obesity not only increases mechanical stress on the tibiofemoral cartilage, but also leads to a higher prevalence of OA in non-weight-bearing areas. There is a link between obesity and inflammation...
October 11, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Bhavesh Variya, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissues has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome over the years. Various studies using animal models have contributed to our knowledge on the pro- and anti- inflammatory mediators that regulate obesity. Analyses of cytokine profiles in humans have not revealed a clear scenario. Likewise, treatments targeting inflammation to control obesity and insulin resistance has not yielded promising results. In this review we summarize the data available in human obesity and discuss the possible reasons that could explain the difficulties in treating obesity and insulin resistance by targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 4, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Stephanie Binder, Michela Luciano, Jutta Horejs-Hoeck
Cytokines exert profound effects on the progression of hematopoietic malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Critical roles of cytokines in the context of inflammation have gained special interest. While pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 tend to increase AML aggressiveness, anti-inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β and IL-10 appear to impede AML progression. Dysregulation of the complex interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in AML may create a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment with effects on leukemic cell proliferation, survival and drug-resistance...
October 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Arita Dubnika, Martin A C Manoukian, M Rezaa Mohammadi, Mansi Bharat Parekh, Abhijit Achyut Gurjarpadhye, Mohammed Inayathullah, Viktors Dubniks, Jonathan R T Lakey, Jayakumar Rajadas
Cytokine therapies have emerged during the past decade as promising noninvasive treatments for heart disease. In general, current drug treatments are directed towards symptom control and prevention of disease progression; however, many agents also produce cause side effects that alter quality of life. Cytokine based therapies have the potential to reduce post-infarct heart failure and chronic ischemia by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and mobilizing these cells toward ischemic tissue...
October 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Giuseppe Sciumè
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Beatrice Zitti, Yenan T Bryceson
First described 40 years ago, natural killer (NK) cells represent the founding members of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family. They were initially defined by their ability to kill cancer cells of hematopoietic origin. More recently, NK cells are recognized not only for their ability to kill infected or malignant cells, but also for mediating cytotoxicity against a range of normal immune cells. They thereby play an important physiological role in controlling immune responses and maintaining homeostasis. Besides cytotoxic activity, NK cells activation is accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yohei Mikami, Yoshiaki Takada, Yuya Hagihara, Takanori Kanai
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified family of lymphoid effector cells. ILCs are mainly clustered into 3 groups based on their unique cytokine profiles and transcription factors typically attributed to the subsets of T helper cells. ILCs have a critical role in the mucosal immune response through promptly responding to pathogens and producing large amount of effector cytokines of type 1, 2, or 3 responses. In addition to the role of early immune responses against infections, ILCs, particularly group 2 ILCs (ILC2), have recently gained attention for modulating remodeling and fibrosis especially in the mucosal tissues...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Helena Stabile, Cinzia Fionda, Angela Santoni, Angela Gismondi
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic members of type I innate lymphocytes (ILC1) with a prominent role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune responses. Despite the increasing insight into NK cell biology, the steps and stages leading to mature circulating NK cells require further investigation. Natural killer cell development and functional maturation are complex and multi-stage processes that occur predominantly in the bone marrow (BM) and originate from haematopoietic stem cells CD34+ (HSC). Within the BM, NK cell precursor (NKP) and NK cell development intermediates reside in specialized niches that are characterized by particular cellular components that provide signals required for their maturation...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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