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New Microbiologica

Barbara Rossetti, Francesca Lombardi, Simone Belmonti, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Giacinta Tordini, Alessandra D'Avino, Alberto Borghetti, Davide Moschese, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
To compare mucosal flora in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects, to assess chemosusceptibility patterns of carriage isolates and to evaluate possible predisposing factors within the two groups. We analyzed microbes isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs in virologically suppressed and immunologically stable HIV-positive adult outpatients (n=105) at baseline and after 12 months and in an age-matched cohort of HIV-negative outpatients (n=100) at baseline. Bacteria and Candida spp strains were isolated and identified through standard biochemical assays and chemosusceptibility tests were performed...
January 23, 2019: New Microbiologica
Irshad S Sharafutdinov, Anna S Pavlova, Alsu M Khabibrakhmanova, Roza G Faizova, Almira R Kurbangalieva, Katsunori Tanaka, Elena Y Trizna, Diana R Baidamshina, Mikhail I Bogachev, Airat R Kayumov
Among a variety of antimicrobial compounds, the derivatives of 2(5H)-furanone exhibit different effects on Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. While inhibiting quorum-dependent biofilm formation and virulence factor expression by Gram-negative bacteria through specific interference with the AI-2 signaling pathways, these compounds demonstrate bactericidal effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Here we report that 3,4-dichloro-5(S)-[(1S,2R,4S)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yloxy]-2(5Н)-furanone designed as F123 inhibits growth and biofilm formation by the food-poisoning bacterium Bacillus cereus at 8 μg/ml and kills bacteria at 16 μg/ml...
January 23, 2019: New Microbiologica
Laura Selan, Rosanna Papa, Gaetano Barbato, Gian Luca Scoarughi, Gianluca Vrenna, Marco Artini
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious global public health problems. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. The aim of the present study was to enhance the activity of antibiotics to bacteria by using ultrasound. Ultrasound reduced the dosage of ampicillin required to impair bacterial viability.
January 21, 2019: New Microbiologica
Luca Marchetti, Claudia Gandolfo, Enivarco Maglioni, Martina Contorni, Fabio Arena, Maria Grazia Cusi
Seasonal influenza A (IA) and B (IB) viruses co-circulate every year, causing respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages. Recently, the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarction has been clearly demonstrated. However, most of the reported cases of fulminant myocarditis had been associated with influenza virus type A infection. Here we report the case of a 44 y/o man who experienced myocarditis with cardiogenic shock [requiring percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support], following influenza B virus infection, which circulated widely in Italy in 2017-18...
January 21, 2019: New Microbiologica
Giuseppe Gerna, Daniele Lilleri
In recent years, one of the main objectives in the field of medical virology has been the development of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccine that can prevent congenital HCMV infection in the offspring of pregnant women as well as systemic and end-organ disease in immunocompromised (AIDS and transplanted) patients. Major obstacles to the development of an efficacious HCMV vaccine are lack of protection provided by immune memory cells against HCMV re-activation (replication relapse of a latent strain following primary infection) and HCMV re-infection (infection of a seropositive individual by a new virus strain)...
January 21, 2019: New Microbiologica
Özgür Kurt, Nesteren Mansur, İbrahim Çavuş, Orhan Özcan, M Burak Batir, Cumhur Gündüz, O Uğur Sezerman, Ahmet Özbilgin
Leishmania virus (LRV) has previously been identified in different Leishmania species. Host-LRV interaction is associated with exacerbated clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and may cause poor therapeutic response. CL cases due to L. major with large skin lesions resistant to routine therapy were recently identified in Turkey. Here, we report the first autochthonous case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by LRV-positive Leishmania major, using conventional PCR targeting the viral capsid protein of LRV...
