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Child Maltreatment

Patrick J Fowler, Katherine E Marcal, Saras Chung, Derek S Brown, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Peter S Hovmand
OBJECTIVES: Housing insecurity and homelessness contribute to risk of maltreatment among one in five of the nearly 3.5 million children annually investigated for maltreatment in the United States. The Family Unification Program (FUP)-a federal initiative-connects inadequately housed families involved in child welfare with long-term rental subsidies to avoid foster placement. However, FUP remains understudied and underutilized with funding levels that serve only a fraction of eligible households...
May 16, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Lauren A Demers, Elizabeth D Handley, Ruskin H Hunt, Fred A Rogosch, Sheree L Toth, Kathleen M Thomas, Dante Cicchetti
The quality of early caregiving may partially shape brain structure and circuits involved in regulating emotions, including the frontal cortex, affecting vulnerability to the development of psychopathology and maladaptation. Given the profound impact of child maltreatment (CM) on psychological and neural development, we tested whether CM alters the pathways linking mother-adolescent relationship, frontal cortex, and adult outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to investigate whether CM history affected the association between mother-child relationship quality during early adolescence, frontal lobe volume in adulthood, and adult internalizing and externalizing symptomatology and competence...
May 13, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Vincent J Palusci, Marissa Ilardi
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a range of negative consequences for victims that are compounded when it recurs. We used the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System to study a cohort of 42,036 children in 45 U.S. states with sexual abuse reports first confirmed by child protective services (CPS) during 2010 in order to identify children with increased risk for recurrence. A small proportion (3.6%) had a second confirmed sexual abuse report through 2015. In multivariate models, female gender, family hearing and vision problems, other child maltreatment, and other family violence were associated with increased risk of recurrence, while younger children, Hispanic families, and those with substance abuse tended to have less risk...
May 13, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Bryan G Victor, Colleen Henry, Terri Ticknor Gilbert, Joseph P Ryan, Brian E Perron
Childhood exposure to domestic violence (CEDV) is widely understood as potentially harmful to children. Accordingly, many child welfare systems in the United States construe CEDV as maltreatment when the exposure results in harm or threatened harm to the child. The purpose of the current study was to investigate substantiated child welfare referrals directly related to CEDV to better understand the prevalence and patterns of CEDV-related maltreatment and how child welfare workers respond under the "harm or threatened harm" standard...
May 8, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Ashley K Fansher, Sara B Zedaker, Patrick Q Brady
The current study used quantitative and qualitative responses from 250 forensic interviewers (FIs) in the United States to examine predictors of burnout and personal coping mechanisms. Findings indicated that burnout was primarily driven by work-related factors including frequently feeling overwhelmed with job-related duties, inadequate organizational support, and direct exposure to graphic materials involving children. Moreover, having a higher degree of compassion satisfaction and being non-White significantly mitigated symptoms of burnout...
May 5, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Assaf Oshri, Joshua C Gray, Max M Owens, Sihong Liu, Erinn Bernstein Duprey, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (1) to utilize improved amygdala segmentation and exploratory factor analysis to characterize the latent volumetric structure among amygdala nuclei and (2) to assess the effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on amygdalar morphometry and current psychiatric symptoms. To investigate these aims, structural (T1) MRI and self-report data were obtained from 119 emerging adults. Regression analysis showed that higher ACE scores were related to reduced volume of the right, but not the left, amygdalar segments...
April 28, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Michael D De Bellis, Rajendra A Morey, Kate B Nooner, Donald P Woolley, Courtney C Haswell, Stephen R Hooper
Neurocognitive and brain structural differences are associated with adolescent onset alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Maltreatment histories may contribute to current results. To examine these issues, healthy adolescents ( n = 31), adolescents without maltreatment and AUD (AUD - MAL, n = 28), and adolescents with AUDs with maltreatment (AUD + MAL, n = 17) underwent comprehensive neurocognitive assessments and MRI structural scans. Controls performed significantly better than the two AUD groups in math and language...
April 1, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Emily S Hallowell, Assaf Oshri, Spencer W Liebel, Sihong Liu, Bryant Duda, Uraina S Clark, Lawrence H Sweet
Child maltreatment is associated with a variety of risk behaviors in young adulthood; however, the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of this relation are not well understood. The primary aim of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects between maltreatment in childhood and downstream impulsivity via neural activity during a cognitive task. In a sample of emerging adult women from the rural southeastern United States, childhood abuse and neglect were assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire...
March 27, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Eamon McCrory, Joseph R Ogle, Mattia Indi Gerin, Essi Viding
Childhood maltreatment is associated with a lifetime increase in risk of mental health disorder. We propose that such vulnerability may stem in large part from altered patterns of social functioning. Here, we highlight key findings from the psychological and epidemiological literature indicating that early maltreatment experience compromises social functioning and attenuates social support in ways that increase mental health vulnerability. We then review the extant neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents, focusing on three domains implicated in social functioning: threat processing, reward processing, and emotion regulation...
March 21, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Yael Karni-Visel, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E Lamb, Uri Blasbalg
Children's testimony is often critical to the initiation of legal proceedings in abuse cases. In forensic interviews, the expression of emotions can powerfully enhance both the quality of children's statements and perceptions that their statements are coherent and credible. However, children rarely express their emotions when reporting abusive events. The Revised The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol (RP) was designed to emphasize socioemotional communication during forensic interviews and thus should be associated with more extensive and diverse expressions of emotions by alleged victims of abuse...
