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Violence Against Women

Sundari Anitha
Financial abuse refers to men's control over money, assets, and women's education or paid work. As a corrective to existing undertheorization of men's (and their family's) abuse of and control over women's unpaid (domestic) labor, this article proposes a new conceptualization of economic abuse. Drawing upon life-history interviews with 41 South Asian women from the United Kingdom and India, this article explores control and abuse in relation to financial resources and women's paid work as well as unpaid work...
February 13, 2019: Violence Against Women
Emma Katz
Some mother-child relationships become more strained and distant than others in domestic violence contexts, but the processes influencing this are little understood. Qualitative interviews with 15 mothers and 15 children were held to explore their experiences. Findings suggested that five interlinked factors influenced levels of closeness, distance, and strain in mother-child relationships: (1) perpetrator's/father's behavior toward children, (2) perpetrator's/father's use of domestic violence, (3) perpetrator's/father's undermining of mother-child relationship, (4) mother's ability to emotionally connect to children, and (5) children's views of mother and perpetrator/father...
February 7, 2019: Violence Against Women
Sarah E Steinmetz, Matt J Gray, Elizabeth M Raymond
This study used a cognitive dissonance mechanism that required college students to write essays dispelling previously endorsed rape myth beliefs. Results indicate that participants in the cognitive dissonance condition reported less rape myth endorsement at a 2-week follow-up than the control group. Effect sizes were large. The cognitive dissonance condition also led to more sustained internal motivation to respond in a nonsexist manner and earlier identification of sexually coercive behavior. Counter-attitudinal advocacy appears to result in sustained decreases in endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes, which could lead to safer communities for women by altering beliefs predictive of sexual assault perpetration...
February 7, 2019: Violence Against Women
Amy J Fitzgerald, Betty Jo Barrett, Rochelle Stevenson, Chi Ho Cheung
This study tests the theoretically informed assumption that intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse so frequently co-occur because animal maltreatment is instrumentalized by abusers to harm human victims. Using data from a survey of abused women in Canadian shelters, we find that threats to harm "pets," emotional animal abuse, and animal neglect are clearly perceived by these survivors as being intentionally perpetrated by their abuser and motivated by a desire to upset and control them; the findings related to physical animal abuse are not as straightforward...
February 4, 2019: Violence Against Women
Christina Nieder, Christoph Muck, Joscha Kärtner
This study assesses the current situation concerning sexual violence against women in India and women's individual coping strategies. We conducted 15 semistructured interviews with 17- to 22-year-old Indian college students. First, results about the current situation showed threatening circumstances for women and revealed how deeply sexual violence affects women's lives. Second, to cope with sexual violence women mentioned three types of strategies, namely (a) safety, (b) avoidance, and (c) empowerment strategies...
February 4, 2019: Violence Against Women
Cecilia Mengo, Moses Okumu, Bernadette Ombayo, Shamsun Nahar, Eusebius Small
This study used Uganda Demographic Health Survey data (2011) to examine the role of women's empowerment in reducing HIV risk among married women who experienced sexual violence in Uganda. The sample size was 8,674 ever-married women aged 15-49 years. Significant differences were revealed for marital rape, women's empowerment variables, and reducing HIV risk according to sociodemographic characteristics. Women's labor force participation partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and reducing HIV risk, but decision making did not...
January 23, 2019: Violence Against Women
Penelope K Morrison, Donna George, Patricia A Cluss, Elizabeth Miller, Lynn Hawker, Rhonda Fleming, Terry Bicehouse, Jessica Burke, Judy C Chang
Seventy-six adult male perpetrators of intimate partner violence enrolled in a batterer intervention program (BIP) were interviewed on their perspectives of the intra-BIP group peer interactions. A majority of participants endorsed positives aspects of working with peers in the group context. Only one negative aspect arose, namely, other group members who disrupted the BIP process in some way. More importantly, a minority of participants expressed indifference toward the group process. This study has implications for training of BIP facilitators and for future research on BIPs that helps to tailor the approaches these groups use to maximize client engagement...
January 22, 2019: Violence Against Women
Ida Frugaard Stroem, Helene Flood Aakvaag, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of different types of childhood violence and adult victimization using two waves of data from a community telephone survey (T1) and a follow-up survey, including 505 cases and 506 controls, aged 17-35 years (T2). The logistic regression analyses showed that exposure to childhood abuse, regardless of type, was associated with adult victimization. Exposure to multiple types of abuse, victimization both in childhood and in young adulthood, and recency of abuse increased these odds...
January 20, 2019: Violence Against Women
Catherine Müller, Jean-Pierre Tranchant
Using qualitative data from 21 group discussions and unique survey data from a representative cross-section of 439 women in the Gaza Strip, we investigate how the Israeli military operation "Protective Edge" in 2014 influenced domestic violence (DV), accounting for risk factors at different levels of the ecological model. We combine our survey data with secondary data on infrastructure destruction across Gaza's neighborhoods, and use propensity score matching techniques to address endogeneity concerns...
