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Ying-Chih Wang, Richard W Bohannon, Jay Kapellusch, Dana Washburn, Xiaoyan Li, Sheng-Che Yen, Mohammad H Rahman
This project was undertaken to describe percentage differences in the grip strength between the dominant and nondominant-sides of left- and right-handed males and females across the age span. Data used in the project were from population-based samples of participants: 13,653 from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 3,571 from the 2011 normative phase of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox project. Depending on how percentage differences were calculated, the overall grip strength was a mean 5...
April 16, 2019: Laterality
John R Kershner
Liaison between neuroscience and education has resulted in significant advances in our understanding of the neurobiological learning requirements of individuals with reading disability, the neuroplasticity of the developing brain, and the participation of the right hemisphere in reading. Research in neural network theory and cortical oscillations suggests that the hemispheres collaborate in high-level language processes. The right hemisphere specializes in coding low frequencies of the speech envelope and interhemispheric cognitive control, while the left is specialized for local high frequency, verbal computations...
April 15, 2019: Laterality
René Westerhausen
Dichotic listening is a well-established method to non-invasively assess hemispheric specialization for processing of speech and other auditory stimuli. However, almost six decades of research also have revealed a series of experimental variables with systematic modulatory effects on task performance. These variables are a source of systematic error variance in the data and, when uncontrolled, affect the reliability and validity of the obtained laterality measures. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of these modulatory variables and offers both guiding principles as well as concrete suggestions on how to account for possible confounding effects and avoid common pitfalls...
March 28, 2019: Laterality
Matia Okubo, Kenta Ishikawa
Cheater detection, which is a prerequisite for the evolution of social cooperation, has been successfully simulated in laboratory settings. However, the process has not been perfect because the detection rate has usually been just above chance. The present study investigated the role of lateral posing biases and emotional expressions in displaying trustworthiness, which plays a crucial role in cheater detection. Participants (N = 30 and 28 in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) observed facial photographs of cheaters and cooperators in an economic game and evaluated their facial expressions in terms of emotional valence and arousal...
March 5, 2019: Laterality
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Sevim Isparta, Jutta Peterburs, Marietta Papadatou-Pastou
Predator-prey relationships have been suggested to be one of the primary evolutionary factors driving the development of functional hemispheric asymmetries. However, lateralization in many predator species is not well understood and existing studies often are statistically underpowered due to small sample sizes and they moreover show conflicting results. Here, we statistically integrated findings on paw preferences in cats and dogs, two predator species within the Carnivora order that are commonly kept as pets in many societies around the globe...
February 10, 2019: Laterality
Austen K Smith, Kari N Duerksen, Carl Gutwin, Lorin J Elias
People exhibit consistent leftward spatial biases across a variety of tasks. However, individuals with a native reading direction other than left-to-right (LTR) show an attenuation of the leftward bias. The current study used procedurally similar tasks to examine spatial ability and aesthetic preferences in LTR and right-to-left (RTL) groups. In the spatial task participants viewed a centred rectangle partially occluded by an overlapping circle and estimated the centre of the circle with a single mouse click...
February 7, 2019: Laterality
Miriam Ittyerah
Adult participants from India and France were requested to respond to hand and foot preference questionnaires. The items of the questionnaires assessed the choice of the preferred hand and foot on a scale that ranged from extreme left preference through no preference to extreme right preference. Results showed that both groups were more right lateralized for hand actions, whereas foot preferences were less right lateralized and spread across extreme right preference to no preference on the laterality index continuum for men and women...
February 6, 2019: Laterality
Nafiseh Faghihi, Omar Garcia, Jyotsna Vaid
Spatial biases in graphomotor production tasks such as figure drawing may reflect biological (cerebral lateralization), biomechanical (limb movement), and/or cultural (reading/writing direction) influences. The present study examined sources of bias in the placement in graphic space of a symmetrical drawn figure (a tree). A previous study using a child sample found an overall leftward placement bias, independent of participants' reading/writing direction experience [Picard & Zarhbouch, 2014 . Leftward spatial bias in children's drawing placement: Hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses...
December 24, 2018: Laterality
Philippe P Hujoel
This study aims to determine whether breastfeeding duration affects the prevalence of nonrighthandedness in later life. A systematic search for studies on this topic was completed in 2018, and risk of bias was assessed by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Seven national surveys in five countries with Individual Participant Data (IPD) were identified (n = 62,129 mother-child dyads). These surveys had low risk of bias. An IPD meta-analysis showed that breastfeeding for < 1 month, 1 to 6 months, and > 6 months, when compared to bottle feeding, was associated with a 9%, 15% and 22% decreased prevalence of nonrighthandedness, respectively (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 0...
December 18, 2018: Laterality
Annukka K Lindell
In social media's attention economy "likes" are currency; photos showing faces attract more "likes." Previous research has established a left cheek bias in photos uploaded to social media, but whether left cheek poses induce more engagement than right cheek poses remains to be determined. The present study thus examined whether pose orientation influences the number of "likes" and comments garnered by photos uploaded to Instagram. The top 20 single-user Instagram accounts were identified, and the most recent 10 left and 10 right cheek images were selected, resulting in a total of 400 images...
