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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Grzegorz Przydatek
One of the consequence of municipal waste deposition is the production of landfill leachate. Its volume and composition is determined by numerous factors, including waste composition, landfill age and the volume of precipitation. Leachate may contain a number of mineral and organic compounds, the volume of which must be controlled regularly. One of the methods of determining the toxicity of substances contained in landfill leachate is the use of biological tests, based - among others - on aquatic organisms sensitive to environmental contamination...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tania Ruíz-Vera, Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Sergio Zarazúa, Leticia Carrizales-Yáñez, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
The aim of this research was to investigate circulating expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-126, miR-155, and miR-145) proposed as predictive CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Mean UAs concentration of 19.5 ± 14.0 μg/g creatinine was found after urine samples were analyzed (n = 105). Significant associations between UAs levels and serum expression levels of miR-155 (p < 0.05) and miR-126 (p < 0.05) were observed after adjustment for assessed co-variables...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Pavla Sehonova, Nina Tokanova, Nikola Hodkovicova, Hana Kocour Kroupova, Jitka Tumova, Jana Blahova, Petr Marsalek, Lucie Plhalova, Veronika Doubkova, Radka Dobsikova, Petr Chloupek, Petra Dolezalova, Martin Faldyna, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate the effect of enrofloxacin on biotransformation, oxidative stress and mRNA expression of related genes in fish as a non-target organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) juveniles were treated with enrofloxacin at concentrations of 5, 10 and 500 μg/L for 14 days. A three-day-long test caused changes of catalytic activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was observed at the highest concentration. No significant changes either in catalytic activity of antioxidant enzymes or elevated lipid peroxidation were observed from sampling day 7 on...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jun-Hwan Kim, Yue Jai Kang, Kwang Il Kim, Su Kyoung Kim, Jong-Hyun Kim
Juvenile Paralichthys olivaceus (mean length 7.29 ± 0.59 cm, mean weight 2.41 ± 0.35 g) were exposed to several concentrations of ammonia (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L), nitrite (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L), and nitrate (0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/L) for 96 h in 20-L glass tanks. Lethal concentration 50% (LC50 ) was determined after removing and counting dead fish at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure. Exposure was significantly toxic to P. olivaceus, and LC50 at 96 h was 26...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mayara Pereira Soares, Natália Oliveira, Daniela Rebelo, Sandriely Fernanda Marcondes, Carlos Eurico Fernandes, Inês Domingues, Amadeu Soares, Liliam Hayd
Pantanal shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense was exposed for 96 h to the cypermethrin-based formulation Barrage® . Population-relevant endpoints (survival, swimming behavior) as well as histopathology of gills were analyzed. A 96 h-LC50 of 0.93 μg/L of cypermethrin was calculated while equilibrium disturbances were observed at 1.25 μg/L. Histological examination showed predominantly regressive changes in the gills of shrimp exposed to concentrations of 0.25 and 1.25 μg/L. Three levels of lesions were observed in the gills: I- Intercellular edema, epithelial lifting of the lamellae and lamellar fusion, fat vacuoles and hypertrophy of gill epithelial cells or mucous cells; II- nuclear changes, atrophy (reduction of volume and number) and hyperplasia of gill epithelia and III- necrosis...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kézia Aguiar Delmond, Taynah Vicari, Izonete Cristina Guiloski, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis, Wanessa Algarte Ramsdorf, Marta Margarete Cestari
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2 ) are the most widely-used nanoparticle type and the adsorption of metals such as lead (PbII) onto their surface is a major source of concern to scientists. This study evaluated the effects of the associated exposure to both types of contaminant, i.e., lead (a known genotoxic metal) and NpTiO2 , in a freshwater fish (Astyanax serratus) through intraperitoneal injection for an acute assay of 96 h. The effects of this exposure were evaluated using the comet assay, DNA diffusion assay and piscine micronucleus test, as well as the quantification of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GST) and metallothioneins...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jing Dong, Zhangzhao Cong, Mingdan You, Yuanyuan Fu, Yi Wang, Yuan Wang, Hui Fu, Lingling Wei, Jie Chen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used plasticizer in industry and displays the characteristics of an endocrine disruptor. Disorders of the maternal thyroid hormone (TH) during pregnancy can cause adverse effects on the fetus. We investigated the effects and possible mechanism of perinatal DEHP exposure on the thyroid function of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and received doses of DEHP of 0, 30, 300, 750 mg/kg/day by gavage at from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
