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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Vishwas P Pardhi, Tejesh Verma, S J S Flora, Hardik Chandasana, Rahul Shukla
Approximately 40 % drugs in the market are having poor aqueous solubility related problems and 70 % molecules in discovery pipeline are being practically insoluble in water. Nanocrystals is a prominent tool to solve the issue related to poor aqueous solubility and helps in improving the bioavailability of many drugs as reported in literature. Nanocrystals can be prepared by top down methods, bottom up methods and combination methods. Many patented products such as Nanocrystals®, DissoCubes®, NANOEDGE® and SmartCrystals®, etc...
February 15, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Afsana, Vineet Jain, Nafis Haider, Keerti Jain
BACKGROUND: Personalized medicines are becoming more popular as they enables the use of patient's genomics and hence help in better drug design with fewer side effects. In fact several doses can be combined into one dosage form which suits the patient's demography. 3 Dimensional (3D) printing technology for personalized medicine is a modern day treatment method based on genomics of patient. METHODS: 3D printing technology uses digitally controlled devices for formulating API and excipients in a layer by layer pattern for developing a suitable personalized drug delivery system as per the need of patient...
February 15, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bahareh Ghiasi, Diana Sarokhani, Farid Najafi, Morteza Motedayen, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common malignant cancer in men worldwide and after lung cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prostate cancer and metformin consumption in men. METHOD: The current study is a systematic and meta-analysis review based on the PRISMA statement. To access the studies of domestic and foreign databases, Iran Medex, SID, Magiran, Iran Doc, Medlib, ProQuest, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and the Google Scholar search engine were searched during the 2009-2018 period for related keywords...
February 15, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
James E Klaunig
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major cause death in the worldwide. The etiology of cancer is linked environmental and genetic inheritance causes. Approximately 90 percent of all human cancers have an environmental cause (non-genetic inheritance) predominantly through lifestyle choices (smoking, diet, UV radiation) with the remainder infections and chemical exposure. Cancer is a multistage process that involves mutational changes and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Research has firmly established a causal and contributory role of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in cancer initiation and progression...
February 15, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Panteleimon Pantelidis, Michail Sideris, Margus Viigimaa, Konstantinos Avranas, Pavlos Deligkaris, Ioanna Zografou, Dragan Lovic
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone, through its actions on Mineralcorticosteroid Receptors (MR), controls fluid and electrolyte balance, but also exerts various direct deleterious actions on the vasculature. A number of aldosterone antagonists have been manufactured to reverse these effects. OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive review of the underlying mechanisms of the actions of aldosterone and its antagonists in cardiovascular disease. METHOD: The relevant studies indexed in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, published from 2003 to May 2018 were identified and reported...
February 14, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Saloni Daftardar, Rabin Neupane, Sai Hs Boddu, Jwala Renukuntla, Amit Tiwari
Low frequency ultrasound-assisted drug delivery has been widely investigated as a non-invasive method to enhance the transdermal penetration of drugs. Using this technique, a brief application of ultrasound is used to permeabilize skin for a prolonged time. In this review, an overview on ultrasound is detailed to help explain the parameters that could be modulated to obtain the desired ultrasound parameters for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. The mechanisms of enhancement and the latest developments in the area of ultrasound-assisted transdermal drug delivery are discussed...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ahmet Akif Kızılkurtlu, Tuğçe Polat, Gül Banu Aydın, Ali Akpek
Lung-on-a-chip is a micro device that combines the techniques of bioengineering, microbiology, polymer science and microfluidics disciplines in order to mimic physicochemical features and microenvironments, multicellular constructions, cell-cell interfaces of a human lung. Specifically, most novel lung on a chip designs consist of two micro-channeled outer parts, flexible and porous Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane to create separation of air-blood chamber and subsidiary vacuum channels which enable stretching of the PDMS membrane to mimic movement mechanisms of the lung...
February 8, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xiaoyun Li, Seyed Masoud Moosavi-Basri, Rahul Sheth, Xiaoying Wang, Yu Shrike Zhang
The role of endovascular interventions has progressed rapidly over the past several decades. While animal models have long served as the mainstay for the advancement of this field, the use of in vitro models has become increasingly widely adopted with recent advances in engineering technologies. Here we review the strategies, mainly including bioprinting and microfabrication, that allow for fabrication of biomimetic vascular models that will potentially serve to supplement the conventional animal models for convenient investigations of endovascular interventions...
February 8, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hao Wan, Chenlei Gu, Ying Gan, Weixin Wei, Kai Zhu, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
Drug efficacy and toxicity are key factors of drug development. Conventional 2D cell models or animal models have their limitations for the efficacy or toxicity assessment in preclinical assays, which induce the failure of candidate drugs or withdrawal of approved drugs. Human organs-on-chips (OOCs) emerged to present human-specific properties based on their 3D bioinspired structures and functions in the recent decade. In this review, basic definition and superiority of OOCs will be introduced. Moreover, a specific OOC, heart-on-a-chip (HOC) will be focused...