January 11, 2019: Violence Against Women
Kareen N Tonsing, Jenny C Tonsing
Data are reported from a survey of 49 South Asian women who self-identified as having experienced domestic violence from an intimate partner within the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis reveals that perceived social support and having children emerged as the strongest predictors for seeking help. This study also demonstrates that women's approach to help-seeking is shaped and embedded by a combination of individual and structural factors. The findings of this study may be used to help enhance efforts to promote and provide resources and support for victims of domestic violence from an intimate partner...
January 8, 2019: Violence Against Women
Liria Fernández-González, Esther Calvete, Erika Borrajo
The purpose of this study was to examine which variables are associated with the length of stay at a shelter and the likelihood of reentering the shelter after a first stay in a sample of 777 women victims of intimate partner violence. The results showed that the women's health, having been previously abused, and having children with them at the shelter were the best set of correlates for length of shelter stay; lack of social support, having been previously abused, and the abusers' being unemployed increased the risk of repeated use of shelters...
January 2, 2019: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Marie Armstrong, Beth Glover Reed, Larry W Bennett
This study generates practice-based evidence about organizational strategies for addressing co-occurring domestic violence (DV) and substance abuse (SA) using a survey of organizations working on both issues ( N = 204). How (the strategies) and how much (the extensiveness) organizations attend to both issues vary by organizational type (DV, SA, or multiservice) and populations served. While most SA and multiservice organizations address DV internally, most DV organizations use external collaborations; all offer services to DV perpetrators at similar rates...
January 2, 2019: Violence Against Women
Sandra Schwark, Gerd Bohner
A pilot study ( n = 165) showed that images portraying women who have experienced sexual violence as survivors (e.g., at a self-help group) rather than as victims (e.g., in vulnerable positions) led to more positive ratings of the women depicted. In a subsequent experiment ( n = 236), participants viewed either survivor or victim images, read a rape vignette, and completed explicit and implicit measures of blame. Results showed that male (but not female) participants implicitly blamed the woman more after viewing victim images, but explicitly blamed her more after viewing survivor images...
January 2, 2019: Violence Against Women
Rita C Seabrook, L Monique Ward
To examine the link between fraternity membership and sexual assault perpetration, we used an experimental design to assess the role of perceptions in an ambiguous sexual assault scenario. Undergraduates ( N = 408) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group where the perpetrator is a fraternity member or a control group where no fraternity information is given. Males rated perpetrators as less guilty and victims as more culpable when the perpetrator was a fraternity member, suggesting that sexual violence may be reinforced among fraternity members as they are both more likely to perpetrate sexual assault and less likely to be blamed...
December 28, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jennifer Katz, Jillian LaRose
We explored the relational context of male partner contraceptive interference (CI), acts that impede women's contraceptive use. Undergraduate women ( N = 213) who had previously been involved in a sexual relationship with a male partner provided self-report data on relational power and conflict within the relationship, including whether the past partner enacted CI. Relationships involving CI were characterized by greater conflict about whether to engage in sex, perceived infidelity, partner conflict engagement, and women's withdrawal...
December 24, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jacqueline Woerner, Janan Wyatt, Tami P Sullivan
The social reactions that victims receive when disclosing intimate partner violence (IPV) have important implications for recovery and well-being. Women from the community ( n = 172) reported IPV, reactions to IPV disclosure, and mental health symptoms in individual interviews. Latent profile analyses revealed three subgroups of victims with varied experiences of reactions. The group characterized by high negative/low positive reactions reported the highest depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity; symptom severity was high regardless of IPV severity...
December 4, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jennifer M Gómez
Cultural betrayal trauma theory proposes that intraracial trauma in ethnic minority populations includes a cultural betrayal that contributes to outcomes, such as symptoms of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder; posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]), dissociation, and (intra)cultural pressure. Participants ( n = 179) were ethnic minority female college students, who completed online questionnaires. The results revealed that when controlling for age, ethnicity, and interracial trauma, intraracial trauma and (intra)cultural pressure affected PTSS and dissociation...
November 30, 2018: Violence Against Women
Claire M Renzetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Prachi H Bhuptani, Julia S Kaufman, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz, David DiLillo
Many women who disclose a rape encounter victim-blaming responses, which are associated with negative outcomes. The present study examined rape-related shame and experiential avoidance as mediators of the relation between victim-blaming responses to rape disclosure and depression among 103 rape survivors drawn from a community sample. Results revealed that victim-blaming responses were positively associated with depressive symptoms through rape-related shame and experiential avoidance, and shame was indirectly related to depression via avoidance...
November 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Vicki L Burns, Asia A Eaton, Haiying Long, Dan Zapp
The current study explores the significance of race and gender on bystander attitudes before and after an online bystander intervention program to prevent sexual assault. A diverse sample of 750 college students participated in an online intervention and participants' perceived bystander intervention ability and intent were assessed. The interaction of participant race and gender had a marginally significant impact on bystander ability and intent baseline scores. Furthermore, when analyzing gain scores from pre- to posttest, there was a significant race by gender interaction...
November 19, 2018: Violence Against Women
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