December 11, 2018: Laterality
Jeannette M Stein, Nathaniel S Miller
The purpose of the current study was to determine if the relationship between interhemispheric interaction and cognitive flexibility extends to explanations of forgiveness and apology acceptance. A growing body of research indicates that consistency of handedness may be reflective of an individual's degree of interhemispheric interaction and access to processes of the right hemisphere. As such, individual differences in processing that require interhemispheric interaction, such as belief updating, are associated with consistency of handedness...
November 27, 2018: Laterality
Marcus L Leppanen, Keith B Lyle, Freya M Edlin, Vanessa D Schäfke
Hand preference is commonly measured via self-report using instruments known as handedness inventories. These instruments query which hand subjects use to perform unimanual object-based tasks and also the consistency of usage. Scores reveal which hand people report using most (i.e., which hand is preferred). Some people report highly consistent usage of their preferred hand while others report relatively inconsistent usage. These reports are often assumed to be accurate descriptions of people's actual behavior, but empirical evidence concerning their validity is surprisingly scant...
November 23, 2018: Laterality
Peter A White
There is evidence for a tendency for European portrait paintings to have the head oriented so that the left side of the face is visible more than the right side. This is particularly the case for female sitters. There is evidence that the left side of the face shows emotion more than the right side does, so it has been proposed that there is a tendency for artists or sitters to want to show more of the emotionality of the sitter. It is shown here that the left-side tendency varies by date. In two studies, large samples were drawn from European gallery collections (study 1) and the National Portrait Gallery in London (study 2)...
November 16, 2018: Laterality
Meredith Scheppele, Julia L Evans, Timothy T Brown
Structural lateralization of cortical language areas has been extensively studied in the past, with the conclusion that there is a predominant left lateralization in the majority of typically developing adolescents. However, lateralization in this age group has often been examined using cortical volumetric measures, without taking into account the independence of surface area and thickness. Utilizing structural MRI data in a relatively large sample size, the lateralization of cortical volume, surface area, and thickness was analysed across regions of interest (ROIs) known to support language processing in 118 typically developing adolescents, ages 13;9 to 18;9 using a laterality index...
November 10, 2018: Laterality
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Judith Schmitz, Caroline Schlüter, Erhan Genc, Onur Güntürkün, Jutta Peterburs, Gina Grimshaw
Frontal alpha EEG asymmetry, an indirect marker of asymmetries in relative frontal brain activity, are widely used in research on lateralization of emotional processing. While most authors focus on frontal electrode pairs (e.g., F3/F4 or F7/F8), several recent studies have indicated that EEG asymmetries can also be observed outside the frontal lobe and in frequency bands other than alpha. Because the focus of most EEG asymmetry research is on the correlations between asymmetry and other traits, much less is known about the distribution of patterns of asymmetry at the population level...
November 2, 2018: Laterality
Eliza L Nelson, Sandy L Gonzalez, Jose M El-Asmar, M Fouad Ziade, Reem S Abu-Rustum
While handedness questionnaires are widely used in adults, there is no comparable measure designed specifically for children. The current study developed the Home Handedness Questionnaire (HHQ), a new measure for preschoolers administered by parents using common household items. The HHQ has two scales that distinguish action types typically combined on other measures: actions performed with only the right or left hand (i.e., unimanual, such as holding a toothbrush), and actions performed with one hand holding the object for the other hand's action (i...
November 2, 2018: Laterality
Stephanie A Poindexter, Kathleen D Reinhardt, Vincent Nijman, K A I Nekaris
It has been suggested that strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos) retain the more primitive left-hand preference, whilst monkeys and apes more regularly display a right-hand preference at the individual-level. We looked to address questions of laterality in the slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) using spontaneous observations of 7 wild individuals, unimanual tests in 6 captive individuals, and photos of 42 individuals in a bilateral posture assessing handedness at the individual- and group-level. During the unimanual reach task, we found at the individual-level, only 4 slow lorises showed a hand use bias (R: 3, L: 1), Handedness index (HI) ranged from -0...
November 2018: Laterality
Martina Manns, Felix Ströckens, Philipp Stavenhagen, Sebastian Ocklenburg
It is still debated whether limb-use preferences represent a common trait in vertebrates, which is based on a shared phylogenetic history. Unravelling the evolutionary origin and pattern of paw preferences in vertebrates requires the analysis of a larger number of species within an ecologically relevant setting. We therefore investigated whether observations in a zoo enable the collection of reliable data sets by quantifying paw use in two independent groups of Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea). Employing a continuous focal animal sampling method, each day one of the ten individuals was video recorded from outside of the enclosure during usual activity...
November 2018: Laterality
Polina Stoycheva, Kaisa Tiippana
The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality...
November 2018: Laterality
Robert D McIntosh, Keira Hillary, Ailbhe Brennan, Magdalena Lechowicz
The writing attempts of children often feature mirror-reversals of individual letters. These reversals are thought to arise from an adaptive tendency to mirror-generalize. However, it is unclear whether mirror-writing is driven by mirror-generalisation of the visual letter forms, or of the actions for writing them. We report two studies of the relationship between mirror-writing and the ability to recognize whether a visually presented letter is in the correct orientation, amongst primary and preschool children learning to read and write in English...
November 2018: Laterality
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