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Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association

Stephen J Macdonald, Lesley Deacon
From the mid-1990s, there have been a number of campaigns aimed at raising awareness of dyslexia and social inclusion. In conjunction with these campaigns, educational and employment policies have been implemented that advocate inclusive and workplace adjustments for people with dyslexia. This study aims to explore the intersectional relationship between dyslexia and socio-economic status. The findings analyse adult perceptions of education and employment, which have been shaped by 23 years of social policies promoting anti-discriminatory practice...
January 7, 2019: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Sarah Flint, Kristen Pammer
Some individuals with dyslexia demonstrate deficits in reading, visual attention, and visual processing which can be attributed to a functional failure of the magnocells in the visual system or in the dorsal visual pathway. The study examines the role of magno/dorsal function in dyslexic adults compared with normal, illiterate, and semi-literate readers. Coherent motion and coherent form were used in Experiment 1, and the frequency doubling illusion and static-gratings were used in Experiment 2. If a magno/dorsal deficit is demonstrated for dyslexic readers but not illiterate, semi-literate, and normal reading adults, then the deficit cannot be attributed to reading experience...
December 27, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Anna-Kaija Eloranta, Vesa M Närhi, Kenneth M Eklund, Timo P S Ahonen, Tuija I Aro
We examined frequency of adult-age reading disability (RD) and its childhood predictors among 48 adults (20 to 39 years) with documented childhood RD, and contrasted their cognitive skills, education, and employment with 37 matched controls. Among individuals with childhood RD, more than half had improved in their reading fluency to the level where the set criterion for adult-age RD was not met anymore. More fluent rapid naming, less severe childhood RD, and multiple support providers in childhood together predicted improvement of reading fluency...
December 12, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Enrico Toffalini, Nunzia Losito, Claudia Zamperlin, Cesare Cornoldi
Research has shown that individuals with dyslexia have difficulty in reading not only in their native language but also in a second language (L2). The considered L2, however, has always been a language acquired through exposure to both written and oral forms. The present study examines the case of Italian adolescents reading in Latin as an L2, which is the special case of a dead language with very limited use of orality. As the learning of Latin is mainly based on the acquisition of grammar, this study also examined the relationship between grammatical proficiency and reading ability in Latin...
November 9, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Ellie R H van Setten, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
The rapid automatic specialized processing of printed words is signalled by the left-lateralization of the N1 component in the visual event-related potential (ERP). In the present study, we have investigated whether differences in N1 lateralization can be observed between Dutch children with and without (a familial risk of) dyslexia around the age of 12 years using a linguistic judgement task. Forty-five participants were included in the ERP analysis, 18 in the low familial risk group without dyslexia, 15 in the high familial risk group without dyslexia, and 12 in the high familial risk group with dyslexia...
November 8, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Adam Rollins, Eric L Oslund, Kelli Wallace, Daren Li
This report presents findings from a review of the journals Dyslexia and Annals of Dyslexia over a 10-year period from 2005 to 2014. Three hundred articles were reviewed to examine statistical methodology and reporting practices. Articles were coded according to their reported covariates, effect sizes, and statistical methods. In addition, trends were examined in relation to the 2008 release of the What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook from the Institute of Education Sciences in order to evaluate any potential impact of recommended practices...
November 8, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Inés Antón-Méndez, Fernando Cuetos, Paz Suárez-Coalla
This paper addresses the question of whether dyslexic children suffer from syntactic deficits that are independent of limitations with phonological processing. We looked at subject-verb agreement errors after sentence subjects containing a second noun (the attractor) known to be able to attract incorrect agreement (e.g., "the owner(s) of the house(s) is/are away"). In the general population, attraction errors are not straightforwardly dependent on the presence or absence of morphophonological plural markers but on their syntactic configuration...
November 8, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Turid Helland, Frøydis Morken, Josef J Bless, Hanna V Valderhaug, Monica Eiken, Wenche A Helland, Janne V K Torkildsen
Dichotic listening (DL) taps information on the brain's language laterality, processing, and attention. Research has shown that DL responses in dyslexia deviate from the typical pattern. Here, effects of DL training and its correspondence to rapid naming (RAN) and digit span (DS) in typical children and children with dyslexia were assessed. Three groups of third graders participated: two training groups, control training (CT) and dyslexia training (DT), and a control group that received no training (control no training, CnT)...
November 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Luca Cilibrasi, Vesna Stojanovik, Tom Loucas, Patricia Riddell
The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep) is one of the most popular tests of nonword repetition. The test is composed of nonwords of different length, and normative data suggest that children experience more difficulties in repeating long nonwords. An analysis of the distribution of phonological clusters in the test shows that noninitial clusters are unequally distributed in the test: They only appear in long nonwords (four and five syllables). For this reason, we hypothesized that the difficulties children encounter with long nonwords may be influenced by the phonological complexity of the clusters and not just by the challenge for working memory associated with length...