S Savoca, G Capillo, M Mancuso, T Bottari, R Crupi, C Branca, V Romano, C Faggio, G D'Angelo, N Spanò
In this work it is reported for the first time the characterization of microplastics from sea water samples and in two congener species of seabreams: Pagellus erythrinus and P. bogaraveo, Mediterranean fish species of great commercial importance. An experimental survey was conducted on May-June 2017 in the southernmost part of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Microplastics found in the sea water and in the grastrointestinal tract of two teleosts were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopies. Microplastics found in sea water samples appeared in the form of fragments made of plastics of low and high density (PVC and LPDE)...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sotirios I Sinis, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Chrissi Hatzoglou, Sotirios G Zarogiannis
The wide-spread implementation of nanoparticles poses a major health concern. Unique biokinetics allow them to transfer to neurons throughout the body and inflict neurotoxicity, which is challenging to evaluate solely in mammalian experimental models due to logistics, financial and ethical limitations. In recent years, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a promising nanotoxicology experimental surrogate due to characteristics such as ease of culture, short life cycle and high number of progeny...
January 22, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yinghan Liu, Zhuang Wang, Se Wang, Hao Fang, Nan Ye, Degao Wang
The importance of attention to unravel the interaction of nano-plastic particles (NPs) with natural acidic organic polymer (NAOP) in freshwater environment should not be neglected. However, toxicological data available for the interaction between NPs and NAOP remain limited. Here, we investigate the toxicological effects of three model polystyrene (PS) NPs with different functional groups (unmodified, amino- and carboxyl-modified PS NPs) on two freshwater organisms of different trophic levels (Scenedesmus obliquus and Danio rerio) in the absence and presence of two classes of NAOP, namely fulvic acid and humic acid...
January 22, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Leonardo Ramón Leggieri, Julieta S De Anna, Juan G Cárcamo, Gerardo A Cerón, Luis Arias Darraz, Antonella Panebianco, Carlos M Luquet
The induction of CYP1A activity (EROD) and protein expression was compared in liver and gills of rainbow trout from a stream polluted with crude oil, and through laboratory exposures to 1% and 5% of water accommodated fraction of the crude oil (WAF) for 1 and 4 days. Gills EROD increased 1.6-2.7-fold in fish from the polluted stream and during experiments, while liver EROD was induced only by 1% WAF at day 1 (1.5-fold). Contrastingly, crude oil pollution strongly induced both liver and gills CYP1A protein expression in the field (14-36-fold) and in experiments (4-25-fold)...
January 21, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Inês Ferreira, Cátia Venâncio, Isabel Lopes, Miguel Oliveira
Nowadays, there is an increased awareness on the threat that marine litter may pose to the marine environment. This review describes the major concerns related to plastic pollution, namely in terms of toxicity of different types and sizes of nanoplastics (particles smaller than 100 nm) to marine organisms, either producers or consumers. The available data show that nanoplastics may affect negatively organisms from different phyla with reported effects ranging from alterations in reproduction to lethality...
January 21, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Pål Magnusson, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Dag M Eide, Gunnar Brunborg, Kristine B Gutzkow, Christine Instanes, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Rafał Sapierzynski, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Nur Duale, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed cellular and molecular lung effects in Fisher 344 rats exposed to diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on B7: petrodiesel fuel containing 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or SHB20 (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel): petrodiesel fuel containing 7% FAME and 13% hydrogenated vegetable oil. The Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 7 consecutive days (6 h/day) or 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without diesel particle filter (DPF) treatment of the exhaust in whole body exposure chambers (n = 7/treatment)...
