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September 18, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Anchal Sharma, Manju Mohanty, Teddy Salan, Deepika Aggarwal, Lissa Mandell, Deborah L Jones, Kristopher Arheart, Aman Sharma, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Varan Govind, Mahendra Kumar
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) clade C is the most prevalent form of HIV-1 comprising nearly 46% of global infections and is the dominant subtype in India. Despite its predominance, the impact of HIV-1 clade C infection on cognitive function has been understudied in comparison with other subtypes, notably clade B, which is primarily found in Europe and North America. Few studies have assessed cognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve men and women with HIV-1 clade C infection. In this study conducted in Northern India, differences in neuropsychological functioning were compared between 109 participants (70 men, 39 women) with untreated HIV-1 clade C infection and 110 demographically matched healthy controls (74 men, 36 women)...
September 12, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Ioannis Nikolaidis, Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Dimitrios Pilalas, Marina-Kleopatra Boziki, Olga Tsachouridou, Andreas Kourelis, Lemonia Skoura, Pavlos Pavlidis, Panagiotis Gargalianos-Kakoliris, Symeon Metallidis, Michail Daniilidis, Grigorios Trypsiannis, Pavlos Nikolaidis
Relatively little research has been done in recent years to understand what leads to the unceasingly high rates of HIV sensory neuropathy despite successful antiretroviral treatment. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate neuronal damage induced by HIV and increasingly identified ART neurotoxicity involving mitochondrial dysfunction and innate immune system activation in peripheral nerves, ultimately all pathways resulting in enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Furthermore, many infectious/autoimmune/malignant diseases are influenced by the production-profile of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, due to inter-individual allelic polymorphism within cytokine gene regulatory regions...
September 11, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Shuhei Egashira, Akatsuki Kubota, Toshiyuki Kakumoto, Reiko Kawasaki, Risa Kotani, Kaori Sakuishi, Atsushi Iwata, Sung Kwan Bae, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Mariko Tanaka, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Tatsushi Toda
Intensive immunosuppression has enabled liver transplantation even in recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA), an independent risk factor for graft rejection. However, these recipients may also be at high risk of progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) due to the comorbid immunosuppressed status. A 58-year-old woman presented with self-limited focal-to-bilateral tonic-clonic seizures 9 months after liver transplantation. She was desensitized using rituximab and plasma exchange before transplantation and was subsequently treated with steroids, tacrolimus, and everolimus after transplantation for her preformed DSA...
September 5, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Karrar Mahmood Shaker Al-Khfaji, Nika Kooshki Zamani, Ehsan Arefian
During latent infection, the HSV-1 virus generates only a single transcript, LAT, which encodes six miRNAs. The GABAergic pathway signaling system is an essential cell signaling pathway influenced by various therapeutic targets and some brain disorders, such as epilepsy. This study found that miRNAs encoding LAT might target the STXBP1 and GABBR2 genes, which are among the significant genes in the GABAergic pathway. Bioinformatic analysis utilizing TargetScan version 5.2 and the RNA22 tools uncovered miRNAs encoding LAT that can influence STXBP1 and GABBR2 transcripts...
September 5, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Angela Rocchi, Ilker K Sariyer, Joseph R Berger
Since its definition 65 years ago, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has continued to devastate a growing population of immunosuppressed patients despite major advances in our understanding of the causative JC virus (JCV). Unless contained by the immune system, JCV lyses host oligodendrocytes collateral to its life cycle, leading to demyelination, neurodegeneration, and death. Novel treatments have stagnated in the absence of an animal model while current antiviral agents fail to address the now ubiquitous polyomavirus...
September 2, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Mariam A Hussain, C Wei-Ming Watson, Erin E Morgan, Robert K Heaton, Scott L Letendre, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore, Jennifer E Iudicello
OBJECTIVE: Loneliness is prevalent in people with HIV (PWH) and associated with adverse health-related consequences, including depression. Chronic inflammation has been linked to depression in PWH, though its association with loneliness is less well established. Simultaneous examination of inflammation, loneliness and depression is needed to clarify these relationships. This study investigated the relationship between loneliness and inflammation, and the effects of loneliness and inflammation on depression in PWH...