October 19, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Joanna Nijakowska, Dina Tsagari, George Spanoudis
This study examines the effect of demographic variables on the beliefs of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) about their preparedness to include dyslexic learners in mainstream classrooms in Greece, Cyprus, and Poland and identifies their professional development needs. Statistically significant multivariate analysis effects were obtained for country, training, teaching experience with dyslexic learners, and school type. Unlike overall teaching experience and completed level of education (degree), the type of teaching experience with dyslexic EFL learners (direct contact and personal involvement in teaching) seems to shape the perception of teacher preparedness to successfully include these learners...
October 9, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Chien-Hui Kao, Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang, Chien-Chung Chen
The analysis of spatial relations among components of a character is important in identifying visual word forms. We investigated such spatial configuration processing for Chinese characters in dyslexic children (aged 9-12 years) and two groups of typically developing children, matched according to chronological age or reading level. In this study, we used real characters and noncharacters to manipulate the spatial configuration between character components while preserving their local features. Both characters were displayed either in an upright or inverted position...
October 2, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Robin van Rijthoven, Tijs Kleemans, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Silvia Baldi, Barbara Caravale, Fabio Presaghi
An association between learning disorders and coordination problems has been reported in several studies over the last few decades. In this study, we have investigated daily motor characteristics in children with a diagnosis of specific learning disorder (SLD) and compared them with those of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of typically developing controls. Ninety-six children aged 5 to 12 years were included: 29 with a diagnosis of SLD, 33 of DCD, and 34 controls. The Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ-Italian) was used to measure children's coordination in everyday functional activities...
August 9, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Ibrahim A Asadi, Michal Shany
We examined the double-deficit hypothesis in Arabic by investigating the reading and cognitive profiles of readers with selective deficits in naming speed, phonological awareness, or both. In a nationally representative sample of 486 children in the third and fourth grades, we identified 171 children with reading difficulties: 20 (12%) were classified as having a phonological deficit, 31 (18%) as having a naming speed deficit, and 41 (24%) as having a double deficit. Differences between the subgroups extended to reading, cognitive, and linguistic processes beyond phonological and naming abilities...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Cathryn Knight
Given that an estimated 5-10% of the worldwide population is said to have dyslexia, it is of great importance that teachers have an accurate understanding of what dyslexia is and how it effects their students. Using results from a large-scale survey of teachers in England and in Wales (N ≈ 2,600), this paper demonstrates that teachers held a basic understanding of dyslexia, based on the behavioural issues that it is associated with. Teachers lacked the knowledge of the biological (i.e., neurological) and cognitive (i...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Gloria Cappelli, Sabrina Noccetti, Giorgio Arcara, Valentina Bambini
The study assessed the pragmatic skills of 19 well-compensated Italian-speaking young adults with dyslexia compared with controls. A comprehensive pragmatic assessment tool was employed, targeting production and comprehension (Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates [APACS]). Participants were also administered a series of standardized tests to assess verbal and non-verbal cognitive abilities, including executive functions and social cognition tests. Data were analysed with the aim of understanding whether pragmatic abilities are compromised in dyslexia and of exploring associations between pragmatic performance and other cognitive domains...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Sebastian C K Shaw, John L Anderson
This article explores the experiences of U.K. medical students with dyslexia, using an interpretive phenomenological approach. This project began with a review of the literature, highlighting a void of qualitative research. We then conducted a collaborative autoethnography. This paper forms the next stage in this series of research. We aimed to elicit meaning and understanding from the lived experiences of our participants. Eight U.K. junior doctors with dyslexia were interviewed over the telephone in an in-depth, unstructured manner...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Sisi Liu, Duo Liu, Zhihui Pan, Zhengye Xu
A growing body of research suggests that visual-spatial attention is important for reading achievement. However, few studies have been conducted in non-alphabetic orthographies. This study extended the current research to reading development in Chinese, a logographic writing system known for its visual complexity. Eighty Hong Kong Chinese children were selected and divided into poor reader and typical reader groups, based on their performance on the measures of reading fluency, Chinese character reading, and reading comprehension...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Li-Chih Wang, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung
The co-morbidity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorder (RD) is more frequent than expected. This investigation assessed the potential uniqueness of the co-morbidity of ADHD and RD and extended existing findings to the Chinese language. A parallel group design with a post hoc analysis of group differences was employed to compare 4 groups of children (30 with ADHD, 33 with RD, 28 with ADHD + RD, and 30 typically developing) regarding their reading comprehension, attention, reading-related abilities, and cognitive abilities...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Trude Nergård-Nilssen, Kenneth Eklund
The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a screening protocol for Norwegian students in upper secondary school. The protocol was designed to assess skills that are at stake in dyslexia. It was administered to 232 students. In the absence of a "gold standard," comparisons were made between students who reported normal literacy skills (n = 184) and literacy problems (n = 48). Significant group differences were found across all areas. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated good discriminatory power...
August 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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