Kotaro Horiguchi, Saishu Yoshida, Takehiro Tsukada, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Nakakura, Rumi Hasegawa, Shu Takigami, Shunji Ohsako
SOX2-positive cells are stem/progenitor cells that supply hormone-producing cells; they are found in the anterior lobe of the rodent pituitary gland. However, they are likely composed of several subpopulations. In rats, a SOX2-positive cell populations can be distinguished by the presence of S100β. We identified the novel markers cluster of differentiation (CD) CD9 and CD81, members of the tetraspanin superfamily, for the identification of S100β/SOX2-positive cells. Recently, CD9/CD81 double-knockout mice were generated...
November 22, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lucia Centurione, Maria Antonietta Centurione, Ivana Antonucci, Silvia Sancilio, Gianmarco Stati, Liborio Stuppia, Roberta Di Pietro
Human second trimester Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells (hAFSCs) harbour the potential to differentiate into cells of each of the three germ layers and to form Embryoid Body (EB)-like aggregates, without inducing teratoma formation and with no ethical concerns. However, in spite of the number of reports on hAFSCs-EBs and their characterization, a thorough evaluation in light and electron microscopy of morphological and morphometric features of hAFSCs-EBs development in vitro has not been reported yet. Apart from a superficial layer of epithelial-like flat cells, displaying rare microvilli on the free surface, hAFSCs-EBs enclose inner material, abundant in vesicles and secretory granules, showing early characteristics of connective extracellular matrix dispersed among different types of inner cells...
November 21, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jeanne-Marie Krischer, Karolin Albert, Alexander Pfaffenroth, Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Clemens Ruppert, Bradford J Smith, Lars Knudsen
Mechanical ventilation triggers the manifestation of lung injury and pre-injured lungs are more susceptible. Ventilation-induced abnormalities of alveolar surfactant are involved in injury progression. The effects of mechanical ventilation on the surfactant system might be different in healthy compared to pre-injured lungs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilations on the structure of the blood-gas barrier, the ultrastructure of alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells and the intracellular surfactant pool (= lamellar bodies, LB)...
November 13, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Tomoya Nagai, Tomoka Hasegawa, Yimin, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Hiromi Hongo, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Ayako Yokoyama, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Atsuro Yokoyama, Norio Amizuka
In this study, we examined the immunolocalization of podoplanin/E11, CD44, actin filaments, and phosphorylated ezrin in the osteoblasts on the verge of differentiating into osteocytes in murine femora and tibiae. When observing under stimulated emission depletion microscopy, unlike podoplanin-negative osteoblasts, podoplanin-positive osteoblasts showed a rearranged assembly of actin filaments along the cell membranes which resembled that of embedded osteocytes. In the metaphysis, i.e., the bone remodeling site, CD44-bearing osteoclasts were either proximal to or in contact with podoplanin-positive osteoblasts, but the podoplanin-positive osteoblasts also localized CD44 on their own cell surface...
November 11, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Chiung-Hui Liu, Yu-Chen Kuo, Che-Yu Wang, Chao-Chun Hsu, Ying-Jui Ho, Yun-Chi Chiang, Fu-Der Mai, Wei-Jhih Lin, Wen-Chieh Liao
Syndecan-3 (SDC3) and Syndecan-4 (SDC4) are distributed throughout the nervous system (NS) and are favourable factors in motor neuron development. They are also essential for regulation of neurite outgrowth in the CNS. However, their roles in the reconstruction of the nodes of Ranvier after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are still unclear. Present study used an in vivo model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN) for 1-3 months. The recovery of neuromuscular function was evaluated by grooming test. Expression and co-localization of SDC3, SDC4, and Nav1...
November 10, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
José R Godoy, Sarah Pittrich, Svetlana Slavic, Christopher Horst Lillig, Eva-Maria Hanschmann, Reinhold G Erben
Ischemia and reperfusion events, such as myocardial infarction (MI), are reported to induce remote organ damage severely compromising patient outcomes. Tissue survival and functional restoration relies on the activation of endogenous redox regulatory systems such as the oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin (Trx) family. Trxs and peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are essential for the redox regulation of protein thiol groups and for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Here, we determined whether experimental MI induces changes in Trxs and Prxs in the heart as well as in secondary organs...
