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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725173/novel-methods-in-adrenal-research-a-metabolomics-approach
#1
REVIEW
Thomas G Papathomas, Na Sun, Vasileios Chortis, Angela E Taylor, Wiebke Arlt, Susan Richter, Graeme Eisenhofer, Gerard Ruiz-Babot, Leonardo Guasti, Axel Karl Walch
Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome...
February 6, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671658/region-specific-changes-in-brain-kisspeptin-receptor-expression-during-estrogen-depletion-and-the-estrous-cycle
#2
Saeko Ozaki, Shimpei Higo, Kinuyo Iwata, Hidehisa Saeki, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin acts as a potent neuropeptide regulator of reproduction through modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Previous studies revealed sex differences in brain expression patterns as well as regulation of expression by estrogen. Alternatively, sex differences and estrogen regulation of the kisspeptin receptor (encoded by Kiss1r) have not been examined at cellular resolution. In the current study, we examined whether Kiss1r mRNA expression also exhibits estrogen sensitivity and sex-dependent differences using in situ hybridization...
January 22, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666403/characterization-of-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-a-b-cell-dependent-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Luisa Bell, Tobias Koeniger, Sabine Tacke, Stefanie Kuerten
Recent studies with B-cell-depleting antibodies have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. While these antibodies efficiently target B cells in the blood, it is unclear how effective they are in the central nervous system (CNS), especially in the context of limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the ongoing discussion on the relevance of B-cell aggregate formation in the brains of SP-MS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate BBB integrity in the context of B-cell-dependent neuroinflammation in a mouse model of MS...
January 21, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637455/osteoclasts-secrete-osteopontin-into-resorption-lacunae-during-bone-resorption
#4
Jani Luukkonen, Meeri Hilli, Miho Nakamura, Ilja Ritamo, Leena Valmu, Kyösti Kauppinen, Juha Tuukkanen, Petri Lehenkari
Osteopontin (OPN) is a non-collagenous extracellular sialylated glycoprotein located in bone. It is believed to be one of the key components in osteoclast attachment to bone during resorption. In this study, we characterized OPN and other glycoproteins found in the resorption lacunae to confirm the role of osteoclasts in OPN secretion using electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Additionally, we examined the glycan epitopes of resorption pits and the effects of different glycan epitopes on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts...
January 14, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30613913/in-focus-in-hcb
#5
EDITORIAL
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612153/alarin-in-different-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-types
#6
Samir Jabari, Falk Schrödl, Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Barbara Kofler, Axel Brehmer
Alarin (AL), a new member of the galanin family, has been localized in various CNS regions, mainly in rodents. Among other effects, it modulates food intake. Therefore, we analyzed the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of AL in human intestinal epithelia. Cryosections of 12 human bowel samples were immunohistochemically double-stained for AL and α-defensin 5 (αD; first set). Two further sets of sections were quadruple-stained either (second set) for AL, chromogranin (CG), synaptophysin (SY), and somatostatin (SO) or (third set) for AL, CG, Peptide Y (PY), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)...
January 5, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607497/an-update-on-the-golgi-staining-technique-improving-cerebellar-cell-type-specificity
#7
N Czechowska, A van Rienen, F Lang, B Eiberger, S L Baader
The detailed morphological characterization of single cells was a major breakthrough in neuroscience during the turn of the twentieth century, enabling Ramon y Cajal to postulate the neuron doctrine. Even after 150 years, single cell analysis is an intriguing goal, newly motivated by the finding that autism might be caused by intricate and discreet changes in cerebellar morphology. Besides new single labelling technologies, the Golgi staining technique is still in use due to its whole cell labelling characteristics, its superior contrast performance over other methods and its apparent randomness of staining cells within a whole tissue block...
January 3, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604285/coping-with-formalin-banning-in-pathology-under-vacuum-long-term-tissue-storage-with-no-added-formalin
#8
Luca Mastracci, Alessandro Gambella, Alberto Bragoni, Simona Pigozzi, Lorenza Pastorino, Irene Vanni, Ilaria Tosi, Michela Campora, Roberto Fiocca, Federica Grillo
Formalin is toxic and has recently been classified as carcinogenic leading to a proposed European formalin ban. But, the pathology use of formalin has however been completely overlooked, and this is proving to be a relevant issue, as no alternative, reliable, tissue fixative is available. Various systems have been proposed to reduce formalin use and exposure; long-term storage and disposal of formalin is also a problem. With this in mind, under vacuum sealing (UVS) systems have been proposed for transportation/storage, however, for how long tissue retains its characteristics (morphological and molecular) is unknown...
January 2, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604284/differential-expression-of-pkc%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#9
Marion F Haug, Manuela Berger, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
The retina is a complex neural circuit, which processes and transmits visual information from light perceiving photoreceptors to projecting retinal ganglion cells. Much of the computational power of the retina rests on signal integrating interneurons, such as bipolar cells. Commercially available antibodies against bovine and human conventional protein kinase C (PKC) α and -β are frequently used as markers for retinal ON-bipolar cells in different species, despite the fact that it is not known which bipolar cell subtype(s) they actually label...
