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Molecules and Cells

Hoin Kang, Chongtae Kim, Eunbyul Ji, Sojin Ahn, Myeongwoo Jung, Youlim Hong, WooK Kim, Eun Kyung Lee
microRNAs regulate a diverse spectrum of cancer biology, including tumorigenesis, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance. To investigate miRNA-mediated regulation of drug resistance, we characterized the resistant cell lines to 5-fluorouracil by inducing stable expression of miRNAs using lenti-miRNA library. Here, we demonstrate miR-551a as a novel factor regulating cell survival after 5-FU treatment. miR-551a-expressing cells (Hep3B-lenti-miR-551a) were resistant to 5-FU-induced cell death, and after 5-FU treatment, and showed significant increases in cell viability, cell survival, and sphere formation...
February 24, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Myeong Uk Kuk, Jae Won Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Kyung A Cho, Joon Tae Park, Sang Chul Park
The maintenance of mitochondrial function is closely linked to the control of senescence. In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which senescence amelioration in normal aging cells is mediated by the recovered mitochondrial function upon Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applicable to senescence amelioration in accelerated aging cells. In this study, we examined the role of ATM inhibition on mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome (WS) cells...
February 1, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Zhidong Zhang, Gangqiang Zou, Xiaosan Chen, Wei Lu, Jianyang Liu, Shuiting Zhai, Gang Qiao
This study was designed to determine the effects of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) disruption in a murine abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model. After injection of PVT1-silencing lentiviruses, AAA was induced in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) male mice by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion for four weeks. After Ang II infusion, mouse serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analysed, and aortic tissues were isolated for histological, RNA, and protein analysis...
February 1, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Yangki Seok, Won Kee Lee, Jae Yong Park, Dong Sun Kim
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and has high rates of metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-inducible protein (TGFBI) is an extracellular matrix component involved in tumour growth and metastasis. However, the exact role of TGFBI in NSCLC remains controversial. Gene silencing via DNA methylation of the promoter region is common in lung tumorigenesis and could thus be used for the development of molecular biomarkers. We analysed the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in 138 NSCLC specimens via methylationspecific PCR and evaluated the correlation between TGFBI methylation and patient survival...
January 24, 2019: Molecules and Cells
YunJeong Choi, Ji Hyun Yoo, Youngkyun Lee, Moon Kyoung Bae, Hyung Joon Kim
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a naturally occurring, irreversible disorder and a major health burden. The disease is multifactorial, involving both physiological and mechanical processes, but calcium crystals have been associated intimately with its pathogenesis. This study tested the hypothesis that these crystals have a detrimental effect on the differentiation of osteoclasts and bone homeostasis. This study employed an osteoblastosteoclast coculture system that resembles in vivo osteoblastdependent osteoclast differentiation along with Ca2+-phosphate-coated culture dishes...
January 24, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Kyoung-Jin Lee, Kyeong Han Park, Jang-Hee Hahn
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sunlight, especially UVA and UVB, is the primary environmental cause of skin damage, including topical inflammation, premature skin aging, and skin cancer. Previous reports show that activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes after UV exposure induces the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and subsequently leads to the production of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)...
January 23, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Jinyoung Seo, Minjin Choe, Sung-Yon Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Sang-Hun Choi, Jun-Kyum Kim, Hee-Young Jeon, Kiyoung Eun, Hyunggee Kim
OCT4, also known as POU5F1 (POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1), is a transcription factor that acts as a masterregulator of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and is one of the reprogramming factors required for generating inducedpluripotent stem cells. The human OCT4 encodes three isoforms, OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1, which are generatedby alternative splicing. Currently, the functions and expression patterns of OCT4B remain largely unknown in malignancies,especially in human glioblastomas. Here, we demonstrated the function of OCT4B in human glioblastomas...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Jae Min Park, Jae Eun Lee, Chan Mi Park, Jung Hwa Kim
Ubiquitin-specific protease 44 (USP44) has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis across various tumors.However, the function of USP44 in prostate cancers and regulatory mechanism of histone-modifying enzymes byUSP44 in tumors is not well-understood. Here, we found that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase, is regulated by USP44. We showed that EZH2 is a novel target of USP44 and that the protein stability of EZH2 is upregulated by USP44-mediated deubiquitination...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Junguee Lee, Shinae Yi, Joon Young Chang, Jung Tae Kim, Hae Joung Sul, Ki Cheol Park, Xuguang Zhu, Sheue-Yann Cheng, Jukka Kero, Joon Kim, Minho Shong
Communications at the interface between the apical membrane of follicular cells and the follicular lumen are critical for the homeostasis of thyroid gland. Primary cilia at the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells may sense follicular luminal environment and regulate follicular homeostasis, although their role in vivo remains to be determined. Here, mice devoid of primary cilia were generated by thyroid follicular epithelial cell-specific deletion of the gene encoding intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88 )...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Weiye Dai, Taeyong Ryu, Hangun Kim, Yun Hye Jin, Young-Chang Cho, Kwonseop Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related human neurological disorder. The characteristics of AD includesenile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and loss of synapses and neurons in the brain. β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide is thepredominant proteinaceous component of senile plaques. The "amyloid hypothesis" states that Aβ initiates the cascadeof events that result in AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing plays an important role in Aβ production, whichinitiates synaptic and neuronal damage...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Nam-Ho Kim, Ali Sadra, Hee-Young Park, Sung-Min Oh, Jerold Chun, Jeong Kyo Yoon, Sung-Oh Huh
