Joyce Y Lee, Danielle L Steelesmith, Barbara H Chaiyachati, Jaclyn Kirsch, Smitha Rao, Cynthia A Fontanella
Little is known about the impact of child welfare system-level factors on child mortality as an outcome within foster care. Using data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 2009-2018, we examined the associations between county-level sociodemographic, foster care performance, and judicial reform characteristics with all-cause mortality rates. Results of random effects negative binomial regression analyses showed that higher proportions of younger children (<1 year: IRR = 1...
May 30, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Jodi A Quas, Shreya Mukhopadhyay, Kaitlin M H Winks, Rachel E Dianiska, Thomas D Lyon
Despite increased awareness of sex trafficking of minors in the U.S., prosecution of traffickers remains difficult, in part because of victim uncooperativeness. There are questions about how that uncooperativeness is expressed, whether it is evident in successfully prosecuted cases, and whether it is unique to trafficked minors or it emerges in similar age victims of sexual abuse. To provide insight relevant to these questions, we compared appellate opinions in two types of successfully prosecuted criminal cases: sex trafficking and sexual abuse of adolescent victims...
May 26, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Minhae Cho, Young Ji Yoon, Shelby K Flanagan, Wendy Haight
Disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions (OSS) is a persistent social and racial justice issue. Available research indicates that Indigenous children are disproportionately represented in both OSS and the child protective services (CPS) system. This secondary data analysis followed a cohort of 3rd grade students ( n = 60,025) in Minnesota public schools from 2008- 2014. It examined the relationship between CPS involvement, Indigenous heritage, and OSS. Results from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression indicated that Indigenous students had two times the odds of suspension compared to white students (OR = 2...
May 18, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Theodore P Cross, Frank E Vandervort, Stephanie D Block
Legal actions are perhaps the most powerful responses to child maltreatment. Criminal and child protection investigation and forensic interviewing can provide the evidence needed to support a child victim's disclosure. Prosecution of child maltreatment can hold perpetrators accountable. Juvenile and family court actions can provide for children's safety and oversee their care in state custody and journey to a permanent home. This commentary introduces readers to a special issue of the journal  Child Maltreatment  that focuses on the legal system response to child abuse and neglect...
May 18, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Thomas D Lyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Hayden Henderson, Colleen E Sullivan, Breanne E Wylie, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Angela D Evans, Thomas D Lyon
Child interviewers are often advised to avoid asking "How" questions, particularly with young children. However, children tend to answer "How" evaluative questions productively (e.g., "How did you feel?"). "How" evaluative questions are phrased as a "How" followed by an auxiliary verb (e.g., "did" or "was"), but so are "How" questions requesting information about method or manner (e.g., "How did he touch you?"), and "How" method/manner questions might be more difficult for children to answer. We examined 458 5- to 17-year-old children questioned about sexual abuse, identified 2485 "How" questions with an auxiliary verb, and classified them as "How" evaluative ( n = 886) or "How" method/manner ( n = 1599)...
May 14, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Annie M Francis, William J Hall, David Ansong, Paul Lanier, Travis J Albritton, Ashley McMillan
The history of the child welfare system and related institutions with American Indian children and families has been marked by numerous atrocities, including unnecessary separations, assimilation, and trauma. The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted in 1978 to promote the stability and security of American Indian tribes and families. For children involved in the child welfare system, ICWA prioritizes the placement of American Indian children with family or tribal members. This paper examines placement outcomes for American Indian children using recent national data over 3 years from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System...
May 12, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Anna Rybińska, Yu Bai, W Benjamin Goodman, Kenneth A Dodge
We examine population-level associations between birth spacing and child maltreatment using birth records and child welfare records for 1,099,230 second or higher parity children born in North Carolina between 1997 and 2013. Building upon previous research, administrative data linkages were used to address out-of-state migration and family-level heterogeneity in birth spacing and child maltreatment risk factors. Findings provide the strongest evidence to date that very short birth spacing of zero through 6 months from last birth to the index child's conception is a prenatal predictor of child maltreatment (indexed as child welfare involvement) throughout early childhood...
April 29, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Alison M O'Connor, William Hall, Karen L Campbell
The present study explored implicit and explicit honesty perceptions of White and Black children and whether these perceptions predicted legal decisions in a child abuse case. Participants consisted of 186 younger and 189 older adults from the online Prolific participant pool. Implicit racial bias was measured via a modified Implicit Association Test and explicit perceptions through self-reports. Participants read a simulated legal case where either a Black or White child alleged physical abuse against their sports coach, and they rated the honesty of the child's testimony and rendered a verdict...
April 28, 2023: Child Maltreatment
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2023: Child Maltreatment
A L Jackson, M Frederico, H Cleak, B D Perry
Earlier reviews to discover research on interventions for children after neglect have concluded little was available, despite the well-documented prevalence and harmful effects of neglect on children. We revisited this question through a systematic literature review to discover the state of research on interventions for children who have experienced neglect. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts and EMBASE for studies published between 2003 and 2021. Studies were included if neglect could be distinguished, and child outcomes reported...