January 2, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30560288/-in-focus-in-hcb
#10
EDITORIAL
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30560287/histological-processing-of-un-cellularized-thermosensitive-electrospun-scaffolds
#11
Julia Fuchs, Marc Mueller, Christine Daxböck, Manuela Stückler, Ingrid Lang, Gerd Leitinger, Elisabeth Bock, Amin El-Heliebi, Gerit Moser, Birgit Glasmacher, Dagmar Brislinger
Histological processing of thermosensitive electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(L-lactide) (PCL/PLA) scaffolds fails, as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is characterized by its low-melting temperature (Tm = 60 °C). Here, we present an optimized low-temperature preparation method for the histological processing of un-/cellularized thermosensitive PCL/PLA scaffolds.Our study is aimed at the establishment of an optimized dehydration and low-melting-point paraffin-embedding method of electrospun PCL/PLA scaffolds (un-/cellularized)...
December 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30539237/correction-to-p2x7r-dependent-regulation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-and-claudin-18-in-alveolar-epithelial-type-i-cells-of-mice-lung
#12
K Barth, R Bläsche, A Neißer, S Bramke, J A Frank, M Kasper
Correction to: Histochem Cell Biol (2016).
December 11, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30515554/%C3%AE-parvin-and-%C3%AE-parvin-in-the-rat-uterus-during-decidualisation-and-uterine-receptivity
#13
Leigh Nicholson, Romanthi Madawala, Laura Lindsay, Christopher R Murphy
During early pregnancy, the uterine luminal epithelial cells (UECs) and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) undergo morphological changes to enable blastocyst implantation. The present study investigates, for the first time, the cytoskeletal-associated proteins and α-actinin superfamily members, α-parvin and β-parvin, during early pregnancy in the rat uterus. These two PARVA proteins are involved in cell adhesion, morphological changes and regulation of other cytoskeletal proteins, through binding with proteins such as actin and integrin-linked kinase...
December 5, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511269/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-suppress-transdifferentiation-of-gonadotrophs-to-prolactin-cells-and-proliferation-of-prolactin-cells-induced-by-diethylstilbestrol-in-male-mouse-pituitary
#14
Nandar Tun, Yasuaki Shibata, Myat Thu Soe, Myo Win Htun, Takehiko Koji
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, increases prolactin (PRL) cells through transdifferentiation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells to PRL cells as well as proliferation of PRL cells in adult male mouse pituitary. Since hyperacetylation of histone H3 is implicated in the regulation of activation of various genes, we examined the effect of DES on the state of histone H3 acetylation. DES significantly reduced the immunohistochemical signal for acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in PRL, LH and FSH cells, but not for H3K18ac or H3K23ac...
December 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488339/detection-of-herpesvirus-capsids-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images-using-transfer-learning
#15
K Shaga Devan, P Walther, J von Einem, T Ropinski, H A Kestler, C Read
The detailed analysis of secondary envelopment of the Human betaherpesvirus 5/human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying the formation of infectious virions. As a step towards a software-based quantification of different stages of HCMV virion morphogenesis in TEM, we developed a transfer learning approach based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that automatically detects HCMV nucleocapsids in TEM images...
November 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30460406/correction-to-the-proliferation-marker-pki-67-becomes-masked-to-mib-1-staining-after-expression-of-its-tandem-repeats
#16
Mirko H H Schmidt, Rainer Broll, Hans-Peter Bruch, Michael Duchrow
In the PubMed citation records, the author's name shows.
November 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30446809/in-focus-in-hcb
#17
EDITORIAL
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30443735/molecular-imaging-with-nanoparticles-the-dwarf-actors-revisited-10-years-later
#18
REVIEW
Gudrun C Thurner, Paul Debbage
We explore present-day trends and challenges in nanomedicine. Creativity in the laboratories continues: the published literature on novel nanoparticles is now vast. Nanoagents are discussed here which are composed entirely of strongly photoluminescent materials, tunable to desired optical properties and of inherently low toxicity. We focus on "quantum nanoparticles" prepared from allotropes of carbon. The principles behind strong, tunable photoluminescence are quantum mechanical: we present them in simple outline...
December 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30390118/the-micromechanics-of-lung-alveoli-structure-and-function-of-surfactant-and-tissue-components
#19
REVIEW
Lars Knudsen, Matthias Ochs
The mammalian lung´s structural design is optimized to serve its main function: gas exchange. It takes place in the alveolar region (parenchyma) where air and blood are brought in close proximity over a large surface. Air reaches the alveolar lumen via a conducting airway tree. Blood flows in a capillary network embedded in inter-alveolar septa. The barrier between air and blood consists of a continuous alveolar epithelium (a mosaic of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells), a continuous capillary endothelium and the connective tissue layer in-between...
December 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30390117/how-high-resolution-3-dimensional-imaging-changes-our-understanding-of-postnatal-lung-development
#20
REVIEW
Johannes C Schittny
During the last 10 + years biologically and clinically significant questions about postnatal lung development could be answered due to the application of modern cutting-edge microscopic and quantitative histological techniques. These are in particular synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), but also 3 Helium Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as well as the stereological estimation of the number of alveoli and the length of the free septal edge. First, the most important new finding may be the following: alveolarization of the lung does not cease after the maturation of the alveolar microvasculature but continues until young adulthood and, even more important, maybe reactivated lifelong if needed to rescue structural damages of the lungs...
December 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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