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Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia

J Faria, G Negalha, A Azevedo, F Martel
Metformin has been the first-line drug for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades, being presently the most widely prescribed antihyperglycemic drug. Retrospective studies associate the use of metformin with a reduction in cancer incidence and cancer-related death. However, despite extensive research about the molecular effects of metformin in cancer cells, its mode of action remains controversial. The major molecular targets of metformin include complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), but AMPK-independent effects of metformin have also been described...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Zsófia Pénzváltó, Jane Qian Chen, Clifford G Tepper, Ryan R Davis, Matthew T Silvestrini, Maxine Umeh-Garcia, Colleen Sweeney, Alexander D Borowsky
In order to develop a practical model of breast cancer, with in vitro and syngeneic, immune-intact, in vivo growth capacity, we established a primary cell line derived from a mammary carcinoma in the transgenic FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-ErbB2*)NDL2-5Mul mouse, referred to as "NDLUCD ". The cell line is adapted to standard cell culture and can be transplanted into syngeneic FVB/N mice. The line maintains a stable phenotype over multiple in vitro passages and rounds of in vivo transplantation. NDLUCD tumors in FVB/N mice exhibit high expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 and signaling molecules downstream of ErbB2...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Nikolay Avtandilyan, Hayarpi Javrushyan, Anna Karapetyan, Armen Trchounian
Breast cancer has high mortality rates among the women in the Republic of Armenia. It is now evident that nitric oxide plays important roles in various stages of carcinogenesis such as oncogene activation, tumor suppressor genes, modulation of apoptosis and metastasis. Advances in our understanding of the metabolism and molecular functions of arginine alterations in cancer have led to resurgence in the interest of targeting arginine catabolism, as an anticancer strategy. NOS inhibitors have been proposed, as a way to treat cancer...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Laurence Finot, Eric Chanat, Frederic Dessauge
Milk production is highly dependent on the optimal development of the mammary epithelium. It is therefore essential to better understand mammary epithelial cell growth and maintenance from the related epithelial lineage during the animal life. Here, we characterized the epithelial lineage at puberty, lactation and dry-off in bovine using the cell surface markers CD49f , CD24, and CD10. The pubertal period was characterized by a high proportion of CD49f pos cells corresponding to various epithelial subpopulations, notably the CD24pos subpopulations...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Hazel Gardner, Ching Tat Lai, Leigh Ward, Donna Geddes
Milk ejection is essential for effective milk removal during breastfeeding and pumping, and for continued milk synthesis. Many women are unable to accurately sense milk ejection to determine whether their infant is receiving milk or, when pumping, to switch the pump to a more effective expression pattern. To determine if changes in bioimpedance parameters are associated with milk ejection in the lactating breast during pumping. 30 lactating women participated in 2 pumping sessions within 2 weeks of each other...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Eirikur Briem, Saevar Ingthorsson, Gunnhildur Asta Traustadottir, Bylgja Hilmarsdottir, Thorarinn Gudjonsson
The human female breast gland is composed of branching epithelial ducts that extend from the nipple towards the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), which are the functional, milk-producing units of the gland and the site of origin of most breast cancers. The epithelium of ducts and TDLUs is composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of contractile myoepithelial cells, separated from the vascular-rich stroma by a basement membrane. The luminal- and myoepithelial cells share an origin and in recent years, there has been increasing understanding of how these cell types interact and how they contribute to breast cancer...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Helga Bergholtz, Tonje Gulbrandsen Lien, Giske Ursin, Marit Muri Holmen, Åslaug Helland, Therese Sørlie, Vilde Drageset Haakensen
High mammographic density (MD) is associated with a 4-6 times increase in breast cancer risk. For post-menopausal women, MD often decreases over time, but little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms. MD reflects breast tissue composition, and may be associated with microenvironment subtypes previously identified in tumor-adjacent normal tissue. Currently, these subtypes have not been explored in normal breast tissue. We obtained biopsies from breasts of healthy women at two different time points several years apart and performed microarray gene expression analysis...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Jason I Herschkowitz, Fariba Behbod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Hugo Villanueva, Sandra Grimm, Sagar Dhamne, Kimal Rajapakshe, Adriana Visbal, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Sean M Hartig, Cristian Coarfa, Dean P Edwards
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to most types of invasive breast cancer (IBC). Although it is estimated only one third of untreated patients with DCIS will progress to IBC, standard of care for treatment is surgery and radiation. This therapeutic approach combined with a lack of reliable biomarker panels to predict DCIS progression is a major clinical problem. DCIS shares the same molecular subtypes as IBC including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive luminal subtypes, which encompass the majority (60-70%) of DCIS...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Rebecca S DeVaux, Jason I Herschkowitz
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is an early breast cancer lesion that is considered a nonobligate precursor to development of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Although only a small subset of DCIS lesions are predicted to progress into a breast cancer, distinguishing innocuous from minacious DCIS lesions remains a clinical challenge. Thus, patients diagnosed with DCIS will undergo surgery with the potential for radiation and hormone therapy. This has led to a current state of overdiagnosis and overtreatment...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Kaleigh Doke, Shirley Butler, Melissa P Mitchell
