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Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability

Nandita Golya, Laura Lee McIntyre
Background: Understanding adaptive behaviour variability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have important implications for early intervention. The purpose of this study was to explore whether autism symptom severity and caregiver depression affected adaptive behaviour in young children with ASD. Method: Data were collected from 60 primary caregivers of children aged 2-6 years with ASD. A factorial multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to investigate if different levels of autism symptom severity and caregiver depression affected communication, socialisation, and daily living skills, after controlling for child age...
2018: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Laura Lee McIntyre, Mallory Brown
Background: Social support has been described as a vital resource for families with children with disability. Although the benefits of social support have been described, little is known about the utilisation patterns in families of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In a community sample of 78 American families with children (2-6 years) with ASD, this study examined the utilisation and usefulness of social support. Child, family, and service variables related to social support were explored...
2018: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Dajie Zhang, Walter E Kaufmann, Jeff Sigafoos, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Magdalena Krieber, Peter B Marschik, Christa Einspieler
Background: Retrospective parental reports have often been used to identify the early characteristics of children later diagnosed with a developmental disorder. Method: We applied this methodology to document 13 parents' initial concerns about the development of their 17 children later diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Parents were additionally asked about when they noticed the emergence of behavioural signs related to FXS. Results: More than half of the parents reported initial concerns prior to the child's first birthday and in most cases it was deviant motor behaviours that caused the first concerns...
2017: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Nina Jamilette Hidalgo, Laura Lee McINTYRE, Ellen Hawley McWHIRTER
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult for families. Growing evidence suggests that the diagnostic process may vary as a function of sociodemographic factors, such as socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to extend findings related to families' experiences obtaining a diagnosis and accessing services for their young child with ASD. METHOD: A mixed methods approach was used in this study, in which 46 families with children with ASD participated...
2015: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Barbara Bowers, Ruth Webber, Christine Bigby
BACKGROUND: This paper explores how group home staff in Victoria, Australia, responded to residents with an intellectual disability (ID) as they developed age-related health conditions. METHOD: The analysis was based on a longitudinal study that followed 17 ageing group home residents over a 3-year period. Eighty-three interviews were conducted with 30 group home staff in 17 group homes. Dimensional analysis, a variant of grounded theory, guided data collection and analysis...
2014: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Wietske M W J van Oorsouw, Petri J C M Embregts, Anna M T Bosman
BACKGROUND: Hastings (2010) has recently emphasised 3 aspects in the training of staff who serve clients with mild to moderate intellectual disability and challenging behaviour (CB): Staff attitudes, self-awareness, and clients' perspectives. This study investigates whether programs include these aspects. METHOD: A systematic search yielded 11 relevant articles. RESULTS: Generally, all programs aimed to improve staff knowledge and skills. Client variables concerned frequencies and severities of CB...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Nathan J Wilson, Christine Bigby, Roger J Stancliffe, Susan Balandin, Diane Craig, Kate Anderson
BACKGROUND: Social inclusion is a widely acknowledged goal; who is best positioned to provide support and how support is delivered are key questions. Using Active Mentoring training, members of community groups mentored a person with intellectual disability and supported their inclusion in that group. METHODS: Interviews with 14 mentors explored their experiences of supporting a previously unknown person with intellectual disability to participate in their community group...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Régis Pochon, Christelle Declercq
BACKGROUND: According to the literature, children with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognising facial expressions. Yet abilities to recognise emotional expressions are often assessed in tasks that imply comprehension of words for emotions. We investigated the development of these abilities in children with DS in a longitudinal study that did not involve lexical knowledge of emotions. METHOD: Children with DS and nonspecific intellectual disability and typically developing children matched for developmental age (DA) were assessed once a year over 3 years...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
William R Lindsay, Derek Carson, Anthony J Holland, John L Taylor, Gregory O'Brien, Jessica R Wheeler, Lesley Steptoe
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and misuse may be lower in people with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population but may be related to offending. METHOD: Alcohol-related crime and history of alcohol use was recorded in 477 participants with ID referred to forensic ID services and related to offending. RESULTS: Level of alcohol-related crime and history of alcohol misuse was lower than in some previous studies at 5.9% and 20.8%, respectively...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Monica Cuskelly, Karen Moni, Jan Lloyd, Anne Jobling
BACKGROUND: The study reported here was an examination of the reliability of a method for determining acquiescent responding and the capacity to respond to items using a Likert scale response format by adults with an intellectual disability. METHOD: Reliability of the outcomes of these procedures was investigated using a test-retest design. Associations with receptive vocabulary were examined. RESULTS: The majority of the participants did not demonstrate acquiescent responding...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Laura Zampini, Laura D'Odorico
