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Early Science and Medicine

He Bian
Xianxingzhai guang biji ('Expanded Notes from the Studio of Early Enlightenment') is a Chinese medical case collection based primarily on the interaction between the physician Miao Xiyong and his patients. Professional interest alone, however, cannot explain the unique combination of cases with detailed prescriptions. Rather, elite patients played a crucial role in collecting and publishing these cases, driven in part by the need to prepare their own medications at home. Physicians then reciprocated by sharing their prescriptions for patronage, thereby fashioning a more flexible style of medical virtuosity...
April 2017: Early Science and Medicine
Luana Giurgevich
Knowledge of libraries and book collecting is a preliminary task for the characterisation of scientific culture and practice. In the case of Iberia, and especially Portugal, this is still a desideratum. This paper provides a first global look at this issue. In early modem Portugal religious institutions organised impressive collections of books, by far the largest in the country These libraries not only served the religious institutions themselves, but also supplied books to lesser libraries, such as the University Library of Coimbra and the Royal Library...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Teresa Nobre de Carvaiho
Considered by many to be the most learned Portuguese physician who lived in Goa during the sixteenth century, Garcia de Orta (c. 1500-1568) was the author of CoIoquios dos Simples, e Dro gas he cousas medicinais da India [Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India] (Goa, 1563). Devoted entirely to the description of Asian natural resour ces, very little is known about how this treatise came into existence. Publish ed at the edges of the Portuguese empire, and a hostage to technical, structural and human constraints, the princeps edition had a limited circulation...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Jana Cerna
This article analyses the reception of knowledge about new world nature, and, more specifically, the reception of Iberian scientific knowledge of nature in the Americas, in the early modem Czech lands. It shows how the process of the reception of information about nature in the new world differed among the urban classes, intellectuals and the nobility; particular attention is paid to herbals, cosmographical works and travel reports. On the one hand, the study reveals that the efforts of Central European intellectuals to interpret new world nature were limited by the lack of necessary data and experience, which led to some misinterpretations and simplifications...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Emma Salient Del Colombo
The manuscript Atlas de Historia Natural, known as the Pomar Codex, in the University Library of Valencia contains more than a hundred images that are practically identical to those found in the Tavole acquerellate in the collection of Ulisse Aldrovandi in the University Library of Bologna. I will argue that the overwhelming presence of images belonging to Ulisse Aldrovandi's collection in the Pomar Codex indicates that future research on this text should be based on trying to understand possible methods of exchange between Italy and the Iberian Peninsula...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Tayra M C Lanuza Navarro
This paper aims to demonstrate that astrology was one of the disciplines that most strongly experienced the process that led European natural philosophers, once they were confronted with the nature of the New World, to recognise that previous knowledge was not as complete or absolute as previously assumed, and that the content of several disciplines had to be renewed, both epistemologically and methodologically. This paper focuses on the work by the cosmographer Henrico Martinez, Repertorio de los tiempos (1606), in which he established the astrological influences specific to Mexico, and the work Sitio, naturatezay propiedades de la Ciudad de Mexico (1618) by the physician Diego Cisneros, who refuted Martinez's astrology for Mexico and created his own instructions for the use of astrology in the practice of medicine in New Spain...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Tomas Nejeschleba
The physician and philosopher Johannes Jessenius (1565-1621), an enthusiastic anatomist in Wittenberg, often had to defend his anatomical practices against Lutheran orthodoxy as is apparent from the invitations he wrote concerning his dissections. His most systematic defence can be found in the introduction to his description of the dissection performed in Prague in 16oo, where he provides three different strategies for the justification of anatomical research. The first method traditionally builds on the use of the ancient dictum 'know thyself;' the second strategy is based on teleology, which Jessenius adopted from Vesalius' work; and the final method is derived from the philosophical tradition of the Renaissance...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Martin Zemla
