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Journal of Neurovirology

Talia M Nir, Neda Jahanshad, Christopher R K Ching, Ronald A Cohen, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Giovanni Schifitto, Hei Y Lam, Xue Hua, Jianhui Zhong, Tong Zhu, Michael J Taylor, Thomas B Campbell, Eric S Daar, Elyse J Singer, Jeffry R Alger, Paul M Thompson, Bradford A Navia
Growing evidence points to persistent neurological injury in chronic HIV infection. It remains unclear whether chronically HIV-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop progressive brain injury and impaired neurocognitive function despite successful viral suppression and immunological restoration. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study for the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC), we used tensor-based morphometry to map the annual rate of change of regional brain volumes (mean time interval 1...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Xiaotong Qiao, Haijiang Lin, Xiaoxiao Chen, Chenxi Ning, Keran Wang, Weiwei Shen, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaoyi Xu, Xing Liu, Na He, Yingying Ding
HIV-infected (HIV+) women may be more vulnerable to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) due to psychological and physiological factors but previous studies show mixed findings. We investigated the neurocognitive performances in HIV+ versus HIV- women and men. This cross-sectional analysis included 669 HIV+ patients (223 women) and 1338 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) controls (446 women) which were frequency matched on sex, education, and 5-year age categories. NCI was screened using the Mini-mental State Examination. Psychomotor speed was assessed using timed alternating hand sequence test...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Mathilde Calvez, George Hseeh, Simon Benzer, Amanda M Brown
Despite the fact that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not enter or replicate in neurons, its infection of a subset of resident brain glia cells (microglia and astrocytes) induces via disparate mechanisms, dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Antiretroviral therapies suppress viral load, but cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, some of which is likely related to viral reservoirs, continue to promote a microenvironment that is injurious to neurons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Coraline Canivet, Olus Uyar, Chantal Rhéaume, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 103 and 5 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 103 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Mice were monitored for weight loss, sickness signs, and survival for 21 days. The viral load, infectious titers, cytokine/chemokine levels, and peripheral leukocyte infiltration were determined in brain homogenates on days 0 (non-infected), 4, 6, and 8 post-infection (p...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Markus Covi, Luca Carnicelli, Francesca Caleri, Hannes Tischler, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by the thickening of the dura mater. We describe a patient who presented with intractable headache and complex cranial nerve palsy. Hypertrophy of the frontal dura was accompanied by pleocytosis and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical symptoms gradually improved after acyclovir and corticosteroid treatment, whereas dural pathology remained unchanged on neuroimaging. This case points at an expansion of the spectrum of neurological manifestations for EBV...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Myosotys Rodriguez, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Shashank Pawitwar, Mohan Kumar Muthu Karuppan, Fatah Kashanchi, Nazira El-Hage
Accelerated neurological disorders are increasingly prominent among the HIV-infected population and are likely driven by the toxicity from long-term use of antiretroviral drugs. We explored potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected primary human astrocytes and whether opioid co-exposure exacerbates the response. HIV-infected human astrocytes were exposed to the reverse transcriptase inhibitor, emtricitabine, alone or in combination with two protease inhibitors ritonavir and atazanavir (ERA) with and without morphine co-exposure...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Hehong Li, Ling Su, Tao Zhang, Fan He, Yingxian Yin
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), especially severe HFMD characterized by neurologic involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the distribution of neurologic infection and the outcomes of severe HFMD. A total of 139 suspected severe HFMD cases (92 were confirmed as EV-A71 infection) underwent clinical and laboratory diagnosis as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nervous system. Only those who were confirmed with EV-A71 infection were included in our study...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
DeGaulle I Chigbu, Pooja Jain, Brenndan L Crumley, Dip Patel, Zafar K Khan
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have been considered neglected viruses of low public health concern until recently when incidences of HTLV-1 and ZIKV were observed to be linked to serious immune-related disease and neurological complications. This review will discuss the epidemiology, genomic evolution, virus-host interactions, virulence factors, neuropathological sequelae, and current perspectives of these reemerging viruses. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines against these viruses, and as such, it is important for clinical trials to focus on developing vaccines that can induce cell-mediated immune response to confer long-term protective immunity...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Angelika Krumina, Svetlana Chapenko, Viktorija Kenina, Marija Mihailova, Inara Logina, Santa Rasa, Sandra Gintere, Ludmila Viksna, Simons Svirskis, Modra Murovska
There are several typographical errors in the section "Statistical Analysis" The corrected version follows.
