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Substance Use & Misuse

Kristoffer Rehder, Sarah Bowen
INTRODUCTION: In the general population, significant relations have been shown between experienced trauma and cannabis use. Approximately three out of four college students report experiencing at least one-lifetime traumatic event, putting them at greater risk for developing substance use disorder (SUD), and college students report using cannabis to cope with negative effect and stress. However, PTSD symptom severity predicting cannabis use in the college population has not been investigated...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Thomas W Wojciechowski
AIMS: Investigate patterns of change and continuity in opioid use among juvenile offenders during adolescence and early adulthood. Identify demographic characteristics of trajectory groups of opioid users. Examine the relevance of risk factors for predicting assignment to opioid use trajectory groups. METHODS: The Pathways to Desistance sample, consisting of longitudinal data of 1,134 juvenile offenders, was utilized in analyses. Using group-based trajectory modeling, patterns of opioid use were identified...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Carl A Latkin, Lauren Dayton, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl-related mortality has skyrocketed among people who use opioids (PWUO) in North America. The current study of PWUO aims to examine the perceived fentanyl risk and training needs; fatal overdose prevention behaviors; and, feasibility of a peer education approach to reducing fentanyl-related fatal overdoses in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. METHODS: 316 street-recruited PWUO were interviewed about fentanyl in Baltimore, MD. RESULTS: Most participants (56%) reported that "all" or "almost all" heroin in Baltimore was adulterated with fentanyl and were worried (75%) about their drug buddies overdosing on fentanyl...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Chris C Martin
BACKGROUND: In health sociology, the prevailing consensus is that socioeconomic status (SES) lowers illness risk. This model neglects the fact that unhealthful consumption patterns may covary with affluence. The current study examines consumption of drugs and alcohol among affluent U.S. college students. OBJECTIVES: The article tests the hypothesis that undergraduate students from high-SES households have higher rates and levels of drug and alcohol consumption than their peers...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Danielle L Reaves, Paul Christiansen, Emma J Boyland, Jason C G Halford, Clare H Llewellyn, Charlotte A Hardman
BACKGROUND: Negative personality characteristics have been implicated in promoting overconsumption of both alcohol and food. Furthermore, positive motivations (enhancement) and negative motivations (coping) may mediate the association between personality and alcohol or food (over)consumption. OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that i.) drinking to cope and ii.) eating to cope would mediate the association between hopelessness/anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking/unhealthy snacking, respectively, and iii...
February 12, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Giovanni Aresi, Simon C Moore, Damon M Berridge, Elena Marta
BACKGROUND: Travelling away from home can be associated with fewer limits on behavior, particularly for students who participate in exchange programs. AIMS: To examine the effects of eight moderators on change in alcohol use and related negative outcomes, drug use and unprotected sexual behavior in European study abroad students before, during, and after their time abroad. METHODS: A three wave (before departure, while abroad, and after their return) longitudinal design collecting data on the frequency and volume of alcohol consumed, heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related outcomes, drug use, and unprotected casual sex...
February 12, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Louisa M Holmes, Shannon Lea Watkins, Nadra E Lisha, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Young adults are at high risk for using flavored tobacco, including menthol and underrepresented populations, such as Latino and African American young adults, are at particular risk. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to identify sociodemographic correlates of menthol use among young adult smokers and examine the potential role of experienced discrimination in explaining any associations. METHODS: We conducted a probabilistic multimode household survey of young adults (aged 18-26) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties in California in 2014 (n = 1,350)...
February 12, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Dan Shlosberg, Ben H Amit, Gil Zalsman, Amir Krivoy, Haim Mell, Shaul Lev-Ran, Gal Shoval
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior studies of residual cognitive deficits in abstinent substance-use disorder (SUD) patients, exhibited conflicting reports and a substantial patient selection bias. The aim of this study was to test the cognitive function of a sample of chronic abstinent SUD patients in a therapeutic-community. METHODS: The IntegNeuroTM cognitive test battery was used for a retrospective cross-sectional study of cognitive functioning of an unselected sample (n = 105) of abstinent male residents of a therapeutic-community...
February 7, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Anthony Spirito, Julie R Bromberg, T Charles Casper, Thomas Chun, Michael J Mello, Colette C Mull, Rohit P Shenoi, Cheryl Vance, Fahd Ahmad, Lalit Bajaj, Kathleen M Brown, Lauren S Chernick, Daniel M Cohen, Joel Fein, Timothy Horeczko, Michael N Levas, B McAninch, Michael C Monuteaux, Jackie Grupp-Phelan, Elizabeth C Powell, Alexander Rogers, Brian Suffoletto, James G Linakis
BACKGROUND: The pediatric emergency department (PED) represents an opportune time for alcohol and drug screening. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) recommends a two-question alcohol screen for adolescents as a predictor of alcohol and drug misuse. OBJECTIVE: A multi-site PED study was conducted to determine the association between the NIAAA two-question alcohol screen and adolescent cannabis use disorders (CUD), cigarette smoking, and lifetime use of other drugs...
