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Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN

Irina M Fedorova, Denis B Tikhonov
Primary mechanism of action of local anesthetics and various anticonvulsants is the voltage-gated sodium channel block. Many of these small molecules also have other targets in nervous system of vertebrates. However, little is known about their action on invertebrate nervous system. Nevertheless, insect-based models are suggested for high-throughput screening of antiepileptic drugs. In the present work, we characterized action of lidocaine, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenytoin on the neuromuscular transition of Calliphora vicina fly larvae using conventional voltage-clamp approach...
February 8, 2019: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
George Boyan, Erica Ehrhardt
The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria features two parallel axon tracts each established early in embryogenesis by discrete pairs of pioneer neurons located at the antennal tip and whose growth cones contact so-called base pioneers en route to the brain. Here we present two antennal phenotypes in which a stereotypic dysregulation of axogenesis in a given tract is observed when only the base pioneer associated with that pathway is missing, consistent with a role for this cell type in guided axogenesis...
January 17, 2019: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Monalisa Mishra, Ishita Chakraborty, Srirupa Basu
Our study aims to describe (1) external morphology of the compound eye of Antilochus conquebertii, (2) postembryonic changes involving the eye's shape and size and (3) behaviour of the animal with respect to the organization of the compound eye. With each moult of the insect, the structural units of the compound eye increase in size as well as the number, resulting in an overall increase in eye size. The resolution of the adult eye is better than the young one. The adult possesses UV and polarization sensitivity in its eye...
January 2, 2019: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Arkady S Pivovarov, Fernando Calahorro, Robert J Walker
Na+ /K+ -pump is an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase located in the outer plasma membrane of cells. The Na+ /K+ -ATPase pumps 3 sodium ions out of cells while pumping 2 potassium ions into cells. Both cations move against their concentration gradients. This enzyme's electrogenic nature means that it has a chronic role in stabilizing the resting membrane potential of the cell, in regulating the cell volume and in the signal transduction of the cell. This review will mainly consider the role of the Na+ /K+ -pump in neurons, with an emphasis on its role in modulating neurotransmitter receptor...
November 28, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
James Dillon, Lindy Holden-Dye, Vincent O'Connor
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a class of G-protein-coupled receptor that undergo extensive interactions with scaffolding proteins, and this is intrinsic to their function as an important group of neuromodulators at glutamatergic synapses. The Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system expresses three metabotropic glutamate receptors, MGL-1, MGL-2 and MGL-3. Relatively little is known about how the function and signalling of these receptors is organised in C. elegans. To identify proteins that scaffold the MGL-1 receptor, we have conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen...
November 11, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Setareh S Chong, Anthony J Wilkinson, Sangeeta Chawla
Short, cost-effective teaching activities are a useful way of providing an integrated view on biological processes. Here we describe a brief, hands-on workshop that allows pre-university students to explore their understanding of a neurological pathway from its chemical bases to phenotype. The workshop effectively introduces the students to data collection and analysis in an enjoyable way and at an appropriate level, determined by an end of session feedback survey. The design of the workshop can be adapted and scaled to generate diverse sessions such as university teaching practicals or summer school training workshops...
November 8, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
M M Kudelska, A Lewis, C T Ng, D A Doyle, L Holden-Dye, V M O'Connor, R J Walker
Caenorhabditis elegans is an informative model to study the neural basis of feeding. A useful paradigm is one in which adult nematodes feed on a bacterial lawn which has been pre-loaded with pharmacological agents and the effect on pharyngeal pumping rate scored. A crucial aspect of this assay is the availability of good quality bacteria to stimulate pumping to maximal levels. A potential confound is the possibility that the pharmacological agent impacts bacterial viability and indirectly influences feeding rate...
November 7, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Giacomo Gattoni, Violetta Insolia, Graziella Bernocchi
Pulmonate gastropods provide unique opportunities to examine physiological and biochemical adaptation strategies when cellular metabolic activity is reduced. In this study, cytochemical changes in metacerebral neurons of the cerebral ganglia were investigated in the garden snail Cornu aspersum during the hibernation phase. The immunocytochemical expression of three cytoskeletal markers: microtubule-associate protein 2-like (MAP-2-li), phosphorylated form of tau-like (P-Tau-li) and heavy subunit of neurofilaments-like (NF-H-li), and of two calcium-binding proteins: calmodulin-like (CaM-li) and parvalbumin-like (PV-li) was compared in active and hibernated snails...
October 17, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Andrew E Christie, Meredith E Stanhope, Helen I Gandler, Tess J Lameyer, Micah G Pascual, Devlin N Shea, Andy Yu, Patsy S Dickinson, J Joe Hull
The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a model for investigating the neuromodulatory control of physiology and behavior. Prior studies have shown that multiple classes of chemicals serve as locally released/circulating neuromodulators/neurotransmitters in this species. Interestingly, while many neuroactive compounds are known from Homarus, little work has focused on identifying/characterizing the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, despite the fact that these enzymes are key components for regulating neuromodulation/neurotransmission...
October 1, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Yu Li, Huien Li, Zhigang Wang, Danyang Gao, Kun Xiao, Aihua Yan
Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) has an advanced and complicated olfactory system to identify hosts, mates and spawning locations, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play a key role by binding to volatile materials from different hosts. The full-length cDNA sequence of an OBP, AglaOBP, was cloned by RACE from an antenna cDNA library, and the protein structure and function were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Gene temporal and spatial expression was detected by real-time qPCR. AglaOBP had distinctive sequence, location and expression profiles compared with other OBPs of A...
