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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

Agata Sobkow, Kamil Fulawka, Pawel Tomczak, Piotr Zjawiony, Jakub Traczyk
We developed and validated intervention aimed at enhancing numeracy (the ability to understand and use the concept of probability and statistical information) and decision making. One hundred and twenty-two participants were randomly assigned to a Mental Number Line Training condition (MNLT) or an Arithmetic Training Active Control condition (ATAC). Response mode (a slider anchored within the current response range vs. a numerical keyboard) was the only, and essential, difference between experimental conditions...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
David Flores, Martin Reimann, Raquel Castaño, Alberto Lopez
Across 4 experiments, this research is the first to uncover the interaction effect of food type (indulgent vs. healthy) and food presentation order (first vs. last) on individuals' sequential food choices and their overall caloric intake. This work showed that, when selecting foods in a sequence (e.g., at a buffet or on a food ordering website), individuals are influenced by the first item they see and tend to make their subsequent food choices on the basis of this first item. This notion can be utilized to nudge individuals into consuming less food overall...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Eilidh Noyes, Rob Jenkins
Facial image comparison is difficult for unfamiliar faces and easy for familiar faces. Those conclusions are robust, but they arise from situations in which the people being identified cooperate with the effort to identify them. In forensic and security settings, people are often motivated to subvert identification by manipulating their appearance, yet little is known about deliberate disguise and its effectiveness. We distinguish two forms of disguise- Evasion (trying not to look like oneself) and Impersonation (trying to look like another person)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Nicholas Hertz, Eva Wiese
As nonhuman agents are integrated into the workforce, the question becomes to what extent advice seeking in technology-infused environments depends on the perceived fit between agent and task and whether humans are willing to consider advice from nonhuman agents. In this experiment, participants sought advice from human, robot, or computer agents when performing a social or analytical task, with the task being either known or unknown when selecting an agent. In the agent-1st condition, participants 1st chose an adviser and then got their task assignment; in the task-1st condition, participants 1st received the task assignment and then chose an adviser...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
John Brenton, Sean Müller, Alasdair Dempsey
This experiment investigated the contribution of visual and additive motor experience to improvement of visual anticipation. Club cricket batters were randomized into (a) a visual-perceptual group that received temporal occlusion training (n = 13), (b) a visuomotor group that received temporal occlusion training coupled with motor pattern practice of the observed bowler's action (n = 13), and (c) a no-training control group (n = 13). They completed a fast bowler video-based temporal occlusion prepost anticipation test, as well as a transfer temporal occlusion test that included different fast and slow bowlers...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Marika Dimitriadou, Boris Maciejovsky, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
Three experiments tested and supported the hypothesis that collective nostalgia-nostalgia that is experienced when one thinks of oneself in terms of a particular social identity or as a member of a particular group and that concerns events or objects related to this group-increases individuals' ethnocentric preference for ingroup (compared to outgroup) products. Greek participants who recalled collective nostalgic experiences shared with other Greeks (compared to controls) evinced a highly robust preference for Greek (compared to foreign) consumer products...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Manuel F Gonzalez, John R Aiello
Researchers have documented various (sometimes conflicting) effects of music on cognitive task performance, and have highlighted several mechanisms through which these effects may occur (e.g., arousal, mood, attention). To further understand these effects, we consider interactions between music-based, task-based, and performer-based characteristics. Specifically, we drew from the distraction-conflict theory of social facilitation and research on boredom proneness to hypothesize that music-along with its complexity and volume-facilitates simple task performance and impairs complex task performance, and that one's preference for external stimulation (a dimension of boredom proneness) moderates these effects...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Daniel Morrow, Renato Ferreira Leitão Azevedo, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Mark Hasegawa-Johnson, Thomas Huang, William Schuh, Kuangxiao Gu, Yang Zhang
Patient portals to Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are underused by older adults because of limited system usability and usefulness, including difficulty understanding numeric information. We investigated whether enhanced context for portal messages about test results improved responses to these messages, comparing verbally, graphically, and video-enhanced formats. Older adults viewed scenarios with fictitious patient profiles and messages describing results for these patients from cholesterol or diabetes screening tests indicating lower, borderline, or higher risk levels...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Daniel Sturman, Mark W Wiggins, Jaime C Auton, Shayne Loft
This study was designed to examine whether cue utilization differentiates performance and resource allocation during simulated rail control tasks that contain implicit patterns of train movement. Two experiments were conducted, the first of which involved the completion of a 30-min rail control simulation that required participants to reroute trains either infrequently (monitoring task) or periodically (process control task). In the monitoring condition, participants with lower cue utilization recorded a greater increase in response latency over time...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Beth H Richardson, Kathleen C McCulloch, Paul J Taylor, Helen J Wall
Drawing on theories of mimicry as a schema-driven process, we tested whether the degree of verbal mimicry is dependent on the congruence between interactants' power dynamic (symmetric versus asymmetric), task type (cooperative versus competitive), and interaction context (negotiation versus social). Experiment 1 found higher verbal mimicry among dyads who successfully completed a cooperative problem-solving task compared with those who did not, but only under conditions of symmetric, not asymmetric, power. Experiment 2 had dyads complete either a cooperative or a competitive negotiation task, under conditions of symmetric versus asymmetric power...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Krista D Manley, Jason C K Chan, Gary L Wells
