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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744989/association-of-severe-abnormal-behavior-and-acetaminophen-with-without-neuraminidase-inhibitors
#1
Tamie Sugawara, Yasushi Ohkusa, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Chiaki Miyazaki, Mariko Momoi, Nobuhiko Okabe
BACKGROUND: Even though abnormal behavior related with influenza and neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) has been discussed, the risks of acetaminophen and co-administration of NI and acetaminophen have not been examined. This study assesses those risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of patients with influenza who present with severe abnormal behavior are reported by physicians of all clinics and hospitals throughout Japan. The numbers of people diagnosed as having influenza, whether prescribed NI and acetaminophen or not, were extracted from the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims (NDBEMC)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744988/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-%C3%AE-hemolytic-streptococci-clinical-features-and-cytokine-and-chemokine-analyses-of-15-cases
#2
Sadako Yoshizawa, Takayuki Matsumura, Tadayoshi Ikebe, Ryo Ichibayashi, Yuto Fukui, Takahiro Satoh, Takaya Tsubota, Mitsuru Honda, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Manabu Ato
OBJECTIVES: β-Hemolytic streptococci occasionally cause severe infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Here, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the production of cytokines and chemokines in patients with STSS to explore its pathogenesis in survivors and fatal cases. METHODS: From January 2013 through August 2015, all culture results from normally sterile sites were prospectively followed and screened for STSS...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738726/bacterial-peritonitis-in-a-patient-with-malignant-ascites-caused-by-pancreatic-carcinoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Hirotaka Miyashita, Koh Okamoto, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Satoshi Kitaura, Kazuhiko Ikeuchi, Kazunaga Ishigaki, Yosuke Nakai, Shu Okugawa, Kazuhiko Koike, Kyoji Moriya
Bacterial peritonitis, an infection of the ascitic fluid, can be classified etiologically as spontaneous or secondary bacterial peritonitis. The former is mainly caused by portal hypertension and its subsequent effects, whereas the latter is caused by the direct dissemination of bacteria into the peritoneal cavity. Previous reports have described some distinguishing features of these two entities. Here, we report the first known case of bacterial peritonitis with Aeromonas hydrophilia and Escherichia coli in a patient with malignant ascites associated with pancreatic carcinoma who exhibited features of both spontaneous and secondary peritonitis...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718193/efficacy-of-combined-prophylactic-use-of-levofloxacin-and-isepamicin-for-transrectal-prostate-needle-biopsy-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#4
Ryunosuke Nakagawa, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Shuhei Aoyama, Satoko Urata, Mitsuo Ofude, Tohru Miyagi, Takao Nakashima, Kouji Izumi, Atsushi Mizokami
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of a combined regimen of levofloxacin (LVFX) plus isepamicin (ISP) as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate (TRUSP-Bx). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 562 patients undergoing TRUSP-Bx were included in the present study. All patients were administered a single-dose of oral LVFX (500 mg) in the morning and intravenous ISP (400 mg) 60 min before biopsy. All biopsies were performed via TRUSP-Bx with an 18-gauge needle, and 12-core specimens were routinely obtained...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718192/comparison-of-high-dose-and-low-dose-corticosteroid-therapy-for-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#5
Toshihiko Okumura, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Masaharu Tanaka, Kotaro Narita, Tomonori Ishiguro, Yuji Hirayama, Sho Narahara, Genki Tsuji, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Michio Suzuki, Takeshi Tsuji, Shin Hoshino, Masahiro Nakatochi, Hideki Muramatsu, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Yoshiaki Sato
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is generally a self-limiting disease, but it may become refractory. It is thought that refractory MPP is linked to the excessive immunologic responses of the host. Consequently, the use of adjunctive systemic corticosteroids may have beneficial effects. In this study, we compared the effects of high- and low-dose corticosteroid therapy in a pediatric population with refractory MPP. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 91 pediatric MPP patients treated with adjunctive systemic corticosteroids between April 2014 and October 2016...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718191/mortality-and-risk-factor-analysis-for-candida-blood-stream-infection-a-multicenter-study
#6
Hideaki Kato, Yukihiro Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Suido, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Kazuo Ide, Yoshifumi Sugiyama, Kasumi Matsuno, Hideaki Nakajima
Candida blood stream infection (candidemia) is severe systemic infection mainly develops after intensive medical cares. The mortality of candidemia is affected by the underlying conditions, causative agents and the initial management. We retrospectively analyzed mortality-related risk factors in cases of candidemia between April 2011 and March 2016 in five regional hospitals in Japan. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis of factors including causative Candida species, patients' predisposing conditions, and treatment strategies, such as empirically selected antifungal drug and time to appropriate antifungal treatment, to elucidate their effects on 30-day mortality...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30713034/analysis-of-synergy-between-beta-lactams-and-anti-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-agents-from-the-standpoint-of-strain-characteristics-and-binding-action
#7