August 31, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Kee-Chan Ahn, Glen B Baker, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Myung Jin Moon, Mee-Sook Song
Neurite outgrowth is a morphological marker of neuronal differentiation and neuroregeneration, and the process includes four essential phases, namely initiation, elongation, guidance and cessation. Intrinsic and extrinsic signaling molecules seem to involve morphological changes of neurite outgrowth via various cellular signaling cascades phase transition. Although mechanisms associated with neurite outgrowth have been studied extensively, little is known about how phase transition is regulated during neurite outgrowth...
August 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Bora Ergin, Nuhan Purali
Crayfish is a common model animal for different experimental purposes. However, the lack of information about the genetic properties of the animal limits its use in comparison to other model animals. In the present study, a putative crayfish sodium/calcium exchanger gene has firstly been cloned in ganglia cDNA samples by conducting a series of PCR experiments, where a set of degenerate and specific primers and RACE method were used. The complete sequence is 2955 bp, and the ORF is 2718 bp in length. Molecular properties of the calculated peptide were similar to the sodium/calcium exchangers reported in the other species...
July 17, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Monica G Risley, Stephanie P Kelly, Justin Minnerly, Kailiang Jia, Ken Dawson-Scully
Increased neuronal excitability causes seizures with debilitating symptoms. Effective and noninvasive treatments are limited for easing symptoms, partially due to the complexity of the disorder and lack of knowledge of specific molecular faults. An unexplored, novel target for seizure therapeutics is the cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, which targets downstream K+ channels, a mechanism similar to Retigabine, a recently FDA-approved antiepileptic drug. Our results demonstrate that increased PKG activity decreased seizure duration in C...
May 30, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
During development, axonogenesis, an integral part of neurogenesis, is based on well-concerted events comprising generation, rearrangement, migration, elongation, and adhesion of neurons. Actin, specifically the crosstalk between the guardians of actin polymerization, like enabled, chickadee, capping protein plays an essential role in crafting several events of axonogenesis. Recent evidences reflect multifaceted role of microRNA during axonogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of bantam miRNA, a well-established miRNA in Drosophila, in regulating the actin organization during brain development...
May 18, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Saurabh Sarkar, Arnab Roy, Sumedha Roy
Flubendiamide is widely used in agricultural fields to exterminate a broad spectrum of pests (lepidopteran insects) by disrupting their muscle function. The main objective of this study was to find the effects of flubendiamide on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster (dipteran insect). In the present study, different sub-lethal concentrations of Flubendiamide caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and increase in cytochrome P450 activity in adult D. melanogaster...
April 26, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Boworn Soonthornsumrith, Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Ronnarong Palasoon, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean species which has also been extensively used as a model in neuroscience research. The crustacean central nervous system is a highly complex structure, especially the brain. However, little information is available on the brain structure, especially the three-dimensional organization. In this study, we demonstrated the three-dimensional structure and histology of the brain of M. rosenbergii together with the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and ovary as well as its effects on ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Fernando Calahorro, Patricia G Izquierdo
Synapses are specialized contact sites that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. Important physical interactions across the synapse are mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules. These adhesions regulate formation of synapses during development and play a role during mature synaptic function. Importantly, genes regulating synaptogenesis and axon regeneration are conserved across the animal phyla. Genetic screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of molecules required for synapse patterning and assembly...
March 12, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
The brain of arachnids contains a special neuropil area called the arcuate body (AB), whose function has been widely discussed. Its growth and proportion in the brain volume during postembryogenesis have been investigated only in several spider species. Our allometric study is aimed at determining to what extent the development of the AB in Eratigena atrica, a spider with unique biology and behaviour, is similar to the development of this body in other species. We put forward a hypothesis of allometric growth of this body in relation to the volume of the central nervous system (CNS) and its neuropil as well as in relation to the volume of the brain and its neuropil...
March 10, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Andrew E Christie, Alexandra Miller, Rebecca Fernandez, Evyn S Dickinson, Audrey Jordan, Jessica Kohn, Mina C Youn, Patsy S Dickinson
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) is a well-known model for investigating neuropeptidergic control of rhythmic behavior. Among the peptides known to modulate the STNS are the C-type allatostatins (AST-Cs). In the lobster, Homarus americanus, three AST-Cs are known. Two of these, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (AST-C I) and GNGDGRLYWRCYFNAVSCF (AST-C III), have non-amidated C-termini, while the third, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (AST-C II), is C-terminally amidated. Here, antibodies were generated against one of the non-amidated peptides (AST-C I) and against the amidated isoform (AST-C II)...
January 13, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Sarah A Abdelmassih, Everett Cochrane, Sean G Forrester
Xenopus laevis oocytes have been extensively used as a heterologous expression system for the study of ion channels. While used successfully worldwide as tool for expressing and characterizing ion channels from a wide range of species, the limited longevity of oocytes once removed from the animal can pose significant challenges. In this study, we evaluate a simple and useful method that extends the longevity of Xenopus oocytes after removal from the animal and quantitatively assessed the reliability of the electrophysiological date obtained...
November 28, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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