February 6, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
William S John, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) is well-suited as an opportunity to increase treatment access for prescription opioid use disorder (POUD). We examined sex differences in ED utilization among individuals with POUD to understand potential sex-specific treatment barriers and needs. METHODS: Data from the 2005-2014 National Surveys on Drug use and Health were analyzed to examine the prevalence and correlates of past-year ED utilization among male and female adults aged 18 or older with POUD (n = 4412)...
February 6, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Gwendolyn R Cody, Binhuan Wang, Alissa R Link, Scott E Sherman
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and chronic pain are prevalent, comorbid conditions with significant consequences for individuals and society. Despite overlap between smoking and chronic pain, and pain's role as a potential barrier to quitting, there are no validated interventions targeted for smokers with chronic pains (SWCPs). OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of urban inpatient smokers with and without chronic pain to inform the development of SWCP-targeted cessation interventions...
February 1, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Michael W Plankey, Michael Li, Xinguang Chen, Pamela J Surkan, Steve Shoptaw, Eileen Martin, Ronald Cohen, Ned Sacktor, Robert L Cook
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of marijuana on cognition, particularly in the context of HIV is not clear, as extant research shows mixed findings. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between current and cumulative exposure to marijuana and changes in cognitive processing speed and flexibility in 788 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 1,132 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) men followed for up to 17 years in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. RESULTS: Among HIV+ men only, current daily marijuana use compared to none-use, was significantly associated with a greater annual percentage decline in cognitive processing speed assessed with the Trail Making Test A (TMTA) (β=-0...
January 30, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Benjamin W Chaffee, Elizabeth T Couch, Janelle Urata, Stuart A Gansky, Gwen Essex, Jing Cheng
BACKGROUND: Use of smokeless tobacco (ST, moist snuff and chewing tobacco) is elevated among male rural youth, particularly participants in certain sports, including baseball. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess factors associated with adolescent male athletes' ST-related behaviors over time, including: baseline use, initiation, and progression in use intensity in a school-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: Baseline and one-year follow-up questionnaires assessed sociodemographic characteristics, environmental factors, and tobacco-related perceptions and behaviors among 9- to12th-grade interscholastic baseball players in 36 rural California schools...
January 29, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Alexandra Voce, Bianca Calabria, Richard Burns, David Castle, Rebecca McKetin
OBJECTIVES: The psychiatric symptom profile of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP) has varied considerably across studies of different research designs. We performed a systematic review to examine the available evidence for specific psychotic symptoms associated with MAP, including the clinical course and longitudinal changes in this symptom profile. METHODS: Five key electronic databases were searched to identify studies that examined the symptom profile or clinical course of MAP in individuals identified as having MAP...
January 29, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Tara P McCoy, Megan L Robbins
BACKGROUND: Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) have shown poorer psychosocial outcomes compared to their counterparts (non-ACOAs). These poorer outcomes, however, are not consistently present between groups. Investigating psychological markers of such functioning can help to highlight nuances between ACOAs and non-ACOAs even when mean differences of psychosocial outcomes are not present. This is pertinent to the study of ACOAs to understand predictors of positive well-being trajectories...
January 29, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Tricia H Witte, Amber Wright, Elizabeth Ashley Stinson
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether certain misperceptions of substance use disorders (SUDs) would influence stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals who have SUDs. METHOD: Using a between-subjects design, 1059 young adults (77.2% women) read vignettes describing characters with high or low levels of the following factors: responsibility, controllability, immorality, willpower, consequences, and accountability. Participants then completed measures of stigma toward each character (i...
January 29, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Rathi Ramji, Maria Nilsson, Bengt Arnetz, Ywonne Wiklund, Judy Arnetz
INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe use amongst adolescents is on the rise globally. Thus, there is a need to understand adolescents 'attitudes towards and perceptions of waterpipe use in order to develop specific interventions against this form of tobacco use. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted among 37 Swedish adolescents (14 boys and 23 girls) from grades 10 to 12. Waterpipe users and nonusers were interviewed separately, with two groups each for users and nonusers...
January 26, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Joel W Grube
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying associations between early drinking and problems are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated (a) associations between early age of first intoxication (≤15 years) and past year drinking in different contexts and (b) whether early age of first intoxication is differentially associated with problems in these contexts. METHODS: We used survey data collected in 2013-2014 from 405 past-year adolescent drinkers in 24 midsized California cities...
January 24, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Katherine McLean, Shannon M Monnat, Khary Rigg, Glenn E Sterner, Ashton Verdery
BACKGROUND: Urban areas in the United States have experienced a dramatic surge in fentanyl overdose deaths since 2014, a trend affecting both larger and smaller metropolitan areas. Encompassing only 1.2 million residents, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, nevertheless saw 412 fentanyl-involved deaths in 2016, a number surpassed only by New York City and Cook County (Chicago), Illinois. OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to describe opioid users' perceptions of fentanyl in Allegheny and three adjacent counties; it further considers how the drug's emergence shapes some users' market behaviors and consumption practices...
January 24, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Jacqueline Homel, Diana Warren
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in the relationship between parent drinking and adolescent drinking are poorly understood. As parental alcohol use is a primary early exposure to alcohol for adolescents, it is important to understand how consequences may differ for adolescent males and females. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to examine gender differences in the relationship between mother's and father's heavy episodic drinking, and its combination, and adolescent drinking...
January 24, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
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