Daisuke Ono, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Masakaze Hamada, Shiro Sonoda, Ayami Sato, Kotaro Aoki, Chiaki Kajiwara, Soichiro Kimura, Momoko Fujisaki, Hiroyuki Tojo, Masakazu Sasaki, Hinako Murakami, Keisuke Kato, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda
In light of the increasing number of clinical cases resistant to traditional monotherapies and the lack of novel antimicrobial agents, combination therapy is an appealing solution for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of anti-MRSA agents, such as vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin (DAP), and linezolid (LZD), in conjunction with 13 beta-lactams and non-beta-lactams. We assessed the in vitro activities of the various combinations against 40 MRSA strains based on the maximum synergistic effect (MSE), an index calculated from the MIC change with a combination agent...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711257/efficacies-of-atovaquone-pentamidine-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-the-prevention-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-connective-tissue-diseases
#8
Takatoshi Kitazawa, Kazunori Seo, Yusuke Yoshino, Kurumi Asako, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hajime Kono, Yasuo Ota
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection in patients on steroid therapy for connective tissue diseases. The standard agent for primary PCP prophylaxis is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), although this agent can cause common adverse reactions, including myelosuppression and renal toxicity, that result in cessation. Aerosolized pentamidine and oral atovaquone are alternatives for PCP prophylaxis. The efficacies of atovaquone, pentamidine, and TMP-SMX to prevent PCP in patients with connective tissue diseases have never been compared...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686700/urinary-tract-infection-due-to-anaerobic-bacteria-in-a-two-month-old-infant
#9
Chiaki Tao, Noriko Kinoshita, Kensuke Shoji, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Rumiko Eura, Katsuhiko Ueoka, Mitsuru Kubota, Akira Ishiguro, Isao Miyairi
The significance of anaerobic bacteria as a pathogen in urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is unclear. A two-month-old infant presenting with poor feeding received a diagnosis of polymicrobial anaerobic UTI by next-generation sequencing and was found to have obstructive uropathy. Anaerobic bacteria may be a cause of UTI in children with urinary tract obstruction.
January 25, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685110/false-positive-blood-culture-results-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#10
Yasuhiro Ebihara, Kiyoko Kobayashi, Noriyuki Watanabe, Yoshitada Taji, Tomoya Maeda, Naoki Takahashi, Akaru Ishida, Norio Asou, Kenji Ikebuchi
Blood cultures are the most valuable tool when bacteremia is clinically suspected. Technical advances have led to the development of automated blood culture systems to detect bacterial infections. Usually positive signals in automated blood culture systems result from the proliferation of microorganisms. Cases are classified as false-positive when the automated blood culture system produces a positive signal but no microorganisms are detected on Gram-stained smears and no microorganism growth is observed in blood subcultures...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683499/a-case-of-raoultella-ornithinolytica-urinary-tract-infection-in-a-pediatric-patient
#11
Ayşe Büyükcam, Ümran Liste, Asiye Bıçakçıgil, Ateş Kara, Banu Sancak
Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, biofilm producing, facultative aerobic bacillus and is found in natural environment. Human infections with R.ornithinolytica is rare in children with only five cases having been reported previously. The present case report describes an urinary tract infection caused by R. ornithinolytica that was identified by MALDI-TOF MS and successfully treated with antibiotic therapy in a 6.5-year-old female child.
January 22, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679025/a-fatal-case-of-exophiala-dermatitidis-disseminated-infection-in-an-allogenic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-during-micafungin-therapy
#12
Hideharu Hagiya, Tetsuo Maeda, Shinsuke Kusakabe, Keisuke Kawasaki, Yumiko Hori, Keigo Kimura, Akiko Ueda, Nori Yoshioka, Atsuko Sunada, Isao Nishi, Eiichi Morii, Yuzuru Kanakura, Kazunori Tomono
Exophiala dermatitidis is a dematiaceous fungus that is increasingly becoming the cause of fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. However, the risk factors and optimal treatment modality for E. dermatitidis infection are unknown to date. Herein, we present a fatal case of E. dermatitidis infection in an adult patient that developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. The dematiaceous fungus caused a breakthrough fungemia despite prophylactic administration of micafungin...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642772/disseminated-adenovirus-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma-undergoing-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-and-pomalidomide-dexamethasone-as-salvage-regimens
#13
Shunichiro Yasuda, Yuho Najima, Tatsuya Konishi, Yuta Yamada, Toshiaki Takezaki, Shuhei Kurosawa, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kaito Harada, Kosuke Yoshioka, Aiko Igarashi, Kyoko Inamoto, Takashi Toya, Takeshi Kobayashi, Noriko Doki, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Hisashi Sakamaki, Noritaka Sekiya, Kazuteru Ohashi
BACKGROUND: Disseminated adenovirus (ADV) infection is a fatal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), however, it is rare following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) or chemotherapy alone. CASE: A 66-year-old Japanese female with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) received auto-PBSCT, achieving partial response. To obtain a greater response, pomalidomide/dexamethasone was started on day 28 after auto-PBSCT, but was stopped on day 41 due to thrombocytopenia, fever, and gross hematuria...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642771/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-difficile-and-risk-factors-for-the-detection-of-toxin-gene-positive-strains
