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Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714476/predictors-of-early-vocabulary-growth-in-children-born-preterm-and-full-term-a-study-of-processing-speed-and-medical-complications
#1
Virginia A Marchman, Melanie D Ashland, Elizabeth C Loi, Katherine A Adams, Anne Fernald, Heidi M Feldman
Delays in expressive vocabulary may be harbingers of long-term language difficulties. In toddlers born full term (FT), individual differences in language processing speed are associated with variation in expressive vocabulary growth. Children born preterm (PT) are at increased risk for persistent language deficits. Here, we evaluate predictors of early vocabulary growth in PT toddlers in relation to two sources of variability: language processing speed and medical complications of prematurity. Vocabulary growth from 16 to 30 months (adjusted for degree of prematurity) was modeled longitudinally using parent reports in English-speaking FT (n = 63; ≥37 weeks, ≥2495 g) and PT (n = 69; ≤32 weeks, <1800 g) children, matched on sex and socioeconomic status...
February 4, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714466/development-of-sensorimotor-synchronization-abilities-motor-and-cognitive-components
#2
Florie Monier, Sylvie Droit-Volet
The aim of the present study was to examine both the development of sensorimotor synchronization in children in the age range from 5 to 8 years and the involvement of motor and cognitive capacities. Children performed a spontaneous motor tempo task and a synchronization-continuation task using an external auditory stimulus presented at three different inter-stimulus intervals: 500, 700, and 900 ms. Their motor and cognitive abilities (short-term memory, working memory, and attention) were also assessed with various neuropsychological tests...
February 4, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706757/cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-learning-of-visual-phonological-associations-in-children-with-reading-difficulties
#3
Ricardo Basso Garcia, Alessandra Tomaino, Cesare Cornoldi
Reading decoding requires the association of a visual input (the printed word) with a verbal output (the spoken word), and the learning of visual-phonological associations via repeated exposure occurs both explicitly (by instruction and training) and implicitly (by exposure to written material). However, a general ability to implicitly learn visual-phonological associations (or cross-modal bindings) in children with reading difficulties (RD) has not been deeply explored. The present paper examined this issue in two studies comparing groups of children with RD with matched groups of control children in a working memory binding task involving sequences of variable combinations of nonsense shapes and nonwords (odd trials), as well as fixed combinations (even trials)...
February 1, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676266/factor-structure-of-the-cns-vital-signs-computerized-cognitive-battery-in-youth-with-neurological-diagnoses
#4
Brian L Brooks, Vickie Plourde, Taryn B Fay-McClymont, William S MacAllister, Elisabeth M S Sherman
Computerized cognitive batteries, such as CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS), can provide valuable information in clinical and research settings. However, psychometric properties, especially in children and adolescents, remain relatively understudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of CNSVS in children and adolescents with neurological diagnoses. Participants with neurological diagnoses (N = 280) age 7-19 years were assessed as part of their clinical care at a tertiary hospital. All participants received the full CNSVS computerized cognitive battery, which contains seven subtests designed to measure attention, executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and memory...
January 24, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676259/the-wisc-v-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy
#5
William S MacAllister, Moshe Maiman, Marsha Vasserman, Taryn Fay-Mcclymont, Brian L Brooks, Elisabeth M S Sherman
Despite its popularity in the neuropsychological evaluation of children, the utility of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth Edition (WISC-V) has not yet been investigated in children with epilepsy. Eighty clinically referred children and adolescents with epilepsy were administered the WISC-V as part of a comprehensive assessment and scores were compared to matched controls from the WISC-V standardization sample. T tests compared WISC-V indices and subtests between patients and controls and Chi-square analyses compared the rates of low scores...
January 24, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676252/are-we-documenting-performance-validity-testing-in-pediatric-neuropsychological-assessments-a-brief-report
#6
William S MacAllister, Marsha Vasserman, Kira Armstrong
A 2016 survey of pediatric neuropsychologists found that 92% of clinicians reported use of "at least one" performance validity test (PVT) in each assessment. The present investigation sought to verify documented PVT use among clinicians by review of actual reports. A convenience sample of pediatric neuropsychological reports of children ages 6-17 were reviewed over an 24-month period (January 2015-January 2017); reports were those seen as part of our routine practice, including reports on children we were reevaluating, cases that we consulted on, or cases evaluated elsewhere presenting to our centers that required record review for clinical decision making (e...
January 24, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558489/the-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-assessing-inhibitory-control-and-working-memory-among-adolescents-via-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-approach
#7
Christopher M Warren, Mary Ann Pentz
Early adolescence is a critical period for the development of executive function (EF). EF deficits are associated with increased engagement in multiple health risk behaviors and may be influenced by momentary factors, such as state mindfulness and physical activity. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) leverages the increasing ubiquity of smart-phones to assess moment-to-moment changes in neurocognition and behavior with minimal recall bias and high ecological validity. As such, EMA is a promising method for delivering performance-based EF tasks and assessing the degree to which EF is influenced by momentary variation in its putative antecedents (e...
December 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558479/which-components-of-processing-speed-are-affected-in-adhd-subtypes
#8
Michelle Y Kibby, Sarah A Vadnais, Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels
The term "processing speed" (PS) encompasses many components including perceptual, cognitive and output speed. Despite evidence for reduced PS in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), little is known about which component(s) is most impacted in ADHD, or how it may vary by subtypes. Participants included 151 children, ages 8-12 years, with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type, ADHD Combined Type and typically developing controls using DSM-IV criteria. All children completed four measures of processing speed: Symbol Search, Coding, Decision Speed, and simple reaction time...