Treatment for ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) has historically been extrapolated from studies of invasive breast cancer. Accepted local therapy approaches range from small local excisions, with or without radiation, to bilateral mastectomies. Systemic treatment with endocrine therapy is often recommended for hormone positive patients. With improvements in imaging, pathologic review, and treatment techniques in the modern era, combined with new information regarding tumor biology, the management of DCIS is rapidly evolving...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Michelle S Han, Seema A Khan
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a non-obligatory precursor to invasive breast carcinoma, with a variable natural history and biological potential for progression to invasive disease. Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have applied the therapeutic principles used for invasive carcinoma to treat DCIS (surgery, with or without breast radiotherapy, and post-operative endocrine therapy), with excellent survival outcomes, and in-breast recurrence rates that range from 0.5 to 1% annually. However, half of such recurrences are again in-situ lesions, and intensive therapy is likely not necessary for all patients...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Vidya C Sinha, Helen Piwnica-Worms
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive proliferative growth in the breast that serves as a non-obligate precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. The widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to a steep increase in the detection of DCIS, which now comprises approximately 20% of new breast cancer diagnoses in the United States. Interestingly, the intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) that has been observed in invasive breast cancers may have been established early in tumorigenesis, given the vast and varied ITH that has been detected in DCIS...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Andrew C Nelson, Heather L Machado, Kathryn L Schwertfeger
Refinements in early detection, surgical and radiation therapy, and hormone receptor-targeted treatments have improved the survival rates for breast cancer patients. However, the ability to reliably identify which non-invasive lesions and localized tumors have the ability to progress and/or metastasize remains a major unmet need in the field. The current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies focus on intrinsic alterations within carcinoma cells that are closely associated with proliferation. However, substantial accumulating evidence has indicated that permissive changes in the stromal tissues surrounding the carcinoma play an integral role in breast cancer tumor initiation and progression...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Fariba Behbod, Angelica M Gomes, Heather L Machado
Breast cancer development is a multi-step process in which genetic and molecular heterogeneity occurs at multiple stages. Ductal carcinoma arises from pre-invasive lesions such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which progress to invasive and metastatic cancer. The feasibility of obtaining tissue samples from all stages of progression from the same patient is low, and thus molecular studies dissecting the mechanisms that mediate the transition from pre-invasive DCIS to invasive carcinoma have been hampered...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Shira Bernard, Megan Myers, Wei Bin Fang, Brandon Zinda, Curtis Smart, Diana Lambert, An Zou, Fang Fan, Nikki Cheng
With improved screening methods, the numbers of abnormal breast lesions diagnosed in women have been increasing over time. However, it remains unclear whether these breast lesions will develop into invasive cancers. To more effectively predict the outcome of breast lesions and determine a more appropriate course of treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate progression of non-invasive lesions to invasive breast cancers. A hallmark of invasive breast cancers is the accumulation of fibroblasts...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Eman S A Saad, Jacqueline S Y Lam, Awf A Al-Khan, Mourad Tayebi, Michael J Day, Samantha J Richardson, Janine A Danks
Mixed tumors are characterized by the histological identification of two or more cell types. Commonly, a mixture of epithelial and myoepithelial cells is included in abundant stroma, which can consist of myxoid, chondroid or bony matrices. Spontaneously arising mixed tumors are rare lesions in the human breast but are common in human salivary glands and canine mammary glands. Subtle histopathological characteristics and overlapping attributes of malignant lesions with other benign lesions can lead to a diagnostic challenge...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Nikitha K Pallegar, Chantae J Garland, Mathepan Mahendralingam, Alicia M Viloria-Petit, Sherri L Christian
Cancer metastases are accountable for almost 90% of all human cancer related deaths including from breast cancer (BC). Adipocytes can alter the tumor microenvironment, which can promote metastasis by inducing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC cells. However, the role of adipocytes during the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), that can be important in metastasis, is not clear. To understand the effect of adipocytes on the BC progression, there is a requirement for a better in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) co-culture system that mimics the breast tissue and allows for more accurate analysis of EMT and MET...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Hugo Villanueva, Sandra L Grimm, Sagar Dhamne, Kimal Rajapakshe, Adriana P Visbal, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Sean M Hartig, Cristian Coarfa, Dean P Edwards
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes.
November 21, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Ha Youn Shin, Lothar Hennighausen, Kyung Hyun Yoo
The de novo formation of milk-secreting mammary epithelium during pregnancy is regulated by prolactin through activation of the transcription factor STAT5, which stimulates the expression of several hundred mammary-specific genes. In addition to its key role in activating gene expression in mammary tissue, STAT5, which is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types, implements T cell-specific programs controlled by interleukins. However, the mechanisms by which STAT5 controls cell-specific genetic programs activated by distinct cytokines remain relatively unknown...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
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