January 21, 2019: New Microbiologica
Ali Nawaz, Anna Mäkinen, Pirjo Pärnänen, Jukka H Meurman
Oral Candida infections can be life-threatening in medically compromised patients. In particular non-albicans Candida strains are virulent. However, our knowledge is sparse on how proteolytic these strains are in patients with oral cancer. Our study aimed to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida and Candida albicans isolated from oral cancer patients. The hypothesis was based on anticipated different invasive capacity of the strains. Clinical and reference yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Caroline Loïez, Frédéric Wallet
The aim of this study was to evaluate the new commercial Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system (Curetis, Holzgerlingen, Germany) on native cardiac valves in comparison with made in-house 16S rRNA PCR amplification (91E/13BS primers) and conventional microbiological techniques. Forty-four patients (30 men, 14 women) with suspected infective endocarditis (IE) were included in this evaluation corresponding to 30 aortic valves and 14 mitral valves. IE was definite for 40 patients using the modified Duke criteria...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Massimiliano Lanzafame, Stefano Nicole, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Daniela Piacentini, Sheila Chiesi, Emanuela Lattuada, Erica Diani, Maria Carelli, Sandro Vento, Davide Gibellini
Combination abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (ABC/3TC/DTG) is approved as a first-line treatment for antiretroviral naïve patients. This report investigated the immunovirological outcome and total HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of naïve HIV-1-positive patients treated with this regimen. In the presence of viral suppression and increased lymphocyte T CD4+ cells, the quantitative analysis of total HIV-1 DNA content revealed a significant decay after 12 months of treatment. Subsequently, we deintensificated the treatment of these patients from (ABC/3TC/DTG) to lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC/DTG) after 12 months of virological suppression, as a strategy of "induction-maintenance" therapy...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Battistina A V Cama, Manuela Ceccarelli, Emmanuele Venanzi Rullo, Federica Ferraiolo, Ivana A Paolucci, Daniela Maranto, Placido Mondello, Maria R Lo Presti Costantino, Fernanda Marano, Giuseppa D'Andrea, Vincenzo Di Marco, Giovanni Puglisi, Mariella Valenzise, Gabriella D'Angelo, Lorenzo Mondello, Giuseppe Strano, Fabrizio Condorelli, Daria Spicola, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni F Pellicanò
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, especially in Southern Italy, where many cases are still recorded every year. 128 cases of brucellosis were observed in Messina (Sicily) in 2016, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of brucellosis expected. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to analyze clinical and microbiological aspects of a brucellosis outbreak in the province of Messina in 2016, the incidence of its complications and the treatment combinations applied...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Andrea Antinori, Antonio Di Biagio, Simone Marcotullio, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni, Gioacchino Angarano, Antonio Chirianni, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giovanni Di Perri, Massimo Galli, Nicola Gianotti, Enrico Girardi, Andrea Gori, Cristina Mussini, Carlo-Federico Perno, Adriano Lazzarin
The Italian Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) in collaboration with the Technical Health Committee (Sections L and M) of the Italian Ministry of Health have supported the renewal of the recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2017 version of the Italian Guidelines for the management of HIV-1 infected patients and the use of antiretroviral drugs...
October 2018: New Microbiologica
Ilaria Vicenti, Barbara Rossetti, Sara Mariano, Francesco Saladini, Francesca Montagnani, Maurizio Zazzi, Andrea De Luca
Few studies have documented hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We developed real-time PCR methods for differential amplification of covalently closed circular (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA (tDNA). The different distribution of cccDNA and tDNA in plasma and PBMCs was evaluated in 37 patients with low or undetectable viremia. Plasma tDNA measured by the Abbott reference system and the in-house assay correlated well (Spearman rho = 0.804; P<0.0001). tDNA was detected in four PBMC samples, all from patients with detectable plasma viremia (range 633-6,406 IU/ml), cccDNA was not detected in any sample...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Monica Sañé Schepisi, Ilaria Motta, Simone Dore, Cecilia Costa, Giovanni Sotgiu, Enrico Girardi
Children, especially those aged <5 years, and adolescents are at increased risk of progression to active TB disease when infected. Management of childhood TB outbreaks is crucial for TB elimination especially in low burden countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE-CINHAL-EMBASE up to July 2017 for primary studies reporting on TB incidents which involved teacher/child-caregiver, relative or students diagnosed with TB in a school/childcare setting or in other congregate settings attended by children and adolescents...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Marta Ferranti, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Melissa Ida Palmieri, Antonella Repetto, Anna Vecchiarelli, Daniela Francisci, Antonella Mencacci, Claudia Monari