February 7, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jungmok Seo, Yeontaek Lee, Jungmok Seo
For the last decades, bioengineers have developed myriad biomaterials for the regenerative medicine. Developments of screening techniques is essential in understanding complex behavior of cells in the biological microenvironments. Conventional approaches to screening of cellular behavior in vitro have limitations in terms of accuracy, reusability, labor-intensive screening, and versatility. Thus, drug screening and toxicology test through in vitro screening platforms have been underwhelming. Recent advances in the high-throughput screening platforms somewhat overcomes the limitations of in vitro screening platforms via repopulating human tissues' biophysical and biomchemical microenvironments with the ability to continual monitoring of miniaturized human tissue behavior...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ayça Bal Öztürk, Beatrice Miccoli, Meltem Avci-Adali, Ferzaneh Mogtader, Fatemeh Sharifi, Berivan Çeçen, Gökçen Yaşayan, Dries Braeken, Emine Alarcin
The skin is the largest and most exposed organ in the human body. Not only it is involved in numerous biological processes essential for life but also it represents a significant end point for the application of pharmaceuticals. The area of in vitro skin tissue engineering has been progressing extensively in the recent years. Advanced in vitro human skin models strongly impact the discovery of new drugs thanks to the enhanced screening efficiency and reliability. Nowadays, animal models are largely employed at the preclinical stage of new pharmaceutical compounds development for both risk assessment evaluation and pharmacokinetic studies...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
I-Chi Lee
The oncology pharmaceutical research spent a shocking amount of money on target validation and drug optimization in preclinical models because many oncology drugs fail during clinical trial III. One of the most important reason of oncology drug failures in clinical trials may due to the poor predictive tool of existing preclinical models. Therefore, in cancer research and personalized medicine field, it is critical to improve the effectiveness of preclinical predictions of the drug response of patients to therapies and to reduce costly failures in clinical trials...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Nagarani Thotakura, Lokesh Kaushik, Vipin Kumar, Simran Preet, Penke Vijaya Babu
Despite the fact that protein and peptide therapeutics are widely employed in the treatment of various diseases, their delivery is posing an unembellished challenge to the scientists. It was discovered that delivery of these therapeutic systems through oral route is easy with high patient compliance. However, proteolytic degradation and absorption through the mucosal epithelium are the barriers in this route. These issues can be minimized by the use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers, different carrier systems or either by direct modification...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mohini Mishra, Pramod Kumar, Jitendra Singh Rajawat, Ruchi Malik, Gitanjali Sharma, Amit Modgil
Growing interest in the field of nanotechnology has led to its emergence in the field of medicine too. Nanomedicines encompass the various medical tools, diagnostic agents and the drug delivery vehicles being evolved with the advancements in the aura of nanotechnology. This review emphasizes on providing a cursory literature on the past events that led to the procession of nanomedicines, various novel drug delivery systems describing their structural features along with the pros and cons associated with them and the nanodrugs that made a move to the clinical practice...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Md Shoaib Alam, Ayesha Akhtar, Iftikhar Ahsan, Sheikh Shafiq-Un-Nabi
BACKGROUND: 3D printed pharmaceutical products are revolutionizing the pharmaceutical industry as a prospective mean to achieve personalized method of treatments acquired to the specially designed need of each patient. It will depend upon age, weight, concomitants, pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetic profile of the patient and thus transforming the current pharmaceutical market as a potential alternative to conventional medicine. 3D printing technology is getting more consideration in new medicine formulation development as a modern and better alternative to control many challenges associated with conventional medicinal products...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Samuel Legeay, Kiên Trấn, Yannick Abatuci, Hélène Justiniano, Claire Lugnier, Olivier Duval, Jean-Jacques Helesbeux, Sébastien Faure
BACKGROUND: Among polyphenolic compounds suggested to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and to explain the "French paradox", the anthocyanidin delphinidin (Dp) has been reported to support at least partly the vascular beneficial effects of dietary polyphenolic compounds including those from fruits and related products as red wine. It has also been highlighted that Dp interacts directly with the active site of estrogen receptor α (ERα), leading to an activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway thus contributing to the prevention of endothelial dysfunction in mice aorta...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chi Ma, Dong-Feng Han, Hang Jin, Ying-Ying Cheng, Hai-Xia Hu, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: Ulinastatin (UTI) plays the beneficial roles in modifying cerebral ischemic injury evoked by cardiac arrest (CA). XueBiJing (XBJ), comprised of extracts from Chinese herbals, has been used for the treatment of sepsis and ischemic disorders linked to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. The current study was to find interventions that can enhance effectiveness of these drugs and further to provide a fundamental for their rational application in clinical practice. Thus, we examined how apoptosis signal in the hippocampus is engaged in a facilitating role of UTI and XBJ in improving neural injury and neurological functions after transient cerebral ischemia...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Wang Junjie, Hao Dongsheng, Sun Lei, Li Hongzhuo, Sun Changying
BACKGROUND: Testosterone insufficiency may play a role in age-related decreases in bone mass density (BMD) and osteoporosis in aging men. Testosterone replacement therapy (T therapy) seems to be a simple and convenient way to increase BMD and improve the condition of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of T therapy in increasing BMD among older men with low serum testosterone concentrations. METHODS: A comprehensive search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central databases was undertaken for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of T therapy on osteoporosis in aging men...
February 6, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz
BACKGROUND: Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) remains one of the most common vision threatening complications of phacoemulsification cataract surgery (PCS). Pharmacological therapy is the current mainstay of both prophylaxis, and treatment of patients undergoing PCS. We aimed to review of pharmacological treatment options for PCME, which primarily includes topical steroids, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), periocular and intravitreal steroids, as well as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy...
February 5, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Christine P S Ho, Timothy Y Y Lai
BACKGROUND: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in adults is most commonly associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pathologic myopia. Though less common, CNV can also develop from other conditions such as uveitis, central serous chorioretinopathy, angioid streaks, intraocular tumors, hereditary chorioretinal dystrophies, or can be idiopathic in origin. If left untreated, CNV may cause visual loss because of exudation of intraretinal or subretinal fluid, retinal or subretinal hemorrhage, or fibrosis involving the macula...
February 5, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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