August 31, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Filomena Boccia, Letizia Lucia Florio, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Rosa Zampino
About 40% of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases are associated with prodromal infections; occasionally, it has been associated to chronic hepatitis C or its reactivation. A 38-year-old man came to our attention after transaminase elevation occurred during recovery from GBS. All the possible causes of acute hepatitis were excluded except for the positivity of HCVRNA, and a diagnosis of new onset hepatitis C was made. Recalling patient history, we observed that (i) anti-HCV antibodies were negative and liver enzymes were normal 7 weeks before GBS onset; (ii) in the early stages of ICU admission, liver enzymes started to rise, but the elevation remained mild under steroid treatment; (iii) serum aminotransferase peak occurred 11 weeks after GBS onset; and (iv) HCV RNA was already significantly high when anti-HCV antibodies became positive, consistent with an acute hepatitis...
August 30, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
J A Bakal, R Rivera, C Charlton, S Plitt, C Power
Encephalitis is a central nervous system disorder, often caused by infectious agents or aberrant immune responses. We investigated causes, comorbidities, costs, and outcomes of encephalitis in a population-based cohort. ICD-10 codes corresponding to encephalitis were used to identify health services records for all adults from 2004 to 2019. Data were cross-validated for identified diagnoses based on laboratory confirmation using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. We identified persons with a diagnosis of encephalitis and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results (n = 581) in whom viral genome was detected (n = 315) in a population of 3...
August 15, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Passawat Thammahakin, Keisuke Maezono, Naoya Maekawa, Hiroaki Kariwa, Shintaro Kobayashi
West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. However, the pathogenesis of the West Nile encephalitis remains unclear. Microglia are activated by WNV infection, and the pathogenic involvement of their phenotypes is controversial. In this study, we examined the diversity of microglia phenotypes caused by WNV infection by assessing various microglia markers and identified disease-associated microglia in WNV-infected mouse brain tissue. Cells positive for general microglia markers such as Iba1, P2RY12, or TMEM119 were detected in the control and WNV-infected brain tissue...
August 8, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Raheleh Miri, Arezoo Baghban, Arman Mosavat, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
There is an urgent need to find an effective therapy for life-threatening HTLV-1-associated diseases. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is considered a traditional herb with antiviral and anticancer properties and was tested in this study on HTLV-1 infectivity. GC-MS analyzed the alcoholic extract. In vitro assay was carried out using transfection of HUVEC cells by HTLV-1-MT2 cell line. The cells were exposed to alcoholic and aqueous extracts at 5,10, and 20 µg/mL concentrations. In vivo, mice were divided into four groups...
August 2, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Hussain Badani, Teresa White, Nicole Schulick, Christopher D Raeburn, Ibrahim Halil Topkaya, Don Gilden, Maria A Nagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Yorran Hardman A Montenegro, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Patrícia Sesterheim, Richard Steiner Salvato, Fernando Anschau, Maria José Santos de Oliveira, Angela T S Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto, Carlos-Alberto Saraiva Gonçalves, André Quincozes-Santos, Guilhian Leipnitz
Patients affected by COVID-19 present mostly with respiratory symptoms but acute neurological symptoms are also commonly observed. Furthermore, a considerable number of individuals develop persistent and often remitting symptoms months after infection, characterizing the condition called long-COVID. Since the pathophysiology of acute and persistent neurological manifestations is not fully established, we evaluated the expression of different genes in hippocampal slices of aged rats exposed to the serum of a post-COVID (sPC) individual and to the serum of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 [Zeta (sZeta) and Gamma (sGamma) variants]...