The global dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is of great concern for public health. These bacteria have the potential for rapid dissemination in healthcare settings and cause infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A total of 221 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from patients admitted to an Italian general hospital from January 2016 to March 2017. Among these isolates, 78.3% were carbapenemase producers: 96% were positive for the blaKPC gene and the remainder for the blaVIM gene (allelic variant VIM-1)...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Maria Teresa Mascellino, Alessandra Oliva, Massimiliano De Angelis, Stefano Pontone, Barbara Porowska
Forty patients infected by Helicobacter pylori were studied. The treatment was based on the positivity or negativity of cultures (tailored therapy or empiric therapy). The eradication rate was 68% and 82% respectively. Genotypic susceptibility testing proved very useful in case of heteroresistance or mixed infections that represent a real problem possibly leading to a resistance underestimation. Real-time PCR detected the resistant population at a very low concentration not detectable by phenotypic tests. Bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI, bismuth, metronidazole, tetracycline, PBMT) was effective in the Hp eradication rate consistent with a high level of clarithromycin resistance...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Nadia Galizzi, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Nicola Gianotti
As dolutegravir (DTG), rilpivirine (RPV) and cobicistat affect creatinine, but not cystatin C, tubular transport or serum concentration, the aim of the study was to compare estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) calculated by means of a standard creatinine formula with those calculated by means of the cystatin C formula in patients receiving these drugs. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected patients with eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m2 (CKD-EPI-creatinine formula) on-treatment with regimens including DTG, RVP or cobicistat; cystatin C was measured after the switch to these regimens...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesco Maria Fusco, Francesca Vichi, Simonetta Bisanzi, Cristina Sani, Anna Degli Esposti, Claudio Blè, Riccardo Rossi, Giampaolo Pompeo, Francesca Carozzi, Pierluigi Blanc
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at higher risk for HPV-related malignancies. To estimate the factors associated to HPV infection and to pre-neoplastic cervical lesions, we observed 321 WLWH in an HIV care-centre in Florence, Italy. In 2006-2016, WLWH followed at S.Maria Annunziata Hospital underwent to gynaecological examination including HPV-test, Pap-smear, colposcopy and, if needed, cervical biopsy. Demographical and clinical information were collected and linear logistic regression was performed. Among 321 WLWH, 161 (50...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Aurora Piazza, Francesco Comandatore, Francesca Romeri, Cristina Pagani, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Matteo Brilli, Simona Panelli, Roberta Migliavacca, Annalisa Ridolfo, Pietro Olivieri, Maria Rita Gismondo, Claudio Bandi, Sara Giordana Rimoldi
We describe two multi drug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates from an acute hospital in Milan. Both strains, isolated from a surgical wound sample and a surveillance rectal swab respectively, were positive for a blaNDM-type gene by Xpert Carba-R test. The whole-genome sequence characterization disclosed several resistance determinants: blaNDM-5, blaCMY-42, blaTEM-198, rmtB, mphA. The two isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type (ST) 1702 and serotype O89:H9...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Cristiano Salata, Paola Lisotto, Caterina Boldrin, Ettore De Canale, Alessandra Piccirillo, Arianna Calistri, Giorgio Palù
Listeriosis is a disease usually associated with the consumption of low-processed ready-to-eat food products contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. In Italy, listeriosis has an incidence of 0.19-0.27 cases per 100000 persons. Since detailed information concerning the molecular characterization of listeriosis in the Italian Veneto region is currently lacking, we analyzed 36 L. monocytogenes clinical isolates collected between 2009 and 2014. Results show that the serotype 1/2a was the most represented among the tested samples...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Elisa Gabanti, Daniele Lilleri, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Paola Zelini, Teresa Rampino, Giuseppe Gerna
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) helps to identify patients at risk for severe infection. To assess the T-cell response, this study compared our in-house developed reference test, based on T-cell (both CD4+ and CD8+) stimulation by autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) and subsequent detection by cytokine flow cytometry (CFC-iDC), with the Quanti-FERON-CMV (QF-CMV) assay. Fifty-three HCMV-seropositive KTR were enrolled. At the DNAemia peak, 33 (62%) had low viral load (LVL, <3x105 DNA copies/mL) self-resolving infection, 19 (36%) high viral load (HVL, >3x105 DNA copies/mL) infection treated with antivirals, and one LVL patient (2%) tissue-invasive disease alone...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
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