#14
Yuya Okada, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara
In this study, we investigated all Clostridioides difficile strains isolated from stool samples in Nagasaki University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Toxin genes (tcdA, tcdB and cdtA/cdtB) were analyzed for multiplex PCR in a total of 213 strains. In the toxin gene-positive strain, PCR ribotyping was conducted using capillary gel electrophoresis-based PCR and the Webribo database. Patients' backgrounds were analyzed by departments, disorders, antimicrobials, and clinical dates. The positive rates of tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/cdtB genes were 62...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642770/association-between-rapid-antigen-detection-tests-and-antibiotics-for-acute-pharyngitis-in-japan-a-retrospective-observational-study
#15
Yusuke Teratani, Hideharu Hagiya, Toshihiro Koyama, Ayako Ohshima, Yoshito Zamami, Yasuhisa Tatebe, Ken Tasaka, Kazuaki Shinomiya, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Toshiaki Sendo, Shiro Hinotsu, Mitsunobu R Kano
The application and clinical impact of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the treatment of acute pharyngitis is unknown in Japan. We aimed to examine the proportions of RADT usage to identify Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) in outpatients with acute pharyngitis and evaluate the association between RADT and antibiotic treatment. We analyzed health insurance claims data from 2013 to 2015. Logistic regression models were used to analyze associated factors with RADT, overall antibiotic prescription, or penicillin use...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642769/a-rare-case-of-a-prostatic-abscess-bacteremia-and-chronic-granulomatous-disease-associated-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Daisuke Jubishi, Koh Okamoto, Mahoko Ikeda, Keita Tatsuno, Miyuki Mizoguchi, Tomoaki Sato, Shu Okugawa, Kyoji Moriya
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by severe recurrent infections such as pneumonia, liver and skin infections. However, prostatic abscesses are rare as only two cases have been reported thus far. We present the case of a 41-year-old patient with CGD who was admitted to the hospital with fever and subsequently, Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified on blood culture. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a prostatic abscess. He improved with intravenous antibiotics and drainage of the abscess...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642768/effectiveness-and-safety-of-lower-dose-sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-therapy-for-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#17
Shin-Ichiro Ohmura, Taio Naniwa, Shin-Ya Tamechika, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Daisuke Shichi, Nobukata Kazawa, Shiho Iwagaitsu, Shinji Maeda, Jun-Ichi Wada, Akio Niimi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of lower-dose sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim therapy (SMX/TMP) for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, we compared effectiveness and safety of SMX/TMP for the treatment of PCP among patients divided into three groups according to the initial dosage of SMX/TMP: the low, ≤10 mg/kg/day; the intermediate, 10-15 mg/kg/day; and the high and conventional, 15-20 mg/kg/day for TMP dose...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611637/molecular-and-epidemiological-analysis-of-imp-1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-japan
#18
Hiromi Yamakawa, Kosuke Kosai, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Norihito Kaku, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taishi Tsubouchi, Yukihiro Kaneko, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
This study investigated the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and identified the risk factors underlying its acquisition. We evaluated K. pneumoniae isolated in Nagasaki University Hospital between January 2009 and June 2015. The presence of carbapenemase genes and plasmid characteristics were investigated. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and generated a dendrogram based on the results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for carbapenemase-producing strains...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600131/surveillance-on-susceptibility-of-strains-isolated-from-pediatric-infections
#19
Hiroshi Sakata, Akira Watanabe, Satoshi Iwata, Yoshitake Sato, Kenji Suzuki, Naoyuki Miyashita, Seiji Hori, Yoshio Yamaguchi, Masaaki Odajima, Yoshitaka Katakuse, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Nobuko Maki, Koichi Wada
During the period from January to December 2015, 104 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, 129 Haemophilus influenzae strains and 54 Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from clinical specimens of pediatric infections in the national 16 institutions, studied susceptibilities of total 28 antibiotics, the capsular serotype for S. pneumoniae, the capsular b type and β-lactamase production capability for H. influenzae, and the β-lactamase production capability for M. catarrhalis were measured. In S. pneumoniae, the results showed that 68 strains (65...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595348/first-report-on-usa300-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-detected-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-open-reading-frame-typing-in-japan
#20
Yuki Uehara, Miki Mori, Mutsuhiro Tauchi, Shu Nishimura, Hiroki Sakurai, Takemi Murai, Kaoru Okazaki, Kazue Kinoshita, Yuho Horikoshi, Keiichi Hiramatsu
Outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have been reported worldwide. Some outbreaks were caused by USA300, which is a community-associated MRSA clone. In 2011, polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frame typing (POT) for the initial MRSA isolates from all inpatients was started at the Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center. From March 2014 to April 2015, a total of 131 MRSA strains were isolated, 104 of which were analyzed as healthcare-associated MRSA...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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