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Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology

Ruth Lehmann
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October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
George Mountoufaris, Daniele Canzio, Chiamaka L Nwakeze, Weisheng V Chen, Tom Maniatis
The ability of neurites of individual neurons to distinguish between themselves and neurites from other neurons and to avoid self (self-avoidance) plays a key role in neural circuit assembly in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Similarly, when individual neurons of the same type project into receptive fields of the brain, they must avoid each other to maximize target coverage (tiling). Counterintuitively, these processes are driven by highly specific homophilic interactions between cell surface proteins that lead to neurite repulsion rather than adhesion...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Robert G Parton
The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is not a simple sheet of lipids and proteins but is differentiated into subdomains with crucial functions. Caveolae, small pits in the plasma membrane, are the most abundant surface subdomains of many mammalian cells. The cellular functions of caveolae have long remained obscure, but a new molecular understanding of caveola formation has led to insights into their workings. Caveolae are formed by the coordinated action of a number of lipid-interacting proteins to produce a microdomain with a specific structure and lipid composition...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
C E Wagner, K M Wheeler, K Ribbeck
We review what is currently understood about how the structure of the primary solid component of mucus, the glycoprotein mucin, gives rise to the mechanical and biochemical properties of mucus that are required for it to perform its diverse physiological roles. Macroscale processes such as lubrication require mucus of a certain stiffness and spinnability, which are set by structural features of the mucin network, including the identity and density of cross-links and the degree of glycosylation. At the microscale, these same features affect the mechanical environment experienced by small particles and play a crucial role in establishing an interaction-based filter...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Edith Pierre-Jerome, Colleen Drapek, Philip N Benfey
A major challenge in developmental biology is unraveling the precise regulation of plant stem cell maintenance and the transition to a fully differentiated cell. In this review, we highlight major themes coordinating the acquisition of cell identity and subsequent differentiation in plants. Plant cells are immobile and establish position-dependent cell lineages that rely heavily on external cues. Central players are the hormones auxin and cytokinin, which balance cell division and differentiation during organogenesis...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Leif Oxburgh
The nephron is a multifunctional filtration device equipped with an array of sophisticated sensors. For appropriate physiological function in the human and mouse, nephrons must be stereotypically arrayed in large numbers, and this essential structural property that defines the kidney is determined during its fetal development. This review explores the process of nephron determination in the fetal kidney, providing an overview of the foundational literature in the field as well as exploring new developments in this dynamic research area...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Roni Rak, Orna Dahan, Yitzhak Pilpel
The pool of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules in cells allows the ribosome to decode genetic information. This repertoire of molecular decoders is positioned in the crossroad of the genome, the transcriptome, and the proteome. Omics and systems biology now allow scientists to explore the entire repertoire of tRNAs of many organisms, revealing basic exciting biology. The tRNA gene set of hundreds of species is now characterized, in addition to the tRNA genes of organelles and viruses. Genes encoding tRNAs for certain anticodon types appear in dozens of copies in a genome, while others are universally absent from any genome...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Carly R Grant, Juan Wan, Arash Komeili
Uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the biogenesis and maintenance of eukaryotic organelles is a vibrant and essential area of biological research. In comparison, little attention has been paid to the process of compartmentalization in bacteria and archaea. This lack of attention is in part due to the common misconception that organelles are a unique evolutionary invention of the "complex" eukaryotic cell and are absent from the "primitive" bacterial and archaeal cells. Comparisons across the tree of life are further complicated by the nebulous criteria used to designate subcellular structures as organelles...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Christina Schoenherr, Margaret C Frame, Adam Byron
Cell adhesion to macromolecules in the microenvironment is essential for the development and maintenance of tissues, and its dysregulation can lead to a range of disease states, including inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. The biomechanical and biochemical mechanisms that mediate cell adhesion rely on signaling by a range of effector proteins, including kinases and associated scaffolding proteins. The intracellular trafficking of these must be tightly controlled in space and time to enable effective cell adhesion and microenvironmental sensing and to integrate cell adhesion with, and compartmentalize it from, other cellular processes, such as gene transcription, protein degradation, and cell division...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Novalia Pishesha, Jessica R Ingram, Hidde L Ploegh
Molecular biologists and chemists alike have long sought to modify proteins with substituents that cannot be installed by standard or even advanced genetic approaches. We here describe the use of transpeptidases to achieve these goals. Living systems encode a variety of transpeptidases and peptide ligases that allow for the enzyme-catalyzed formation of peptide bonds, and protein engineers have used directed evolution to enhance these enzymes for biological applications. We focus primarily on the transpeptidase sortase A, which has become popular over the past few years for its ability to perform a remarkably wide variety of protein modifications, both in vitro and in living cells...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Eugene Oh, David Akopian, Michael Rape