March 17, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Sara H Bollens, Robert A Fox
A first-line screening instrument, the Preschool Inventory of Trauma Symptoms (PITS), was developed to assess trauma symptoms with a diverse sample of 150 toddlers and preschoolers ( M = 2.49 years; SD = 1.12). Items reflected the current trauma literature, assessment measures, and diagnostic criteria for very young children. A principal component analysis produced a 34-item, four-factor model: Arousal and Hyper-Reactivity, Fearful Attachment, Intrusion and Re-Experiencing, and Avoidance and Negative Cognition and Mood...
March 6, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Catherine Julien, Audette Sylvestre, Caroline Bouchard, Jean Leblond
Language is the most frequently compromised area of development in English-speaking neglected children, particularly the morphosyntactic component of language. This is very worrisome given its central role in academic success and social participation. No previous study has examined the morphosyntactic skills of French-speaking neglected children, despite the morphological richness of French. This study aimed to fill this gap. Forty-four neglected (mean age = 48.32 months, SD = 0.45) and 92 non-neglected (mean age = 48...
March 3, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Anne S Morrow, Miguel T Villodas, Moira K Cunius
This study aimed to prospectively identify ecological risk factors for juvenile arrest in a sample of youth at risk for maltreatment. Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was performed with data from 592 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect to identify the optimal combination of age 14 predictors of past-year arrest at age 16. Results extended previous research, which has identified being male, having more conduct disorder symptoms, suspension from school, perceived school importance, witnessing family violence, and having a jailed family member as key risk and protective factors for arrest by identifying important interactions among these risk factors...
February 24, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Jesse J Helton, Dylan B Jackson, Brian B Boutwell, Michael G Vaughn
Nearly 13 million children in the United States live in households struggling with food insecurity. Although biosocial theories suggest a strong link between the lack of food and child maltreatment, and a handful of studies have established a correlation between nutritional deficits and family violence, it is unclear if household food insecurity itself is associated with physical and psychological child abuse apart from other issues related to poverty. The current study examines this possibility by analyzing data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( n = 2,330)...
May 2019: Child Maltreatment
Sonja P Brubacher, Lydia Timms, Martine Powell, Madeleine Bearman
The current study explored children's perceptions of open and closed questions in an interview setting. Children aged 7-12 ( n = 83) years watched a short film and were questioned about it by an interviewer who asked only open questions and an interviewer who asked only closed questions (counterbalanced). A third interviewer subsequently invited perceptions of each interview by asking children to compare the interviews on 10 attributes (e.g., length, perceived interviewer interest). Children's comparisons on each of the 10 attributes were analyzed quantitatively and their responses to the follow-up questions underwent thematic analysis...
May 2019: Child Maltreatment
Mélissa Di Sante, Audette Sylvestre, Caroline Bouchard, Jean Leblond
The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to compare the pragmatic language skills (i.e., social communication skills) of 42-month-old neglected children with those of same-aged non-neglected children and (2) to measure the prevalence of pragmatic difficulties among the neglected children. The study sample was composed of 45 neglected and 95 non-neglected 42-month-old French-speaking children. The Language Use Inventory: French (LUI-French) was completed with all parents. This measure, comprised of 159 scored items divided into 10 subscales, was used to assess the children's pragmatic skills...
February 19, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Sanne N Wortel, Stephanie Milan
Women who experience childhood sexual victimization (CSV) report more problems with sexuality and with parenting during adulthood. Consequently, mothers with a CSV history may have particular difficulty with parent-child sexual communication. We examine this possibility in 184 diverse, low-income mother-adolescent daughter dyads. Mothers and daughters reported on the frequency, tone, and comfort of their sexual communication. Using dyadic approaches to analyses, we tested whether mothers' and daughters' reports, and their level of agreement, differ by maternal CSV history...
February 12, 2019: Child Maltreatment
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Child Maltreatment
Leah C Hibel, Evelyn Mercado, Kristin Valentino
In the current study, we examined the attunement and transmission of mother-child diurnal cortisol among maltreating ( N = 165) and nonmaltreating ( N = 83) mothers and their preschool-aged children. Over half of the families had a substantiated child maltreatment case with the mother as the perpetrator. Mothers collected three saliva samples (waking, midday, and bedtime) on themselves and their child on two consecutive days, which were later assayed for cortisol. This design allows for the examination of concurrent attunement, as well as cross-lagged transmission, across the day...
January 30, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Nicole B Perry, Carrie E DePasquale, Philip H Fisher, Megan R Gunnar
The current study compared behavioral and adrenocortical functioning of maltreated ( N = 91) and comparably aged (1.5-3 years) institutionally-reared children soon after (1.5-2.5 months) placement in foster care or adoptive homes, respectively. Foster and adoptive parents reported on the children's socioemotional competence and behavior problems, experimenters scored fear and positive affect to laboratory tasks, and diurnal cortisol measures were obtained. We sought to address whether these early contexts, characterized by different types of neglect and deprivation, have differential effects on young children's development...
January 27, 2019: Child Maltreatment
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