December 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30537889/multivariate-base-rates-for-the-assessment-of-executive-functioning-among-children-and-adolescents
#9
Nathan E Cook, Justin E Karr, Brian L Brooks, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
This study provides observed base rates of low executive functioning test scores among healthy children and adolescents, stratifies those base rates by narrow intellectual functioning and age groupings, and provides normative classification ranges to aid the interpretation of performances on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) in clinical practice and research. Participants included 875 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years old from the D-KEFS normative sample (48% male; 52% female)...
December 11, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466359/socio-economic-status-and-the-developing-brain-in-adolescence-a-systematic-review
#10
Lisa Buckley, Melanie Broadley, Christopher N Cascio
Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in social, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. Correspondingly, the period reflects continued dynamic, complex, and adaptive brain development. Research demonstrates associations between the developing adolescent brain and SES; however, such research has not been systematically integrated. We undertook a systematic search of studies and review 21 papers that examined both SES and brain development or functioning as measured during adolescence or young adulthood in nonclinical populations (13-25 years old)...
November 22, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29347861/positive-emotional-attention-bias-in-young-children-with-symptoms-of-adhd
#11
Amanda Cremone, Claudia I Lugo-Candelas, Elizabeth A Harvey, Jennifer M McDermott, Rebecca M C Spencer
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience emotional dysregulation. Dysregulation can arise from heightened attention to emotional stimuli. Emotional attention biases are associated with a number of adverse socioemotional outcomes including reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors. As reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors are common in children with ADHD, the aim of the current study was to determine whether emotional attention biases are evident in young children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#12
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29050518/naming-speed-as-a-predictive-diagnostic-measure-in-reading-and-attentional-problems
#13
Débora Areces, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, David Alvarez-García, Celestino Rodríguez
This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29041835/assessment-of-executive-function-in-adhd-adolescents-contribution-of-performance-tests-and-rating-scales
#14
Virginia Krieger, Juan Antonio Amador-Campos
This study aimed to analyze performance on measures of neuropsychological and behavioral executive functions (EF) in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to evaluate the utility of performance-based tests for predicting scores on behavioral EF ratings. One hundred eighteen adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 controls) aged 12-16 years performed neuropsychological tests and completed a behavior rating scale of EF. The ADHD group presented significantly lower scores than controls on Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and all indexes of the WISC-IV, except the verbal comprehension index (VCI)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29017430/characterizing-neurocognitive-late-effects-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors-using-a-combination-of-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-neuroscience-measures
#15
Ellen Van Der Plas, Lauren Erdman, Brian J Nieman, Rosanna Weksberg, Darci T Butcher, Deborah L O'connor, Susanne Aufreiter, Johann Hitzler, Sharon L Guger, Russell J Schachar, Shinya Ito, Brenda J Spiegler
Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28914149/identifying-the-nature-of-impairments-in-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-of-children-with-severe-difficulties-in-arithmetic
#16
Pamela A McDonald, Derek H Berg
An age-matched achievement-matched design was used to examine whether the executive functioning and working memory impairments exhibited by children with severe difficulties in arithmetic (SDA) are better viewed as developmental lags or as cognitive deficits. Three groups of children were included: 20 SDA children, 20 typically achieving children (CM) matched in chronological age with the SDA children, and 20 younger typically achieving children (AM) matched in achievement with the SDA group. While children with SDA did not exhibit impairments in color-word inhibition and verbal working memory, they did demonstrate impairments in shifting, quantity-digits inhibition, and visuospatial working memory...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28903621/virtual-environments-as-an-assessment-modality-with-pediatric-asd-populations-a-brief-report
#17
Tyler C Duffield, Thomas D Parsons, Allisen Landry, Shaza Karam, Tiffany Otero, Sarah Mastel, Trevor A Hall
Virtual environments (VEs) have demonstrated promise as a neuropsychological assessment modality and may be well suited for the evaluation of children suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some recent studies indicate their potential for enhancing reliability, ecologically validity, and sensitivity over traditional neuropsychological evaluation measures. Although research using VEs with ASD is increasing to the degree that several reviews of the literature have been conducted, the reviews to date lack rigor and are not necessarily specific to cognitive or neuropsychological assessment as many focus on intervention...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#18
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28720023/early-motor-development-and-cognitive-abilities-among-mexican-preschoolers
#19
Erika Osorio-Valencia, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Stephen J Rothenberg, Lourdes Schnaas
Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30376759/individual-differences-in-erp-measures-of-executive-function-in-early-childhood-relation-to-low-risk-preterm-birth-and-parent-reported-behavior
#20
Amanda S Hodel, Jane E Brumbaugh, Ruskin H Hunt, Sara E Van Den Heuvel, Anika M Wiltgen, Kathleen M Thomas
Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that executive function (EF) develops rapidly during early childhood, few studies have investigated neural systems supporting EF during the preschool years. These systems are sensitive to variations in children's early life experiences, including preterm birth. The current study collected behavioral and event related potential (ERP) data during an EF task (directional Stroop) in a sample of 150 full-term and low-risk preterm children aged 4-years. Children's IQ and processing speed (WPPSI-III), and parent report of EF (BRIEF-P), were also measured...
October 30, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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