July 27, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Karol Perlejewski, Marek Radkowski, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Steffi Silling, Magdalena Wieczorek, Michał Makowiecki, Andrzej Horban, Tomasz Laskus
Little is known about concomitant central nervous system (CNS) infections by more than one virus. Current diagnostics are based on molecular tests for particular pathogens making it difficult to identify multi-viral infections. In the present study, we applied DNA- and RNA-based next-generation sequencing metagenomics (mNGS) to detect viruses in cerebrospinal fluids from 20 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. Coinfection was detected in one patient: sequences in cerebrospinal fluids matched enterovirus A (2...
July 25, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Shramana Deb, Ritwick Mondal, Durjoy Lahiri, Gourav Shome, Aakash Guha Roy, Vramanti Sarkar, Shramana Sarkar, Julián Benito-León
Norovirus, a positive-stranded RNA virus, is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis among all age groups worldwide. The neurological manifestations of norovirus are underrecognized, but several wide-spectrum neurological manifestations have been reported among infected individuals in the last few years. Our objective was to summarize the features of norovirus-associated neurological disorders based on the available literature. We used the existing PRISMA consensus statement. Data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up to Jan 30, 2023, using pre-specified searching strategies...
July 21, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Jorge Ligero-López, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Castellano, Iker Falces-Romero, María Dolores Montero-Vega, Julio García-Rodríguez
Our study aims to report on the demographic, incidence rate (IR), clinical, and microbiological characteristics of PML patients diagnosed in our tertiary-care hospital over the past 12 years. In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed all requests for JCPyV PCR in CSF from patients with suspected PML. We collected demographic, clinical, and microbiological data of patients diagnosed with PML. Since 2018, real-time quantitative PCR has been used, whereas prior to 2018, samples were sent to our National Reference Center for qualitative diagnosis...
July 20, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Prapti H Mody, Kelsey N Marvin, DiAnna L Hynds, Laura K Hanson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifests with loss of neurons correlated with intercellular deposition of amyloid (amyloid plaques) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, targeting AD hallmarks has not as yet led to development of an effective treatment despite numerous clinical trials. A better understanding of the early stages of neurodegeneration may lead to development of more effective treatments. One underexplored area is the clinical correlation between infection with herpesviruses and increased risk of AD...
July 12, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Uma Maheswari Deshetty, Sudipta Ray, Seema Singh, Shilpa Buch, Palsamy Periyasamy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and drug abuse are intertwined epidemics, leading to compromised adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and exacerbation of NeuroHIV. As opioid abuse causes increased viral replication and load, leading to a further compromised immune system in people living with HIV (PLWH), it is paramount to address this comorbidity to reduce the NeuroHIV pathogenesis. Non-human primates are well-suited models to study mechanisms involved in HIV neuropathogenesis and provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the comorbidity of HIV and drug abuse, leading to the development of more effective treatments for PLWH...
July 7, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Felipe R Schmidt, Evandro Sf Coutinho, Marco A Lima, Marcus Tt Silva, Ana Ccb Leite, Igor O Fonseca, Abelardo Qc Araujo
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic disabling disease. However, there is a lack of an adequate and specific health measurement instrument validated and with good performance to assess their degree of physical disability. This led us to carry out this study and to evaluate the performance of Fiocruz's National Institute of Infectious Diseases (IDS) disability scale, a specific instrument for HAM/TSP. Ninety-two HAM/TSP patients participated in the study. One researcher applied the IDS, IPEC scale, Disability Status Scale (DSS), Expanded DSS (EDSS), Osame scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire...
July 3, 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
Alison R Van Zandt, Andrew G MacLean
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the main contributor of the ongoing AIDS epidemic, remains one of the most challenging and complex viruses to target and eradicate due to frequent genome mutation and immune evasion. Despite the development of potent antiretroviral therapies, HIV remains an incurable infection as the virus persists in latent reservoirs throughout the body. To innovate a safe and effective cure strategy for HIV in humans, animal models are needed to better understand viral proliferation, disease progression, and therapeutic response...
August 2023: Journal of Neurovirology
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