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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Stéphane Bretagne, Anne Boullié, Cécile Gautier, Françoise Dromer, Olivier Lortholary
OBJECTIVES: Isavuconazole is a recent extended-spectrum triazole with activity against yeasts. However, few data are available on the in vitro activity on rare yeast species. We report minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of isavuconazole compared to fluconazole for a large collection of common or rare yeasts. METHODS: Isavuconazole and fluconazole MICs were determined using the EUCAST method for 1457 clinical isolates, mainly recovered from invasive infections, belonging to 29 species...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ming-Wei Lai, Kung-Hao Liang, Chau-Ting Yeh
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate immunity against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants before and after boosters in adolescents who lost antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs) despite neonatal vaccination. METHODS: We recruited 142 participants from 15 to 21 years old, who had received complete vaccination in infancy but became anti-HBs-negative. Cellular immunity to HBsAg and T-cell epitope variants was assessed before and after boosters. Antibody affinity to variants was assessed after boosters...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Eyal Melzer, Gill Smollan, Amit Hupert, Ronen Fluss, Ilana Tal, Mayan Gilboa, Tal Zilberman-Daniels, Naty Keller, Galia Rahav, Gili Regev-Yochay
OBJECTIVES: The role of asymptomatic carriers in CDI epidemiology is not fully understood. Our aim was to evaluate CD carriage prevalence on admission, associated risk factors and the risk to develop CDI. METHODS: A ten-week surveillance program for CD carriage of all medical patients admitted to the Sheba Medical Center was implemented, utilizing admission rectal swab PCR (Xpert C. difficile; Cepheid). Healthcare Facility-Onset CDI (HO-CDI) was recorded and divided into HO-CDI diagnosed in CD carriers and non-carriers...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Lisa Brockhaus, David Goldblum, Laura Eggenschwiler, Stefan Zimmerli, Catia Marzolini
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy for treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis is controversial but common practice due to the severity of the disease. In absence of guidance documents, several antibiotic regimens are being used without applying evidence-based prescribing, thus leading to inappropriate treatment of this serious eye condition. OBJECTIVES: To summarize available data on intravitreal penetration of systemically administered antibiotics and to discuss their usefulness from a microbiological and pharmacological point of view...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Benedikt D Huttner, Tatiana Galperine, Nathalie Kapel, Stephan Harbarth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Thomas Schön, Erika Matuschek, Sagal Mohamed, Mrudula Utukuri, Scott Heysell, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Soyoun Shin, Elena Martinez, Vitali Sintchenko, Florian P Maurer, Peter M Keller, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Claudio U Köser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Carlota Rodó, Anna Suy, Elena Sulleiro, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Nerea Maiz, Itziar García-Ruiz, Silvia Arévalo, Ariadna Rando, Andrés Anton, Élida Vázquez Méndez, Marta Garrido, Antoinette Frick, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomás Pumarola, Elena Carreras
OBJECTIVES: to describe pregnancy outcomes after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a non-endemic region. METHODS: according to the Spanish protocol issued after the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, all pregnant women who had travelled to high-burden countries were screened for ZIKV. Serological and molecular tests were used to identify ZIKV-infected pregnant women. They were classified as confirmed ZIKV infection when reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tested positive, or probable ZIKV infection when ZIKV-immunoglobulin M and/or immunoglobulin G and ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization tests were positive...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
R Recio, M Á Meléndez-Carmona, M C Martín-Higuera, V Pérez, E López, F López-Medrano, A Pérez-Ayala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhi Ruan, Qingyang Sun, Huiqiong Jia, Chenyun Huang, Weili Zhou, Xinyou Xie, Jun Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Benoît Thomas, Sophie Poussing
A 59-year-old woman, admitted to the emergency department for a fall, had a subfebrile episode up to 38 °C without localized symptoms of infection. She had relapsed follicular lymphoma. She had not recently been administered chemotherapy nor had she travelled outside of France. Laboratory tests revealed elevated CRP (164 mg/L) without hyperleucocytosis. Her urinary strip test was negative. No stool culture was performed. After 4 days of incubation, only the aerobic blood culture was positive (BACT'ALERT), with Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacteria resembling spirochetes (A,B,C x1000)...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Jianmin Liu, Shouguo Pan, Xiangwei Li, Xuefang Cao, Boxuan Feng, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Zisen Liu, Dakuan Wang, Jiaoxia Yan, Mingxia Zhang, Qianting Yang, Qi Jin, Lei Gao
OBJECTIVES: Elderly in rural China has been known to be at increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) infection and developing active disease. This study aims to estimate the burden of TB infection and to identify potential targeted subgroups for infection control. METHODS: As a part of the investigation of an interventional study, 50-70 years old rural residents in Zhongmu County were targeted for TB infection testing by QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT). Questionnaires and physical examinations were conducted to acquire their demographic information and health status...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
