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Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy

Geoffrey Hunt, Tamar Antin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Juliet P Lee, Anna Pagano, Christopher Morrison, Paul J Gruenewald, Friedner D Wittman
Niche theory proposes that in areas of high alcohol availability, alcohol sales outlets will compete for patrons by diversifying their operating characteristics to provide a diversity of drinking contexts. We aimed to characterize features of outlet operations which contribute to increased risk for alcohol problems across communities. We conducted ethnographic observations in 97 on-premise outlets across 6 California cities and interviewed staff and patrons in a subsample of these. We observed outlet managers deliberately altering the environments in 17...
2018: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Betsy Szeto, Charlotte McDonald, Nabila El-Bassel
Aims: The number of drug dependent individuals incarcerated in the U.S. is exceptionally high, and reportedly 60 percent of incarcerated Black Americans have a substance abuse disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with return to illicit drug use post-incarceration. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 121 formerly incarcerated Black Americans in New York City to examine predictors of return to illicit drug use. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated on the outcome of time-to-drug use for various predictors and compared using the log-rank test...
2018: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Jamie L Klinger, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jane Witbrodt, Lee Ann Kaskutas
Background: Distance and travel time are barriers to attending and completing drug and alcohol treatment. Few studies have examined proximity to treatment in relation to long-term outcomes. Objectives: Aims were to examine effects of distance to treatment on alcohol consumption in the year after treatment intake; assess moderation of distance effects by treatment type; and test mediators of effects of distance to treatment on later alcohol use. Methods: Data from clients in inpatient and outpatient alcohol treatment programs in California (n=560) were used in linear regression models...
2018: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Madeleine Novich, Geoffrey Hunt
Recent media accounts have highlighted issues of use and abuse of police force and policing practices targeted at ethnic minorities within inner city areas. To date, little research has focused specifically on the experiences and perceptions of youth gang members in dealing with police. Using data from 253 in-depth interviews with ethnic minority San Francisco-based youth gang members, we examine perceptions of respectful and disrespectful police behavior. Premised on a procedural justice model (Tyler, 2006), we explore how frequently disrespectful police behavior is reported and how these negative experiences shape gang members' attitudes towards the police more generally...
2017: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
April Henning
Anti-doping regulations are intended, at least in part, to promote the health of athletes. While most anti-doping efforts target elite and professional competitors, there have been recent moves by sport governing bodies to expand anti-doping testing to include amateur athletes. Drawing on previous critiques of anti-doping policies and illustrating cases, this article outlines five of the challenges to health promotion of applying the current detect and ban model to the amateur level of sport. I argue that the current approach is not effective and, in some ways, may undermine the goal of health promotion at the amateur level...
2017: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Rachel Herring, Betsy Thom, Mariana Bayley, Jordan Tchilingirian
Within the UK, there is a drive to encourage the delivery of alcohol screening (or identification) and brief advice (IBA) in a range of contexts beyond primary care and hospitals where the evidence is strongest. However, the evidence base for effectiveness in non-health contexts is not currently established. This paper considers the case of housing provided by social landlords, drawing on two research studies which were conducted concurrently. One study examined the feasibility of delivering alcohol IBA in housing settings and the other the role of training in delivering IBA in non-health contexts including housing...
September 2, 2016: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Betsy Thom, Rachel Herring, Mariana Bayley
There has been a considerable drive to encourage a wide range of professional groups to incorporate alcohol screening (or identification) and brief advice (IBA) into their everyday practice. This article aims to examine the role of training in promoting IBA delivery in contexts outside primary care and other health settings. The data are drawn mainly from a structured online survey supplemented by illustrative material from nine qualitative interviews and insights from an expert workshop. Findings support the results from other research that issues relating to role relevance and role security continue to act as barriers to professional change...
September 2, 2016: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Alyona Mazhnaya, Martha J Bojko, Ruthanne Marcus, Sergii Filippovych, Zahedsul Islam, Sergey Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
AIMS: To understand how perceived law enforcement policies and practices contribute to the low rates of utilization of opioid agonist therapies (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine. METHODS: Qualitative data from 25 focus groups (FGs) with 199 opioid-dependent PWIDs in Ukraine examined domains related to lived or learned experiences with OAT, police, arrest, incarceration, and criminal activity were analyzed using grounded theory principles. FINDINGS: Most participants were male (66%), in their late 30s, and previously incarcerated (85%) mainly for drug-related activities...