January 18, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mingxiao Di, Xiaoning Liu, Wenfeng Wang, Jun Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Changmao Long, Jiaxing Liu, Guiping Hu, Huimin Feng, Di Zhou, Jing Wang, Xinxia Zhai, Zuchang Zhao, Shanfa Yu, Tiancheng Wang, Guang Jia
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is one of the most common environmental carcinogens, which is associated with DNA damage, genetic instability and increase the risk of cancer development. However, the mechanisms of genetic damage induced by Cr(VI) remains to be thoroughly illustrated. A molecular epidemiological study was conducted on 120 chromate exposed workers and 97 controls. Results indicated that,the rs12432907 of XRCC3 carrying T allele, the rs144848 of BRCA2 with C allele and the rs1805800 of NBS1 with genotype(TT) of individuals were associated with lower genetic damage, while the rs2295152 of XRCC3 carrying T allele, the rs13312986 (CC and CT genotypes) and the rs2697679 of NBS1 with A allele were associated with higher genetic damage in workers exposed to chromate...
January 16, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Niels Hadrup, Kristina Bram Knudsen, Trine Berthing, Henrik Wolff, Stefan Bengtson, Christian Kofoed, Roall Espersen, Casper Højgaard, Jakob Rahr Winther, Martin Willemoës, Irene Wedin, Markus Nuopponen, Harri Alenius, Hannu Norppa, Håkan Wallin, Ulla Vogel
We studied if the pulmonary and systemic toxicity of nanofibrillated celluloses can be reduced by carboxylation. Nanofibrillated celluloses administered at 6 or 18 μg to mice by intratracheal instillation were: 1) FINE NFC, 2-20 μm in length, 2-15 nm in width, 2) AS (-COOH), carboxylated, 0.5-10 μm in length, 4-10 nm in width, containing the biocide BIM MC4901 and 3) BIOCID FINE NFC: as (1) but containing BIM MC4901. FINE NFC administration increased neutrophil influx in BAL and induced SAA3 in plasma...
January 14, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Guoqing Di, Hakbong Kim, Yaqian Xu, Jonghyok Kim, Xiaoyu Gu
Recently, electromagnetic fields around ultra-high voltage transmission lines have received considerable attentions for their potential biological effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of static electric field (SEF) and power frequency electric field (PFEF) on cognition. Mice were exposed to SEF and PFEF with the same strength (35 kV/m) for 49 days, respectively. Behaviors in Morris water maze test and amino acid neurotransmitter levels in hippocampus were examined during exposure. Results indicated that the exposure of 35 kV/m SEF would not cause significant influences on learning and memory ability in mice, while the exposure of 35 kV/m PFEF would cause significant positive effects on learning and memory ability in mice on day 33...
January 4, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Zhengxin Xie, Jun Tang, Xiangwei Wu, Shisuo Fan, Haomiao Cheng, Xuede Li, Rimao Hua
Although sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widespread in aquatic environments, information regarding the effects of SDZ on aquatic insects is still limited. In the present study, the bioconcentration and the effects of SDZ on the antioxidant system and the expression of endocrine and stress-related genes in Chironomus riparius larvae were investigated. The larvae were exposed to SDZ at the nominal concentrations of 2, 20 and 200 μg/L for 48 h. The results showed that SDZ was taken up by C. riparius despite presenting low bioconcentration factor values (0...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yang Wang, Shaoyu Zhou, Honghong Ma, Jing-Shan Shi, Yuan-Fu Lu
BACKGROUND: Cinnabar has a long history of uses in Chinese traditional medicines as an ingredient in various remedies. However, the detailed mechanism of cinnabar in medication remains unclear, and the toxicity of cinnabar has been a debate due to its containing mercury sulfide. This study was designed to investigate the differential transport mechanism of cinnabar and other Hg-containing compounds HgCl2 , MeHg and HgS, and to determine if organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 were involved in the differential transport mechanism...
December 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Shelbie L Burchfield, Denise C Bailey, Callie E Todt, Rachel D Denney, Rekek Negga, Vanessa A Fitsanakis
Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Touchdown (TD) and Roundup, are among the most heavily-used herbicides in the world. While the active ingredient is generally considered non-toxic, the toxicity resulting from exposure to commercially-sold formulations is less clear. In many cases, cell cultures or various model organisms exposed to glyphosate formulations show toxicity and, in some cases, lethality. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we assessed potential toxic mechanisms through which a highly-concentrated commercial formulation of TD promotes neurodegeneration...
December 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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