P Decristoforo, J Kaltseis, A Fritz, M Edlinger, W Posch, D Wilflingseder, C Lass-Flörl, D Orth-Höller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Zhiping Chen, Shuzhen Lin, Jiafu Duan, Yan Luo, Shenyu Wang, Zhengkai Gan, Huaiming Yi, Ting Wu, Shoujie Huang, Qiufen Zhang, Huakun Lv
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a hepatitis E vaccine using an accelerated vaccination schedule (vaccine doses at 0, 7, and 21 days). METHODS: A total of 126 participants aged≥18 were randomly assigned to receive the HEV vaccine in either the accelerated group (0, 7 and 21 days) or the routine group (0, 1 and 6 months). Serology samples were obtained at 0, 21, 28, and 51 days and 7 months in the accelerated group or 0, 1, 2 and 7 months in the routine group after the first vaccine injection...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Kenfak, G Eperon, M Schibler, F Lamoth, M I Vargas, J P Stahl
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are severe, sometime life-threatening infections of the central nervous system. Travellers may be exposed to a variety of neurotropic pathogens. AIMS: We propose to review known infectious causes of encephalitis in adults acquired outside Europe, and how to identify them. SOURCES: We used Pubmed and Embase, to search the most relevant publications over the last years. CONTENT: Microbiologic tests and radiological tools to best identify the causative pathogen in travellers presenting with encephalitis and ME are presented in this narrative review, as well as a diagnostic approach tailored to the visited area and types of exposures...
January 29, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Evelina Tacconelli, Fulvia Mazzaferri, Anne Marie de Smet, Damiano Bragantini, Philippe Eggimann, Benedikt D Huttner, Ed J Kuijper, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Nico T Mutters, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Mitchell J Schwaber, Maria Souli, Julian Torre-Cisneros, James R Price, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
SCOPE: The aim of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for decolonising regimens targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) carriers in all settings. METHODS: These evidence-based guidelines were produced after a systematic review of published studies on decolonisation interventions targeting the following MDR-GNB: third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCephRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), aminoglycoside-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (AGRE), fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (FQRE), extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDRPA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), cotrimoxazole-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CRSM), colistin-resistant Gram-negative organisms (CoRGNB), pan-drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (PDRGNB)...
January 29, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
M Schibler, M C Zanella, L Kaiser, P H Lalive
This editorial introduces the four narrative reviews that constitute a theme issue on encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. It highlights the diagnostic difficulties that are inherent to this clinical entity. Encephalitis can indeed be induced by numerous infectious pathogens, mainly viruses and bacteria, whose geographic distribution greatly varies, but also by immune-related phenomena, such as autoimmunity. The latest diagnostic tools which might improve the etiologic yield ofencephalitis/meningoencephalitis are also put into perspective...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Cécile Souty, Shirley Masse, Martine Valette, Sylvie Behillil, Isabelle Bonmarin, Cécile Pino, Clément Turbelin, Lisandru Capai, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Bruno Lina, Sylvie van der Werf, Thierry Blanchon, Alessandra Falchi, Thomas Hanslik
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify patients' clinical characteristics associated with respiratory viruses identified among patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: A sample of patients of all ages presenting with ILI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles network during two seasons (2015/16 and 2016/17). Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of influenza virus (IV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (HRV), and metapneumovirus (HMPV)...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Pouvaret, R Guery, M Montillet, T J Molina, A Duréault, M E Bougnoux, R Galliot, F Lanternier, R Delarue, O Lortholary
Peri et al reported a case of invasive aspergillosis with primary pulmonary involvement followed by central nervous system (CNS) involvement in a patient treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with ibrutinib. In addition to their work, we describe a case of primary CNS aspergillosis involvement and abdominal mucormycosis in a patient treated with ibrutinib. Emerging fungal syndrome in patients with CLL receiving ibrutinib justifies the need for an exhaustive work-up for extrapulmonary involvement and invasive diagnosing procedures regarding the risk of dissemination and fungal co-infection...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Angela Huttner, Julia Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Michael Moore, Jeanne Trill, Catherine Simpson, Frances Webley, Mike Radford, Louise Stanton, Tom Maishman, Angeliki Galanopoulou, Andrew Flower, Caroline Eyles, Merlin Willcox, Alastair D Hay, Esther van der Werf, Simon Gibbons, George Lewith, Paul Little, Gareth Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if offering symptomatic therapy (Uva-ursi or ibuprofen) alongside a delayed prescription would relieve symptoms and reduce the consumption of antibiotics for adult women presenting with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: A 2x2 factorial placebo controlled randomised trial in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 382 women aged 18-70 with symptoms of dysuria, urgency or frequency of urination and suspected by a clinician to have a lower UTI...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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