November 8, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eugene Won Park, Katsuhisa Kawai, Youhei Egami, Nobukazu Araki
Rab35 is a small G protein involved in various cellular events including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. DENND1B, a DENN family member, acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab35 to convert it to the GTP-bound active form from the GDP-bound inactive form. DENND1B contains the DENN domain which harbors GEF activity for Rab35 in the N-terminus, while the clathrin binding motif and adaptor protein-2-interaction motif are at the C-terminus. In this study, we investigated the intracellular localization of DENN1B in various cell types and found novel DENND1B-localized gathered line structures in BS-C-1 cells and in some other cell types...
November 2, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Grzegorz Gula, Sławomir Rumiński, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Agnieszka Jasińska, Ewelina Kiernozek, Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Anna Ratajska
The role of cardiac tissue macrophages (cTMs) during pre- and postnatal developmental stages remains in many aspects unknown. We aimed to characterize cTM populations and their potential functions based on surface markers. Our in situ studies of immunostained cardiac tissue specimens of murine fetuses (from E11to E17) revealed that a significant number of embryonic cTMs (phenotyped by CD45, CD68, CD64, F4/80, CD11b, CD206, Lyve-1) resided mostly in the subepicardial space, not in the entire myocardial wall, as observed in adult individuals...
November 1, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Steffen Scholpp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Christian Mühlfeld, Clara Pfeiffer, Vanessa Schneider, Melanie Bornemann, Julia Schipke
Obesity due to high calorie intake induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, thus contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies in aging suggest that oral supplementation with the natural polyamine spermidine has a cardioprotective effect. Here, the hypothesis was tested that spermidine or voluntary activity alone or in combination protect the heart from adverse effects induced by obesity. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice (n = 8-10 per group) were subjected to control or high fat diet (HFD) and were left untreated, or either received spermidine via drinking water or were voluntarily active or both...
October 27, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Clyde Savio Pinto, Masanori Mishima, Karuna Sampath
Actin is a conserved cytoskeletal protein with essential functions. Here, we review the state-of-the-art reagents, tools and methods used to probe actin biology and functions in zebrafish embryo and larvae. We also discuss specific cell types and tissues where the study of actin in zebrafish has provided new insights into its functions.
October 23, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Malgorzata Grzesiak, Gabriela Burzawa, Patrycja Kurowska, Klaudia Blaszczyk, Agata Szlaga, Anna Blasiak, Andrzej Sechman, Agnieszka Rak
Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) plays an important role in the ovary and its deficiency is associated with ovarian pathologies, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is no data related to VD3 metabolism in the ovary during PCOS. Herein, we investigated differences in the expression of VD3 receptor (VDR) and key VD3 metabolic enzymes, 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), in the ovary and periovarian adipose tissue (POAT) of control (proestrus and diestrus) and PCOS induced by letrozole rats...
October 23, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Paige C Robinson, Hannah R Littler, Anke Lange, Eduarda M Santos
Silver is a non-essential, toxic metal widespread in freshwaters and capable of causing adverse effects to wildlife. Its toxic effects have been studied in detail but less is known about how sensitivity varies during development and whether pre-exposures affect tolerance upon re-exposure. We address these knowledge gaps using the zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio) model to investigate whether exposures encompassing stages of development prior to mid-blastula transition, when chorion hardening and epigenetic reprogramming occur, result in greater toxicity compared to those initiated after this period...