Ubiquitylation is an essential posttranslational modification that controls cell division, differentiation, and survival in all eukaryotes. By combining multiple E3 ligases (writers), ubiquitin-binding effectors (readers), and de-ubiquitylases (erasers) with functionally distinct ubiquitylation tags, the ubiquitin system constitutes a powerful signaling network that is employed in similar ways from yeast to humans. Here, we discuss conserved principles of ubiquitin-dependent signaling that illustrate how this posttranslational modification shapes intracellular signaling networks to establish robust development and homeostasis throughout the eukaryotic kingdom...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
John McCullough, Adam Frost, Wesley I Sundquist
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway mediates cellular membrane remodeling and fission reactions. The pathway comprises five core complexes: ALIX, ESCRT-I, ESCRT-II, ESCRT-III, and Vps4. These soluble complexes are typically recruited to target membranes by site-specific adaptors that bind one or both of the early-acting ESCRT factors: ALIX and ESCRT-I/ESCRT-II. These factors, in turn, nucleate assembly of ESCRT-III subunits into membrane-bound filaments that recruit the AAA ATPase Vps4...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Hui Ting Zhang, Takashi Hiiragi
We present an overview of symmetry breaking in early mammalian development as a continuous process from compaction to specification of the body axes. While earlier studies have focused on individual symmetry-breaking events, recent advances enable us to explore progressive symmetry breaking during early mammalian development. Although we primarily discuss embryonic development of the mouse, as it is the best-studied mammalian model system to date, we also highlight the shared and distinct aspects between different mammalian species...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Ming-Ming Hu, Hong-Bing Shu
Microbial nucleic acids are major signatures of invading pathogens, and their recognition by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents the first step toward an efficient innate immune response to clear the pathogens. The nucleic acid-sensing PRRs are localized at the plasma membrane, the cytosol, and/or various cellular organelles. Sensing of nucleic acids and signaling by PRRs involve recruitment of distinct signaling components, and PRRs are intensively regulated by cellular organelle trafficking...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Swapna A Gudipaty, Christopher M Conner, Jody Rosenblatt, Denise J Montell
Balancing cell death and survival is essential for normal development and homeostasis and for preventing diseases, especially cancer. Conventional cell death pathways include apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death controlled by a well-defined biochemical pathway, and necrosis, the lysis of acutely injured cells. New types of regulated cell death include necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, phagoptosis, and entosis. Autophagy can promote survival or can cause death. Newly described processes of anastasis and resuscitation show that, remarkably, cells can recover from the brink of apoptosis or necroptosis...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Timothy R Hammond, Daisy Robinton, Beth Stevens
An explosion of findings driven by powerful new technologies has expanded our understanding of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This wave of discoveries has fueled a growing interest in the roles that these cells play in the development of the CNS and in the neuropathology of a diverse array of disorders. In this review, we discuss the crucial roles that microglia play in shaping the brain-from their influence on neurons and glia within the developing CNS to their roles in synaptic maturation and brain wiring-as well as some of the obstacles to overcome when assessing their contributions to normal brain development...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Yukiko M Yamashita, Mayu Inaba, Michael Buszczak
In recent years, thin membrane protrusions such as cytonemes and tunneling nanotubes have emerged as a novel mechanism of intercellular communication. Protrusion-based cellular interactions allow for specific communication between participating cells and have a distinct spectrum of advantages compared to secretion- and diffusion-based intercellular communication. Identification of protrusion-based signaling in diverse systems suggests that this mechanism is a ubiquitous and prevailing means of communication employed by many cell types...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are one of the three major elements of the cytoskeleton. Their stability, intrinsic mechanical properties, and cell type-specific expression patterns distinguish them from actin and microtubules. By providing mechanical support, IFs protect cells from external forces and participate in cell adhesion and tissue integrity. IFs form an extensive and elaborate network that connects the cell cortex to intracellular organelles. They act as a molecular scaffold that controls intracellular organization...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Aniek Janssen, Serafin U Colmenares, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is a major component of the eukaryotic nucleus and is essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Highly concentrated at pericentromeric and telomeric domains, heterochromatin is riddled with repetitive sequences and has evolved specific ways to compartmentalize, silence, and repair repeats. The delicate balance between heterochromatin epigenetic maintenance and cellular processes such as mitosis and DNA repair and replication reveals a highly dynamic and plastic chromatin domain that can be perturbed by multiple mechanisms, with far-reaching consequences for genome integrity...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Michele Curcio, Frank Bradke
After an injury in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), lesioned axons fail to regenerate. This failure to regenerate contrasts with axons' remarkable potential to grow during embryonic development and after an injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Several intracellular mechanisms-including cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport and trafficking, signaling and transcription of regenerative programs, and epigenetic modifications-control axon regeneration. In this review, we describe how manipulation of intrinsic mechanisms elicits a regenerative response in different organisms and how strategies are implemented to form the basis of a future regenerative treatment after CNS injury...
October 6, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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