April 21, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Isha W Metzger, Angela Moreland, Rachael J Garrett, Kathryn Reid-Quiñones, Briana N Spivey, Jahi Hamilton, Cristina López
Black families are significantly less likely to receive evidence-based trauma treatment services; however, little is known about factors impacting engagement, particularly at Children's Advocacy Centers (CACs). The goal of this study is to better understand barriers and facilitators of service utilization for Black caregivers of CAC referred youth. Participants ( n = 15) were randomly selected Black maternal caregivers (ages 26-42) recruited from a pool of individuals who were referred to receive CAC services...
April 12, 2023: Child Maltreatment
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Eun Koh, Chris Bruhn, David Ansong, Stephen Budde, Kimberly Mann
Literature on the delivery and impact of foster parent training, such as the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP), is sparse, particularly for relative foster parents. This study investigates (a) how NPP referral, initiation, and completion rates vary between relative and non-relative foster parents, (b) reasons for not initiating NPP, and (c) changes in parenting attitudes and behaviors for relative and non-relative foster parents after participating in NPP. The study analyzed data from the Illinois Birth to Three (IB3) study for 722 relative and 397 non-relative foster parents of children ages three and younger...
April 1, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Brett Drake, Dylan Jones, Hyunil Kim, John Gyourko, Antonio Garcia, Richard P Barth, Sarah A Font, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Jill Duerr Berrick, Johanna K P Greeson, Victoria Cook, Patricia L Kohl, Melissa Jonson-Reid
We used National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System and Census data to examine Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities in reporting, substantiation, and out-of-home placement both descriptively from 2005-2019 and in multivariate models from 2007-2017. We also tracked contemporaneous social risk (e.g., child poverty) and child harm (e.g., infant mortality) disparities using non-child protective services (CPS) sources and compared them to CPS reporting rate disparities. Black-White CPS reporting disparities were lower than found in non-CPS risk and harm benchmarks...
March 29, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Dana T Hartman, Yan Wang, Daisy Vidales, Yuerui Wu, Deborah Goldfarb, Jianjian Qin, Michell L Eisen, Gail S Goodman
In legal cases regarding child sexual abuse (CSA), children have various options, such as to disclose or deny maltreatment. When interviewed in adulthood, their accounts may be consistent with their childhood responses. Alternatively, denial in childhood could be followed in adulthood by disclosure ("deferred disclosure"), confirming previous suspicions. Or the adults could possibly recant. We conducted a longitudinal study of CSA disclosures and denials ( N = 99; Time 1 [T1], 3- to 16-year-olds). T1 CSA disclosures and denials at a forensic unit were compared to the individuals' responses 20 years later (Time 2 [T2]...
March 29, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Jonathan Felix Benjamin Thielemann, Barbara Kasparik, Julia König, Johanna Unterhitzenberger, Rita Rosner
The efficacy of trauma-focused treatments for children and adolescents is well researched. However, less is known about the long-term and caregiver-reported effects. Searched databases were PsychInfo, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PTSDPubs, PubMed, Web of Science, and OpenGrey. Treatment effects of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) were computed at 12-month follow-up with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) as primary outcome and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and grief as secondary outcomes...
March 23, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Kierra M P Sattler
Approximately 18% of U.S. children under 5 years old live in poverty, which is one of the strongest predictors of child neglect. However, most families in poverty do not engage in neglect and this may be due to heterogeneity in risk factors. This study examined how risk factors co-occurred among families in poverty across early childhood and whether risk profiles were differentially related to physical and supervisory neglect across time. Results suggested there were four risk profiles across early childhood (i...
March 20, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Margaret C Stevenson, Molly A Rivers
We examined the effects of child race, perpetrator race, and abuse disclosure status (within the context of a formal forensic interview) on abuse substantiation outcomes. Specifically, we coded child sexual abuse disclosure, abuse substantiation, and race of 315 children (80% girls, M age = 10, age range = 2-17; 75% White, 9% Black, 12% Biracial, 3% Hispanic, 1% Asian) who underwent a child forensic interview in a Midwestern child advocacy center. Supporting hypotheses, abuse substantiation was more likely in cases involving (a) abuse disclosure (vs...
March 18, 2023: Child Maltreatment
Lindsay D Shepard, Kristine A Campbell, Kara A Byrne, Brian Thorn, Brooks R Keeshin
Youth presenting to a Children's Advocacy Center (CAC) for a forensic interview are at increased risk for suicidality, but no data exist for suicidality or suicide screening and response at the time of the forensic interview. The current study applied a suicide and traumatic stress screening and response protocol, the Care Process Model for Pediatric Traumatic Stress (CPM-PTS), with youth (11-18 years) presenting for a forensic interview to one of 16 participating CAC locations, 2018-2020.46.2% of youth screened for traumatic stress and suicidality ( N = 1651) endorsed thoughts of suicide or self-harm in the past two weeks, and 13...
March 17, 2023: Child Maltreatment
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