October 21, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sophie R Cook, Cerys Bladen, Johanna Smith, Emily Maguire, Jordan Copner, Gareth D Fenn, Kim Wager, Helen Waller-Evans, Emyr Lloyd-Evans
Lysosomal storage diseases are the most common cause of neurodegeneration in children. They are characterised at the cellular level by the accumulation of storage material within lysosomes. There are very limited therapeutic options, and the search for novel therapies has been hampered as few good small animal models are available. Here, we describe the use of light sheet microscopy to assess lipid storage in drug and morpholino induced zebrafish models of two diseases of cholesterol homeostasis with lysosomal dysfunction: First, Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), caused by mutations in the lysosomal transmembrane protein NPC1, characterised by intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and several other lipids...
October 20, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Birte S Steiniger, Henriette Pfeffer, Michael Guthe, Oleg Lobachev
We reconstructed serial sections of a representative adult human spleen to clarify the unknown arrangement of the splenic microvasculature, such as terminal arterioles, sheathed capillaries, the red pulp capillary network and venules. The resulting 3D model was evaluated in virtual reality (VR). Capillary sheaths often occurred after the second or third branching of a terminal arteriole and covered its capillary side or end branches. The sheaths started directly after the final smooth muscle cells of the arteriole and consisted of cuboidal CD271++ stromal sheath cells surrounded and infiltrated by B lymphocytes and macrophages...
October 19, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Saki Umezawa, Miho Miyakawa, Takashi Yamaura, Hideo Kubo, Tsutomu Kinoshita
In mammalian hearts, cardiomyocytes retain a transient capacity to proliferate and regenerate following injury before birth, whereas they lose proliferative capacity immediately after birth. It has also been known that cardiac progenitor cells including islet1-positive cells do not contribute to the cardiac repair and regeneration in mammals. In contrast, hearts of zebrafish, amphibians and reptiles maintain a regenerative ability throughout life. Here, we analyzed proliferative capacity of cardiac cells during cardiac development and post-ventricular resection using Xenopus laevis, especially focusing on islet1...
October 18, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Michael L Dawes, Christian Soeller, Steffen Scholpp
Cell behaviour and function is determined through the interactions of a multitude of molecules working in concert. To observe these molecular dynamics, biophysical studies have been developed that track single interactions. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an optical biophysical technique that non-invasively resolves single molecules through recording the signal intensity at the femtolitre scale. However, recording the behaviour of these biomolecules using in vitro-based assays often fails to recapitulate the full range of variables in vivo that directly confer dynamics...
October 16, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lars Knudsen, Christina Brandenberger, Matthias Ochs
Stereology is the method of choice for the quantitative assessment of biological objects in microscopy. It takes into account the fact that, in traditional microscopy such as conventional light and transmission electron microscopy, although one has to rely on measurements on nearly two-dimensional sections from fixed and embedded tissue samples, the quantitative data obtained by these measurements should characterize the real three-dimensional properties of the biological objects and not just their "flatland" appearance on the sections...
October 13, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
E A Wallnöfer, G C Thurner, C Kremser, H Talasz, M M Stollenwerk, A Helbok, N Klammsteiner, K Albrecht-Schgoer, H Dietrich, W Jaschke, P Debbage
This multidisciplinary study examined the pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles based on albumin-DTPA-gadolinium chelates, testing the hypothesis that these nanoparticles create a stronger vessel signal than conventional gadolinium-based contrast agents and exploring if they are safe for clinical use. Nanoparticles based on human serum albumin, bearing gadolinium and designed for use in magnetic resonance imaging, were used to generate magnet resonance images (MRI) of the vascular system in rats ("blood pool imaging")...
October 11, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Imadeldin Yahya, Marion Böing, Beate Brand-Saberi, Gabriela Morosan-Puopolo
Cell migration plays a crucial role in early embryonic development. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been reported to guide migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) to form the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia (SG). CXCR4 also plays an important part during the formation of limb and cloacal muscles. NCCs migration and muscle formation during embryonic development are usually considered separately, although both cell lineages migrate in close neighbourhood and have markers in common. In this study, we present a new method for the simultaneous detection of CXCR4, mesodermal markers and NCCs markers during chicken embryo developmental stages HH18-HH25 by combining double whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining on floating vibratome sections...
October 10, 2020: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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