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Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement

D M Mannur, Anita Babbar, Mahendar Thudi, Murali Mohan Sabbavarapu, Manish Roorkiwal, Sharanabasappa B Yeri, Vijay Prakash Bansal, S K Jayalakshmi, Shailendra Singh Yadav, Abhishek Rathore, Siva K Chamarthi, Bingi P Mallikarjuna, Pooran M Gaur, Rajeev K Varshney
Annigeri 1 and JG 74 are elite high yielding desi cultivars of chickpea with medium maturity duration and extensively cultivated in Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh, respectively. Both cultivars, in recent years, have become susceptible to race 4 of Fusarium wilt (FW). To improve Annigeri 1 and JG 74, we introgressed a genomic region conferring resistance against FW race 4 ( foc4 ) through marker-assisted backcrossing using WR 315 as the donor parent. For foreground selection, TA59, TA96, TR19 and TA27 markers were used at Agricultural Research Station, Kalaburagi, while GA16 and TA96 markers were used at Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur...
2019: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Rui Wang, Yuxiu Liu, Kyle Isham, Weidong Zhao, Justin Wheeler, Natalie Klassen, Yingang Hu, J Michael Bonman, Jianli Chen
Selecting high-yielding wheat cultivars with more productive tillers per unit area (PTN) combined with more fertile spikelets per spike (fSNS) is difficult. QTL mapping of these traits may aid understanding of this bottleneck and accelerate precision breeding for high yield via marker-assisted selection. PTN and fSNS were assessed in four to five trials from 2015 to 2017 in a doubled haploid population derived from two high-yielding cultivars "UI Platinum" and "SY Capstone." Two QTL for PTN ( QPTN...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Marie Noelle Ndjiondjop, Kassa Semagn, Jianwei Zhang, Arnaud Comlan Gouda, Sèdjro Bienvenu Kpeki, Alphonse Goungoulou, Peterson Wambugu, Khady Nani Dramé, Isaac Kofi Bimpong, Dule Zhao
Species misclassification (misidentification) and handling errors have been frequently reported in various plant species conserved at diverse gene banks, which could restrict use of germplasm for correct purpose. The objectives of the present study were to (i) determine the extent of genotyping error (reproducibility) on DArTseq-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); (ii) determine the proportion of misclassified accessions across 3134 samples representing three African rice species complex ( Oryza glaberrima , O...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Karolina Kaźmińska, Ewelina Hallmann, Anna Rusaczonek, Aleksandra Korzeniewska, Mirosław Sobczak, Joanna Filipczak, Karol Seweryn Kuczerski, Jarosław Steciuk, Monika Sitarek-Andrzejczyk, Marek Gajewski, Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Grzegorz Bartoszewski
The high content of carotenoids, sugars, dry matter, vitamins and minerals makes the fruit of winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) a valuable fresh-market vegetable and an interesting material for the food industry. Due to their nutritional value, long shelf-life and health protective properties, winter squash fruits have gained increased interest from researchers in recent years. Despite these advantages, the genetic and genomic resources available for C. maxima are still limited. The aim of this study was to use the genetic mapping approach to map the ovary colour locus and to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for high carotenoid content and flesh colour...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Renata Słomnicka, Helena Olczak-Woltman, Aleksandra Korzeniewska, Dariusz Gozdowski, Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Grzegorz Bartoszewski
One of the most important cucumber diseases is bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS), whose increased occurrence in open-field production has been observed over the last years. To map ALS resistance genes, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was developed from a narrow cross of cucumber line Gy14 carrying psl resistance gene and susceptible B10 line. Parental lines and RILs were tested under growth chamber conditions as well as in the field for angular leaf spot symptoms. Based on simple sequence repeat and DArTseq, genotyping a genetic map was constructed, which contained 717 loci in seven linkage groups, spanning 599...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Ofere Francis Emeriewen, Klaus Richter, Stefano Piazza, Diego Micheletti, Giovanni A L Broggini, Thomas Berner, Jens Keilwagen, Magda-Viola Hanke, Mickael Malnoy, Andreas Peil
Breeding for resistance against the destructive fire blight disease of apples is the most sustainable strategy to control the menace of this disease, and has become increasingly important in European apple breeding programs. Since most cultivars are susceptible, wild accessions have been explored for resistance with quantitative trait loci detected in a few wild species. Fire blight resistance of Malus fusca was described following phenotypic evaluations with a C-type strain of Erwinia amylovora , Ea222_JKI, and the detection of a major QTL on chromosome 10 ( Mfu10 ) of this crabapple...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Sanjiv Gupta, Elysia Vassos, Beata Sznajder, Rebecca Fox, Kelvin H P Khoo, Robert Loughman, Kenneth J Chalmers, Diane E Mather