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an endogenous lysophospholipid with signaling properties outside of the cell and it signalsthrough specific G protein-coupled receptors, known as LPA1 -6 . For one of its receptors, LPA1 (gene name Lpar1), details on the cis-acting elements for transcriptional control have not been defined. Using 5'RACE analysis, we report the identification of an alternative transcription start site of mouse Lpar1 and characterize approximately 3,500 bp of non-coding flanking sequence 5' of mouse Lpar1 gene for promoter activity...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Zhongwei Wang, Wei Mei, Qingde Wang, Rundong Guo, Peilin Liu, Yuqiang Wang, Zijuan Zhang, Limin Wang
Chronic neuropathic pain is one of the primary causes of disability subsequent to spinal cord injury. Patients experiencingneuropathic pain after spinal cord injury suffer from poor quality of life, so complementary therapy is seriously needed.Dehydrocorybulbine is an alkaloid extracted from Corydalis yanhusuo. It effectively alleviates neuropathic pain. In thepresent study, we explored the effect of dehydrocorybulbine on neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury and delineated itspossible mechanism. Experiments were performed in rats to evaluate the contribution of dehydrocorybulbine to P2X4signaling in the modulation of pain-related behaviors and the levels of pronociceptive interleukins and proteins after spinalcord injury...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Ahjin Jung, Ji-Sook Yun, Shinae Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Minsang Shin, Dong Hyung Cho, Kwang Shik Choi, Jeong Ho Chang
Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (HINT) is a member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily, which has hydrolaseactivity owing to a histidine triad motif. The HIT superfamily can be divided to five classes with functions in galactose metabolism, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. HINTs are highly conserved from archaea to humans and function as tumor suppressors, translation regulators, and neuropathy inhibitors. Although the structures of HINT proteins from various species have been reported, limited structural information is available for fungal species...
January 2, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Won-Mook Choi, Hyuk Soo Eun, Young-Sun Lee, Sun Jun Kim, Myung-Ho Kim, Jun-Hee Lee, Young-Ri Shim, Hee-Hoon Kim, Ye Eun Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Won-Il Jeong
The liver is involved in a wide range of activities in vertebrates and some other animals, including metabolism, protein synthesis, detoxification, and the immune system. Until now, various methods have been devised to study liver diseases; however, each method has its own limitations. In situ liver perfusion machinery, originally developed in rats, has been successfully adapted to mice, enabling the study of liver diseases. Here we describe the protocol, which is a simple but widely applicable method for investigating the liver diseases...
December 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Seokho Hong, Bokyung Son, Sangryeol Ryu, Nam-Chul Ha
Endolysins are bacteriophage-derived enzymes that hydrolyze the peptidoglycan of host bacteria. Endolysins are considered to be promising tools for the control of pathogenic bacteria. LysB4 is an endolysin produced by Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4, and consists of an N-terminal enzymatic active domain (EAD) and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). LysB4 was discovered for the first time as an Lalanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase with the ability to breakdown the peptidoglycan among B. cereus-infecting phages...
December 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyehyeon Lee, Hyerin Jeong, Sun Young Lee, Soo Shin Kim, Kyung Lib Jang
Methylation of HBV cccDNA has been detected in vivo and in vitro; however, the mechanism and its effects on HBV replication remain unclear. HBx derived from a 1.2-mer HBV replicon upregulated protein levels and enzyme activities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), 3a, and 3b, resulting in methylation of the negative regulatory region (NRE) in cccDNA, while none of these effects were observed with an HBx-null mutant. The HBx-positive HBV cccDNA expressed higher levels of HBc and produced about 4-fold higher levels of HBV particles than those from the HBx-null counterpart...
December 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyun-Young Shin, Kyoung Hee Nam
A plant-specific B3 domain and AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, RAV1 acts as a negative regulator of growth in many plant species and its transcription was  downregulated by BR and ABA. In this study, we found that RAV1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed abnormally developed ovules, resulting in reduced seed size, weight, and number in a silique. Interestingly, the endogenous expression of RAV1 fluctuated during seed development; it remained low during the early stage of seed development and sharply increased in the seed maturation stage...
December 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Wonseok Shin, Seyoung Mun, Junse Kim, Wooseok Lee, Dong-Guk Park, Seungkyu Choi, Tae Yoon Lee, Seunghee Cha, Kyudong Han
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is an autonomous retrotransposon, which is capable of inserting into a new region of genome. Previous studies have reported that these elements lead to genomic variations and altered functions by affecting gene expression and genetic networks. Mounting evidence strongly indicates that genetic diseases or various cancers can occur as a result of retrotransposition events that involve L1s. Therefore, the development of methodologies to study the structural variations and interpersonal insertion polymorphisms by L1 element-associated changes in an individual genome is invaluable...
January 31, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Sewoon Kim, Sunjoo Jeong
Mutations in the β-catenin gene ( CTNNB1 ) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some cancers. The recent development of cancer genome databases has facilitated comprehensive and focused analyses on the mutation status of cancer-related genes. We have used these databases to analyze the CTNNB1 mutations assembled from different tumor types. High incidences of CTNNB1 mutations were detected in endometrial, liver, and colorectal cancers. This finding agrees with the oncogenic role of aberrantly activated β-catenin in epithelial cells...
January 31, 2019: Molecules and Cells
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