This paper outlines the life, work, and views of Adam Huber of Riesenpach (1545-1613). Huber was one of the personal physicians to Rudolf ii in Prague, a pharmacist, translator, pedagogue, progressive academic and chancellor at Prague University, aiming to re-establish its medical faculty. Here, I will first appraise Huber as a distinguished translator of medical books published by the prominent Prague printer Daniel Adam of Veleslavin (1546-1599) and as a scholar who helped establish Czech medical terminology, most notably through his new translation of the great Herbal of Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501-1577), which he reworked and expanded...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Lucie Storchova
The current study deals with the representation of gout in Bohemian humanist literature and its impact on the cultural definitions of being a humanist scholar from the 1550s to the 1620s. Bohemian humanists produced a number of brief autobiographical remarks and lengthy Latin poems dealing with gout or its personified form, podagra. After analysing Bohemian medical treatises, the author focuses on the gout-related imagery from a gender perspective. The main section of the study deals with how the disease was gendered on the level of argument and figurative speech, how its/her body and the relationships to humanist poets were described, which features were related to its/her victims and what this imagery could mean for the ways in which humanists fashioned themselves in their correspondence or casual poetry...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Edward Slowik
This essay examines the relationship between monads and space in Kant's early precritical work, with special attention devoted to the question of ubeity, a Scholastic doctrine that Leibniz describes as "ways of being somewhere." By focusing attention on this concept, evidence will be put forward that supports the claim, held by various scholars, that the monad-space relationship in Kant is closer to Leibniz' original conception than the hypotheses typically offered by the later Leibniz-Wolff school...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Victor D Boantza, Leslie Tomory
The standard history of pneumatic chemistry is dominated by a landmark-discoverers-type narrative stretching from Robert Boyle, through Stephen Hales, Joseph Black, and Joseph Priestley, to Antoine Lavoisier. This article challenges this view by demonstrating the importance of the study of mineral waters - and their "aerial component" - to the evolution of pneumatic chemistry, from around van Helmont to the period before Black (1640s-1750s). Among key figures examined are Joan Baptista van Helmont, Johann Joachim Becher, Robert Boyle, Friedrich Hoffmann, and William Brownrigg...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Margaret Gaida
The incorporation of paper instruments, also known as volvelles, into astronomical and cosmographical texts is a well-known facet of sixteenth-century printing. However, the impact that these instruments had on the reading public has yet to be determined. This paper argues that the inclusion of paper instruments in Peter Apian's Cosmographia transforms the text into a book-instrument hybrid. The instruments and accompanying text in Cosmographia enabled readers to make their own measurements and calculations of both the heavens and the earth...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Anya Zilberstein
Breadfruit is best known in connection with an infamously failed project: the 1789 mutiny against the Bounty, commanded by William Bligh. However, four years later, Bligh returned to the Pacific and fulfilled his commission, delivering breadfruit and other Pacific foods to Caribbean plantations. Placing these plant transfers in the emerg- ing sciences of food and nutrition in the eighteenth century, this essay examines the broader political project of what would much later be called 'the welfare state; which motivated British officials' interest in experimenting with novel ingredients and recipes to cheaply nourish a range of dependent populations in institutional settings...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Mordechai Feingold
This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy." Before the foundation of the Royal Society, I contend, the term had been utilized promiscuously, its modern signification conspicuously absent. Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. 1660. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its (supposed) practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Anna Marie Roos
Before Newton's seminal work on the spectrum, seventeenth-century English natural philosophers such as Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Nehemliah Grew and Robert Plot attributed the phenomenon of color in the natural world to salts and saline chymistry. They rejected Aristotelian ideas that color was related to the object's hot and cold qualities, positing instead that saline principles governed color and color changes in flora, fauna and minerals. In our study, we also characterize to what extent chymistry was a basic analytical tool for seventeenth-century English natural historians...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Tawrin Baker
This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Romana Sammern
Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Valentina Pugliano
Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Doris Oltrogge
Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Tawrin Baker, Sven Dupré, Sachiko Kusukawa, Karin Leonhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Early Science and Medicine
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