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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Marianna Stasinopoulou, Nikolaos P E Kadoglou, Eirini Christodoulou, Efthymios Paronis, Nikolaos G Kostomitsopoulos, Georgia Valsami, Christos D Liapis, John Kakisis
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of atorvastatin discontinuation on the progression and stability of atherosclerotic plaques in a valid animal model of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Seventy ApoE-/- male mice fed with high-fat diet were randomly assigned into: (1) long-term intervention groups: (i) ATL, received atorvastatin for 12 weeks, (ii) CO-12W, control received vehicle for 12 weeks, (iii) ATW-6W, received atorvastatin for 6 weeks which was withdrawn for another 6 weeks...
March 24, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Belay Tesfamariam
Vascular calcification results from an imbalance of promoters and inhibitors of mineralization in the vascular wall, culminating in the creation of an organized extracellular matrix deposition. It is characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate complex and crystallization of hydroxyapatite in the tunica media, leading to vessel stiffening. The underlying initiators of dysregulated calcification maintenance are diverse. These range from the expression of bone-associated proteins, to the osteogenic transdifferentiation of smooth muscle cells to osteoblast-like cells, to the release of fragmented apoptotic bodies and mineralization competent extracellular vesicles by smooth muscle cells, which act as a nucleation site for the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals...
March 24, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mary P Kovacevic, Kenneth E Lupi, Adrian Wong, James F Gilmore, Rhynn Malloy
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), particularly direct factor Xa inhibitors, have been associated with prolongation of the prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio (INR). Although DOACs do not require monitoring, elevations in the INR have been reported in in vitro and observational studies. The literature surrounding the extent of elevation and the clinical significance is limited. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of INR elevation in hospitalized patients receiving apixaban...
March 24, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kazuyoshi Kakehi, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Heitaro Watanabe, Takashi Sonobe, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Shunichi Miyazaki
BACKGROUND: Whether the reduction of heart rate with ivabradine (IVA) could affect sympathetic activation and cardiac innervation in heart failure (HF) remains unknown. PURPOSE: The present study assessed the chronic effects of IVA and β-blocker on the systemic and local sympathetic nervous systems of hypertensive animals with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Dahl salt-sensitive rats received chronic IVA, bisoprolol (BIS), or placebo (CTL) therapy...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Chen-Shan Chen Woodcock, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its severe subtype pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) encompass a set of multifactorial diseases defined by sustained elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and subsequent death. Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by vascular remodeling in association with smooth muscle cell proliferation of the arterioles, medial thickening, and plexiform lesion formation. Despite our recent advances in understanding its pathogenesis and related therapeutic discoveries, PH still remains a progressive disease without a cure...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Xi-Ming Yang, Sushee Gadde, Jonathon P Audia, Diego F Alvarez, James M Downey, Michael V Cohen
P2Y12 receptor-blocking drugs given at reperfusion offer protection against myocardial infarction in animal models of transient coronary occlusion. Two recent reports concluded that ticagrelor was more cardioprotective than clopidogrel and attributed this to ticagrelor's unique ability to raise tissue adenosine by blocking the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. Indeed, an adenosine receptor blocker attenuated ticagrelor's protection. The related P2Y12 inhibitor cangrelor, which does not block the transporter, protects hearts only when platelets are in the perfusate, while adenosine is known to protect equally in situ blood-perfused and crystalloid-perfused isolated hearts...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Ioannis Lianos, Panagiotis Vlachakis, Danai Sfantou, Vassiliki-Maria Dragona, Charalambos Varlamos
In patients with an acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, novel P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, are proposed as "first-line" antiplatelet agents in the absence of contraindications and up to a year from the index event. However, de-escalation of treatment to clopidogrel occurs with a variable frequency in real-life practice, most commonly due to an increased bleeding potential, more frequent side effects, and a higher cost for the novel agents...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Abdel Rahman El-Naggar, Dalia Zaafar, Mohammed Elyamany, Soha Hassanin, Atef Bassyouni, Hekma Abdel-Latif
BACKGROUND: Several trials have reported that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used to improve endothelial function in addition to treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The current study investigated the effects of vildagliptin, DPP-4 inhibitor, compared to metformin on endothelial function and blood pressure through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulation in patients with T2DM and hypertension. METHODS: This study was designed as a randomized controlled parallel study...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Matthew Jackson, Sarah Callaghan, John Stapleton, Sarah Bolton, David Austin, Douglas F Muir, Andrew G C Sutton, Robert A Wright, Paul D Williams, Jim A Hall, Justin Carter, Mark A de Belder, Neil Swanson
AIMS: There are limited data on aspirin (ASA) desensitization for patients with coronary disease. We present our experience with a rapid nurse-led oral desensitization regimen in patients with aspirin sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography. METHODS: This single-center retrospective observational study includes patients with a history of ASA sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography with intent to perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). RESULTS: Between January 2012 and January 2017, 24 patients undergoing coronary angiography for stable coronary disease (7 cases) or acute coronary syndromes (non-ST-segment myocardial infarction [NSTEMI; 8 cases], STEMI [9 cases]) underwent aspirin desensitization having reported previous reactions to aspirin...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Maryam Nabati, Ghasem Janbabai, Jamil Esmailian, Jamshid Yazdani
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is a major and leading cause of death in breast cancer survivors. It can present decades after chemotherapy and can manifest in different ways; some chemotherapeutic agents have a powerful dose-dependent relationship with cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on preventing chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Our study was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involved 89 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer who were scheduled to receive chemotherapy...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anastasios Kartas, Athanasios Samaras, Dimitra Vasdeki, George Dividis, George Fotos, Eleni Paschou, Evropi Forozidou, Paraskevi Tsoukra, Eleni Kotsi, Ioannis Goulas, George Efthimiadis, Haralambos Karvounis, Apostolos Tzikas, George Giannakoulas