Adult plant resistance against plant pathogens is of interest as a means to achieve durable resistance. Prior to this research, the barley lines CLE210 (from Uruguay) and Denar (from the Czech Republic) had been reported to exhibit adult-plant resistance against powdery mildew. Here, populations of doubled haploid lines from crosses of these lines with the susceptible cultivar Baudin were evaluated for powdery mildew resistance in field experiments. Using linkage maps constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data, it was determined that differences in resistance were largely attributable to a region on the long arm of chromosome 5H (5HL)...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Erik W Ohlson, Gilles I Thio, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Paco Sérémé, Michael P Timko
Cowpea is one of the most important crops in West Africa and is essential for the region's food and nutrition security and economic development. Consequently, improving its agronomic performance and yield is a desirable goal. Brown blotch disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum capsici , is an important constraint of cowpea productivity, and at present, only limited genetic resources are available for breeding improved brown blotch-resistant varieties. The current study has characterized the genetic basis for brown blotch resistance conferred by the cowpea cultivar KN1 and identified a major dominant quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance on chromosome Vu02...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Dong Kyun Kim, Naheed Zeba, Mi Chung Suh, Xinli Xia, Choo Bong Hong
Advances in molecular biology have improved crops through transferring genes from one organism to new hosts, and these efforts have raised concerns about potential unexpected outcomes. Here, we provide evidence that a gene with a specific function in one organism can yield completely different effects in a new host. CaRZFP1 is a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein gene previously isolated from a cDNA library for heat-stressed hot pepper. In our previous work investigating in vivo CaRZFP1 function, we transferred CaRZFP1 into tobacco; transgenic tobacco exhibited enhanced growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Manje Gowda, Yoseph Beyene, Dan Makumbi, Kassa Semagn, Michael S Olsen, Jumbo M Bright, Biswanath Das, Stephen Mugo, L M Suresh, Boddupalli M Prasanna
In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the key determinant of food security for smallholder farmers. The sudden outbreak of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is seriously threatening the maize production in the region. Understanding the genetic basis of MLN resistance is crucial. In this study, we used four biparental populations applied linkage mapping and joint linkage mapping approaches to identify and validate the MLN resistance-associated genomic regions. All populations were genotyped with low to high density markers and phenotyped in multiple environments against MLN under artificial inoculation...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yanning Tan, Xuewu Sun, Baohua Fang, Dong Yu, Zhizhong Sun, Weiping Wang, Xiabing Sheng, Xiaolin Yin, Ling Liu, Yongfei Zhang, Meijuan Duan, Dingyang Yuan
A maintainer line of 3-line hybrid rice commonly presents a certain genetic distance to a 2-line restorer line, but in many cases, 2-line restorer lines present defects upon recovery of the object cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of the maintainer line, which impedes the utilization of their heterosis. Here, we report a strategy and an example of converting a maintainer into a photoperiod/temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (P/TGMS) line with an almost identical genetic background, thus maximizing the heterosis...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Amanda Avelar de Oliveira, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Filipe de Souza, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Roberto Willians Noda, Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido
The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
M Tyrka, S Oleszczuk, J Rabiza-Swider, H Wos, M Wedzony, J Zimny, A Ponitka, A Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, R J Metzger, P S Baenziger, A J Lukaszewski
To create a framework for genetic dissection of hexaploid triticale, six populations of doubled haploid (DH) lines were developed from pairwise hybrids of high-yielding winter triticale cultivars. The six populations comprise between 97 and 231 genotyped DH lines each, totaling 957 DH lines. A consensus genetic map spans 4593.9 cM is composed of 1576 unique DArT markers. The maps reveal several structural rearrangements in triticale genomes. In preliminary tests of the populations and maps, markers specific to wheat segments of the engineered rye chromosome 1R (RM1B) were identified...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