BACKGROUND: Research findings on vocabulary development (1) in children with Down syndrome are inconsistent. This study aimed to analyse the developmental trend of vocabulary growth in children with Down syndrome and the relationships between vocabulary and chronological and developmental age. METHOD: Children's vocabulary size was assessed by a parental report (the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories [CDI]). A longitudinal study, involving 18 children with Down syndrome, and a cross-sectional study, involving 27 children with Down syndrome, were conducted...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Vesna Milasinovic, Angus Buchanan
BACKGROUND: The Revised Irrabeena Core Skills Assessment (RICSA) is used in formal accommodation services and evaluates the functional skills of adults with an intellectual disability. The assessment is used to inform training for skills development. This study focused on establishing evidence for interrater reliability of the RICSA. METHOD: The RICSA was completed by 101 staff members on 30 adults living in group homes. Interviews were conducted with 9 staff members in order to identify potential issues that may affect the reliability of the assessment...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Philip Disley, Chris Hatton, Dave Dagnan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Equity Perception Scale - Intellectual Disability Services (EPS-IDS), a detailed measure of staff equity perceptions in services for people with intellectual disability (ID). The EPS-IDS contains 3 relationship indices that assess staff relationships with their employing organisation, their co-workers, and service users. METHOD: Postal questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from a purposive sample of ID service staff...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Noud Frielink, Petri Embregts
BACKGROUND: Motivational interviewing is a promising method to increase treatment motivation for people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. The purpose of the present study was to identify how professionals could adapt motivational interviewing techniques for use with clients. METHOD: We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews and focus groups with 26 clients, parents, and professionals. A general inductive approach led to the identification of multiple core themes...
December 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Ellen van de Wouw, Heleen M Evenhuis, Michael A Echteld
BACKGROUND: The Actiwatch is increasingly being used to investigate sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate which sensitivity setting of the Actiwatch is most suitable to detect sleep disturbance in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: Two Actiwatch types were compared to polysomnography (PSG) in 10 older adults with mild ID, using a 1-min epoch-to-epoch comparison. Outcome measures were sleep detection percentage, wake detection percentage, and overall accuracy of both Actiwatches, and several sleep parameters...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Fiona Graham, K Anne Sinnott, Deborah L Snell, Rachelle Martin, Claire Freeman
BACKGROUND: Active support (AS) has gained popularity as an approach for assisting people with intellectual disability to engage more fully in everyday activities. Although research has identified changes in the extent that residents are engaged in meaningful activities, the experience of stakeholders such as residents, staff, and family in AS is underexplored. METHOD: A general inductive approach was used to analyse focus group and interview transcripts of residents (n = 4), staff (n = 13), and family (n = 2) about their experience of involvement in an AS pilot project at one residential care facility in New Zealand...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Nicole M Rodriguez, Rachel H Thompson, Corey S Stocco, Kevin Schlichenmeyer
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a more accurate characterisation of higher level restricted and repetitive behaviour (RRB) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including why it might be considered problematic and events associated with its occurrence. METHOD: We selected one form of higher level RRB-arranging and ordering-that was rated as severe for a large percentage of the population sampled. We interviewed 20 students' teachers and conducted naturalistic observations for 15 of those students...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Marie Elwin, Lena Ek, Lars Kjellin, Agneta Schröder
BACKGROUND: Sensory reactivity in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has been found to differ in comparison to reactivity in people without ASC. In this study sensory experiences of high-functioning individuals with ASC were explored and described. METHOD: Interview data from 15 participants with a diagnosis of ASC were analysed by content analysis. RESULTS: Seven aspects of sensory experiences were identified: Being hyper- and hypo-reactive, reacting to general overload, having strong stimuli preferences, managing attentiveness to stimuli, managing sensory/motor stimuli, and dealing with consequences of sensory reactions in daily life...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Ine Hostyn, Bea Maes
BACKGROUND: The aim of this descriptive single case study was to describe a unique interaction with a person with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in a holistic way-focusing on the client, the staff member, and the interacting dyad-and to include the experiential knowledge of the interaction partner. METHOD: A videotaped interaction of the staff-client dyad was analysed by triangulating data from video analysis, documents, observational rating scales, and an interview with the staff member...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
Danielle Moore, Ted Nettelbeck
BACKGROUND: Schoolboys (N = 156, M age = 13 years) participated in a disability awareness training program that included guest speakers (athletes from the Paralympics and the Special Olympics), a documentary about people with a disability, a disability simulation activity, and factual information about different disabilities. METHOD: Participants were allocated to a training program or a control condition. Subsequently, control participants completed the training program...
September 2013: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
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