BACKGROUND: Proper anticoagulation is a crucial therapeutic regimen in atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the real-life anticoagulation prescriptions of AF patients upon hospital discharge. METHODS: We studied 768 patients with comorbid AF who were discharged from the cardiology ward of a tertiary hospital. We assessed the appropriateness of oral anticoagulation (OAC) regimens at discharge based on stroke risk (CHA2 DS2 -Vasc score), SAMe-TT2 R2 (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) score for vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and European labeling for nonvitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) dosing...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michelle Christina Lee, Cindy Peters, Neepa Rai, Michael Safani, Gregory S Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Madison Caldwell, Lisa Martinez, Jennifer G Foster, Dawn Sherling, Charles H Hennekens
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), principally myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, is the leading clinical and public health problem in the United States and is rapidly becoming so worldwide. Their primary prevention is promising, in theory, but difficult to achieve in practice. The principal modalities that have demonstrated efficacy include therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) and adjunctive drug therapies under the guidance of the health-care provider and tailored to the individual patient. The prevention and treatment of the pandemic of overweight and obesity and lack of regular physical activity, both of which are alarmingly common in the United States, prevention and treatment of hypertension, avoidance and cessation of cigarette smoking, adoption and maintenance of a healthy diet, and avoidance of heavy alcohol consumption all have proven benefits in decreasing the risks of a first MI and stroke as well as other clinical manifestations of CVD...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Joseph Allencherril, Mahboob Alam, Glenn Levine, Hani Jneid, Dan Atar, Robert A Kloner, Yochai Birnbaum
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is still a large source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although early reperfusion therapy has been prioritized in the modern era of percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolysis, attempts at incremental improvements in clinical outcomes by reducing MI size have not been successful so far. Herein, we review the studies that have evaluated immediate-onset antiplatelet therapy as attempts to improve meaningful clinical outcomes in ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Unfortunately, many of the adjunctive pharmacotherapies have proven to be disappointing...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Charles Mackin, Elizabeth S DeWitt, Katherine J Black, Xiaoqi Tang, Brian D Polizzotti, Sarah J van den Bosch, Mark E Alexander, John N Kheir
INTRODUCTION: Direct comparison of the effects of antiarrhythmic agents on myocardial performance may be useful in choosing between medications in critically ill patients. Studies directly comparing multiple antiarrhythmic medications are lacking. The use of an experimental heart preparation permits examination of myocardial performance under constant loading conditions. METHODS: Hearts of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 35, 402-507 g) were explanted and cannulated in working heart model with fixed preload and afterload...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Shengnan Zhao, Minglu Liang, Yilong Wang, Ji Hu, Yi Zhong, Jia Li, Kai Huang, Yiqing Li
The vascular endothelium is a continuous layer of flat polygonal cells that are in direct contact with the blood and participate in responses to inflammation. Chrysin is a flavonoid compound extracted from plants of the genus Asteraceae with a wide range of pharmacological activities and physiological activities. Here, we studied the effects of chrysin on the regulation of the proadhesion and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of the endothelium both in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that chrysin strongly inhibited Tohoku Hospital Pediatrics-1 (THP-1) cell adhesion to primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and concentration-dependently attenuated interleukin 1β-induced increases in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin messenger RNA levels and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jin Cheng, Chuang Sun, Jingyu Zhang, Qing Zou, Qimeng Hao, Yugang Xue
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is associated with high disability and mortality worldwide. This study was to explore the roles of dioscin in the myocardial IR rats and discover the related molecular mechanisms. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham, IR, IR + 15 mg/kg dioscin, IR + 30 mg/kg dioscin, and IR + 60 mg/kg dioscin. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were evaluated at 10 minutes before ischemia, immediately after ischemia, and at the beginning, middle, and end of reperfusion...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hourong Sun, Chuan-Zhen Liu, Chunxiao Liu, Mengmeng Tang, Guangqing Cao, Qiuwang Zhang, Xinghua Gu
Poly (propylene carbonate, PPC) is a new member of the aliphatic polyester family. An outstanding feature of PPC is that it produces mainly water and carbon dioxide when degraded in vivo, causing minimal side effects. This unique property together with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability makes PPC a promising material for drug delivery. In this study, we explored the effect of the sirolimus (an inhibitor of cell growth)-eluting PPC mesh on graft stenosis and its possible mechanisms in a rat arteriovenous grafting model...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Si Si, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Tom Briffa, Jenni Ilomaki, Frank Sanfilippo, Christopher M Reid, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of blood pressure lowering (BPL) agents are being prescribed for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially in the older population. The aim of this study is to describe the temporal trends and patterns of BPL dispensing among older Australians (aged ≥65 years). METHODS: We utilized prescription claims data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for a 10% random sample of people aged ≥65 years...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Matt Parriman, Allison Campolo, Amanda P Waller, Véronique A Lacombe
Diabetes is a global epidemic disease, which leads to multiorgan dysfunction, including heart disease. Diabetes results from the limited absorption of glucose into insulin-sensitive tissues. The heart is one of the main organs to utilize glucose as an energy substrate. Glucose uptake into striated muscle is regulated by a family of membrane proteins called glucose transporters (GLUTs). Although calcium channel blockers, including diltiazem, are widely prescribed drugs for cardiovascular diseases, including in patients with diabetes, their pharmacological effects on glucose metabolism are somewhat controversial...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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