K S Sandhu, F M You, R L Conner, P M Balasubramanian, Anfu Hou
Seed hardness trait has a profound impact on cooking time and canning quality in dry beans. This study aims to identify the unknown genetic factors and associated molecular markers to better understand and tag this trait. An F2:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was derived from a cross between the hard and soft seeded black bean parents (H68-4 and BK04-001). Eighty-five RILs and the parental lines were grown at two locations in southern Manitoba during years 2014-2016. Seed samples were harvested manually at maturity to test for seed hardness traits...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Charlotte N Miller, Andrea L Harper, Martin Trick, Nikolaus Wellner, Peter Werner, Keith W Waldron, Ian Bancroft
Lodging continues to be a major cause of yield loss in important crop species such as Brassica napus. Understanding the genetic regulation of lodging resistance is therefore of key interest to breeders worldwide. Current strategies aimed at minimising lodging risk involve the incorporation of dwarfing genes or the application of plant growth regulators. However, despite these efforts, lodging continues to be a persistent problem and it is therefore of high interest that novel, complimentary strategies for lodging control are implemented...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Katherine A Steele, Mark J Quinton-Tulloch, Resham B Amgai, Rajeev Dhakal, Shambhu P Khatiwada, Darshna Vyas, Martin Heine, John R Witcombe
Few public sector rice breeders have the capacity to use NGS-derived markers in their breeding programmes despite rapidly expanding repositories of rice genome sequence data. They rely on > 18,000 mapped microsatellites (SSRs) for marker-assisted selection (MAS) using gel analysis. Lack of knowledge about target SNP and InDel variant loci has hampered the uptake by many breeders of Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP), a proprietary technology of LGC genomics that can distinguish alleles at variant loci...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Omnia Gamal El-Dien, Blaise Ratcliffe, Jaroslav Klápště, Ilga Porth, Charles Chen, Yousry A El-Kassaby
The advantages of open-pollinated (OP) family testing over controlled crossing (i.e., structured pedigree) are the potential to screen and rank a large number of parents and offspring with minimal cost and efforts; however, the method produces inflated genetic parameters as the actual sibling relatedness within OP families rarely meets the half-sib relatedness assumption. Here, we demonstrate the unsurpassed utility of OP testing after shifting the analytical mode from pedigree- (ABLUP) to genomic-based (GBLUP) relationship using phenotypic tree height (HT) and wood density (WD) and genotypic (30k SNPs) data for 1126 38-year-old Interior spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Shalabh Dixit, Anshuman Singh, Nitika Sandhu, Aditi Bhandari, Prashant Vikram, Arvind Kumar
TDK1 is a popular rice variety from the Lao PDR. Originally developed for irrigated conditions, this variety suffers a high decline in yield under drought conditions. Studies have identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield under drought conditions, qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 6.2 , that show a high effect in the background of this variety. We report here the pyramiding of these three QTLs with SUB1 that provides 2-3 weeks of tolerance to complete submergence, with the aim to develop drought- and submergence-tolerant near-isogenic lines (NILs) of TDK1...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Eduardo Cruz-Rus, Rafael Sesmero, José A Ángel-Pérez, José F Sánchez-Sevilla, Detlef Ulrich, Iraida Amaya
Flavor improvement is currently one of the most important goals for strawberry breeders. At the same time, it is one of the most complex traits to improve, involving the balanced combination of several desired characteristics such as high sweetness, moderate acidity, and the appropriate combination of aroma compounds that are beginning to be delineated in consumer tests. DNA-informed breeding will expedite the selection of complex traits, such as flavor, over traditional phenotypic evaluation, particularly when markers linked to several traits of interests are combined during the breeding process...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Jiayin Song, Brett F Carver, Carol Powers, Liuling Yan, Jaroslav Klápště, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Charles Chen
Crop improvement is a long-term, expensive institutional endeavor. Genomic selection (GS), which uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information to estimate genomic breeding values, has proven efficient to increasing genetic gain by accelerating the breeding process in animal breeding programs. As for crop improvement, with few exceptions, GS applicability remains in the evaluation of algorithm performance. In this study, we examined factors related to GS applicability in line development stage for grain yield using a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
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