2016: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The focus of researchers, media and policy on doping in cycling is often limited to the professional level of the sport. However, anti-doping test results since 2001 demonstrate that banned substances are also used by US cyclists at lower levels of the sport, necessitating a broader view of the patterns and motivations of substance use within the sport. In this article, we describe and explain the doping culture that has emerged in domestic US cycling among amateur and semi-professionals. Through analysis of records from sports governing bodies and journalistic reports, we assess the range of violation types and discuss the detection and punishing of riders who were not proven to have intended to cheat but became "collateral damage" in the war on doping...
September 3, 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
William Haydock
Much academic work has argued that alcohol policy in England over the past 25 years can be characterised as neoliberal, particularly in regard to the night-time economy and attempts to address "binge" drinking. Understanding neoliberalism as a particular "mentality of government" that circumscribes the range of policy options considered appropriate and practical for a government to take, this article notes how the particular application of policy can vary by local context. This article argues that the approach of successive governments in relation to alcohol should be seen as based on a fear and condemnation of the carnivalesque, understood as a time when everyday norms and conventions are set aside, and the world is - for a limited period only - turned inside out...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Shona Hilton
Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants)...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Lloyd A Goldsamt, Michael C Clatts, Giang Le, Gary Yu
Epidemiological data in Vietnam shows high HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users, especially in urban centres. However, there are limited data on specific practices used to prepare and inject drugs or on sexual practices among Vietnamese injectors. A street-based cross-sectional interview was conducted with 862 heroin injectors in Hanoi, Vietnam, to collect such data. Variability was seen in both injection and sexual risk, with 12.9% of current injectors reporting at least one unsafe method of drug sharing and 57...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Sheila M Bird, Mahesh K B Parmar, John Strang
Aims: Scotland was the first country to adopt take-home naloxone (THN) as a funded public health policy. We summarise the background and rigorous set-up for before/after monitoring to assess the impact on high-risk opiate-fatalities. Methods: Evidence-synthesis of prospectively monitored small-scale THN schemes led to a performance indicator for distribution of THN-kits relative to opiate-related deaths. Next, we explain the primary outcome and statistical power for Scotland's before/after monitoring. Results: Fatality-rate at opiate overdoses witnessed by THN-trainees was 6% (9/153, 95% CI: 2-11%)...
February 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Ian M Newman, Duane F Shell, Zhaoqing Huang, Ling Qian
Aim: This paper describes Chinese university students' understanding of the meaning of the alcohol-related flushing response and how they reacted to their own and someone else's flushing in a group drinking situation. Method: The researcher surveyed 530 Chinese university students about their understanding of flushing and their perception of how people respond to a person who visibly flushes while drinking alcohol. Findings: Most students did not know about the physiological cause of flushing. There were significant gender differences in both reactions to and perception of responses to a person who flushes...
February 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Martha J Bojko, Alyona Mazhnaya, Iuliia Makarenko, Ruthanne Marcus, Sergii Dvoriak, Zahedul Islam, Frederick L Altice
AIMS: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine's estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. METHODS: A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Amy LeClair, Brian C Kelly, Mark Pawson, Brooke E Wells, Jeffrey T Parsons
AIMS: As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants' motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. METHODS: Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Alana J Gunn, Kelli E Canada
This grounded theory study explores how women with histories of addiction perceive stigma while in treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women participating in a residential drug treatment center. Previous research has found that support from peers during recovery can be critical to managing illnesses. In fact, researchers have postulated that peers can be a more effective form of support than even family. This study extends existing literature indicating that peer support systems can be supportive, however they can also can be perceived as negative support that impose stigmas...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Stephen Lankenau, Aleksandar Kecojevic, Karol Silva
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence has been increasing among young injection drug users (IDUs). This analysis examined whether the emerging practice of prescription opioid (PO) injection is associated with self-reported HCV among young IDUs. METHODS: Young IDUs (n = 162) aged 18-25-years-old who indicated recent misuse of prescription drugs were sampled in New York and Los Angeles during 2009-2011. Participants reported lifetime PO injection history and results from their most recent HCV test as well as demographic characteristics and lifetime drug use...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Camila Gelpi-Acosta
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) is associated with improved quality of life amongst many heroin users. Still, program adherence problems remain a fact. AIM: To improve our understanding of MMTP "adherence problems". METHODS: Using snowball sampling, two subgroups were recruited: MMTP enrollees and non-enrollees. A semi-structured questionnaire guided all in-depth interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, hand-coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach...
December 2014: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
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