January 24, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Caroline Vieira de Souza, Letícia Pletsch, Sasha Keith Kovaliuk, Alfredo Hummelgen, Vitor Vieira Piseta, Crystal Rosiane Auersvald Haurani, Indiamara Saliane Mendes, Edna Yoshito Yamada, Ingrid Sampaio Fröehner, Rosangela Lameira Pinheiro, Adriana de Fátima Gabriel, Laura Lúcia Cogo, Lucas Nathã Almeida Lira, Mirian Su Mi Kim, Gisele M B Singer
The presence of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should always be considered abnormal. This study aimed to evaluate the causes of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV positive and HIV negative. This is the first study of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV-positive. This was a retrospective study of CSF reports from 1996 to 2005, patients were selected based on the presence of eosinophils in the CSF. We analyzed 20,008 CSF reports; eosinophils were present in 5%. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of eosinophils was 2% (1%, 4%)...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Dianne Langford
Astrocytes regulate local cerebral blood flow, maintain ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis, provide metabolic support, regulate synaptic activity, and respond to brain injury, insults, and infection. Because of their abundance, extensive connectivity, and multiple roles in the brain, astrocytes are intimately involved in normal functioning of the CNS and their dysregulation can lead to neuronal dysfunction. In normal aging, decreased biological functioning and reduced cognitive abilities are commonly experienced in individuals free of overt neurological disease...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Deanna Saylor, Gertrude Nakigozi, Carlos A Pardo, Alice Kisakye, Anupama Kumar, Noeline Nakasujja, Kevin R Robertson, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor
We investigated whether vitamin D is associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults in rural Uganda underwent a neurocognitive battery for determination of HAND stage at baseline and after 2 years. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) and serum and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) were obtained. Of the 399 participants, 4% (n = 16) were vitamin D deficient (25OH-D < 20 ng/mL). There was no association between 25OH-D, serum or CSF VDBP, and HAND stage at baseline or follow-up...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Leah H Rubin, Erin E Sundermann, David J Moore
The advent of effective antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has led to an aging of the HIV population with approximately 50% of people with HIV (PWH) being over the age of 50 years. Neurocognitive complications, typically known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), persist in the era of ARVs and, in addition to risk of HAND, older PWH are also at risk for age-associated, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been postulated that risk for AD may be greater among PWH due to potential compounding effects of HIV and aging on mechanisms of neural insult...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Marvyn T Koning, Tessa Brik, Rogier Hagenbeek, Ido van den Wijngaard
A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. A lumbar punction revealed mononuclear leucocytosis and increased protein in her cerebrospinal fluid. She was admitted on a working diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Lucette A Cysique, Bruce J Brew
In this review, we propose that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), with relevance for the global HIV population, is fundamentally and clinically linked to the persistence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in ageing people living with HIV infection (PLWH). After placing our review within the context of the general literature on HIV and ageing, we review non-VCI risks for dementia in ageing PLWH. We then present the recently updated VCI nomenclature and show that the neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypes of VCI and HAND are largely overlapping, suggesting that further research is needed to accurately distinguish them...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Sehrish Jalal, Babita Jha, Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim, Na-Ra Yun, Yang Soo Kim, Jung Wook Park, Jae Keun Chung
Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We investigated the occurrence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius (n = 39), were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Using molecular methods, lung samples were evaluated for SFTS virus, hantavirus, and flavivirus, and seropositivity was evaluated in the blood...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Lei Meng, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Identifying modifiable risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) to help prevent this disease has attracted increasing interest in recent years for the limited effective drugs at present. Despite many studies indicated that infection acts as a risk factor for PD, there is no quantitative assessment of the impact of viral and bacterial infections on the risk of developing PD. The present study performed a meta-analysis on the basis of 38 datasets from 13 studies covering 287,773 PD cases and 7,102,901 controls to ascertain the association between PD and infection and the differences in the strength of the viral and bacterial infections...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Gabriele Arendt, Svenja Schlonies, Eser Orhan, Olaf Stüve
Modern antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) has transformed HIV from a life-threatening infection into a chronic disease. However, the life-long treatment has side effects that frequently have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. Thus, there are some efforts to "simplify" therapy, i.e. apply regimens with three or fewer antiretroviral substances. However, neurologists are relatively sceptical towards this cART "simplification", because the capacity of simplified regimens to access the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) might be too weak to effectively suppress viral load in this compartment...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Angelika Krumina, Svetlana Chapenko, Viktorija Kenina, Marija Mihailova, Inara Logina, Santa Rasa, Sandra Gintere, Ludmila Viksna, Simons Svirskis, Modra Murovska
Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7) are immunomodulating viruses potentially affecting the nervous system. We evaluated the influence of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections on fibromyalgia (FM) clinical course. Forty-three FM patients and 50 control group participants were enrolled. 39.50% (n = 17) FM patients had light A delta and C nerve fiber damage, 27.91% (n = 12) had severe A delta and C nerve fiber damage. 67.44% (n = 29) FM patients had loss of warm sensation in feet, loss of heat pain sensation, and increased cold pain sensation (34...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Jacqueline Hoare, Sarah J Heany, Jean-Paul Fouche, Nicole Phillips, John A Joska, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
Rapid maturation of major white matter pathways occurs in the first 2 years of life, indicating a critical neuronal developmental period. The impact of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children perinatally infected with HIV-1, after the age of 2 years on neurocognitive functioning and white matter development in adolescence has not been studied. Forty-six adolescents who initiated ART during the first 2 years of life (< 2 years) and 79 adolescents who initiated ART after 2 years of age (> 2 years), with perinatally acquired HIV were enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
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