Perpetrators often wear disguises like ski masks to hinder subsequent identification by witnesses or law enforcement officials. In criminal cases involving a masked perpetrator, the decision of whether and how to administer a lineup often rests on the investigating officer. To date, no evidence-based recommendations are available for eyewitness identifications of a masked perpetrator. In 4 experiments, we examined lineup identification performance depending on variations in both encoding (studying a full face vs...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Michael R Brubacher
Public opinion can play a role in shaping punishment policies. A problem can arise, however, in that public opinion about appropriate punishments may vary depending on whether offenders in general or individual offenders are being considered. It has been argued that, for offenders in general, the public is concerned with protecting the social group at large, while for individual offenders, public attention is directed more toward the individual offender. However, this proposition has not been thoroughly tested...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Alycia Chin, Wändi Bruine de Bruin
To help consumers make informed decisions, regulators often impose disclosure requirements on financial institutions. However, disclosures may not be informative for consumers if they contain difficult-to-evaluate attributes, such as annual percentage rates (APRs). To improve a consumer's ability to evaluate the relative attractiveness of products with difficult-to-evaluate attributes, evaluability theory suggests providing consumers with distributional information. Here, we tested whether credit card disclosures containing graphs of the distribution of APRs in the credit card market help consumers estimate the relative costs of credit and evaluate credit cards...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Benjamin M Aitken, James C Champion, Matthew J Stainer
Attentional biases in anxious individuals can facilitate the detection of threatening stimuli. A particular field of research that may benefit from enhanced threat detection is in closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance, in which operators search through multiple camera feeds to attempt to identify threatening situations before they occur. The present study examined whether the enhanced threat detection of anxious individuals extends to the ability to detect threat in a multiple-scene CCTV task. Anxiety was measured in a nonclinical sample using the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Brian Day, Elham Ebrahimi, Leah S Hartman, Christopher C Pagano, Andrew C Robb, Sabarish V Babu
In virtual reality (VR), avatars are graphical representations of people. Previous research highlights benefits of having a self-avatar when perceiving-acting while embedded in a virtual environment. We studied the effect that an altered avatar had on the perception of one's action capabilities. In Experiment 1, some participants acted with a normal, or faithful, avatar whereas another group of participants used an avatar with an extended arm, all in virtual reality. Experiment 2 utilized the same methodology and procedure as Experiment 1, except that only a calibration phase occurred in VR, whereas other phases were completed in the real world...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jean-François Rouet, Ole Skov, Guillaume De Pereyra, Christine Ros, Ludovic Le Bigot, Nicolas Vibert
This study examined the effect of the number of citations attributed to documents on third year psychology students' selection of bibliographical references. Our main assumption was that students would take high numbers of citations as accessible relevance cues and use them heuristically to facilitate decision making, potentially bypassing deeper relevance assessment based on semantic processing. Experiment 1 presented the students with a reference selection task while manipulating the number of citations attributed to references, and found that the number of citations had a strong impact on reference selection...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Fanny Lalot, Alain Quiamzade, Oulmann Zerhouni
Regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2000) are two motivation theories widely applied in health-intervention research but never conjointly, despite sharing a number of theoretical similarities. In three studies (N = 578), we investigated how university students' self-determination motives to act upon their nutrition interact with induced regulatory focus and regulatory-message framing to predict their behaviors or intentions to improve their eating habits. Results revealed a fit between extrinsic motives and prevention focus: Intention increased with extrinsic motives in a prevention but not a promotion focus...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Sarah E Martiny, Jana Nikitin
Research has shown that social identity threat can have a broad variety of negative consequences. However, not much is known about the consequences of social identity threat on interpersonal relationships. In the present research, we hypothesize that experiencing social identity threat decreases people's social approach motivation toward other people related to the stereotyped domain. Specifically, we manipulated social identity threat by activating negative stereotypes about women in math. As math is an important aspect of the academic self-concept, female university students who are confronted with a negative math stereotype should experience threat toward their identity as university students...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Amy Dawel, Tsz Ying Wong, Jodie McMorrow, Callin Ivanovici, Xuming He, Nick Barnes, Jessica Irons, Tamara Gradden, Rachel Robbins, Stephanie Goodhew, Jo Lane, Elinor McKone
There are multiple well-established situations in which humans' face recognition performance is poor, including for low-resolution images, other-race faces, and in older adult observers. Here we show that caricaturing faces-that is, exaggerating their appearance away from an average face-can provide a useful applied method for improving face recognition across all these circumstances. We employ a face-name learning task offering a number of methodological advantages (e.g., valid comparison of the size of the caricature improvement across conditions differing in overall accuracy)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Winston E Jones, Jarrod Moss
Interruption interference refers to significant performance decreases that follow task interruption. Evidence has suggested that practicing interruption resumption reduces interruption interference as measured by the time required to resume the interrupted task. However, evidence has also indicated that interruption practice only improves resumption for the practiced pair of primary and interrupting tasks. If this is true, then there is little applied benefit in interruption training, because the training would be unlikely to transfer beyond the training environment...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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