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Tissue Engineering

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December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Peter C Johnson, Antonios G Mikos, John P Fisher, John A Jansen
The field of tissue engineering is developing rapidly. Given its ultimate importance to clinical care, the time is appropriate to assess the field's strategic directions to optimize research and development activities. To characterize strategic directions in tissue engineering, a distant but reachable clinical goal was proposed and a worldwide body of 24 leaders in tissue engineering was queried systematically to determine the best paths toward that goal. Using a modified Hoshin process, we identified 14 critical activity categories and then stratified them by their immediate priority for the field...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Eliane R Popa, Barry W A van der Strate, Linda A Brouwer, Henko Tadema, Martin Schipper, Brian Fernandes, Marc Hendriks, Marja J A van Luyn, Martin C Harmsen
In vivo vascularization of implanted (bio)artificial constructs is essential for their proper function. Vascularization may rely on sprouting angiogenesis, vascular incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells (BMDECs), or both. Here we investigated the relative contribution of these 2 mechanisms to neovascularization in a mouse model of a foreign body reaction (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted Dacron and in hind limb ischemia (HLI) in relation to the molecular microenvironment at these neovascularization sites...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Kiki B Hellman, Robert M Nerem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Christopher M Puleo, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Tza-Huei Wang
The success of therapeutic strategies within the fields of regenerative medicine, including tissue engineering, biomaterials engineering, and cell and tissue transplantation science, relies on researchers' understanding of the complex cellular microenvironments that occur within functional tissue. Microfabricated biomedical platforms provide tools for researchers to study cellular response to various stimuli with micro- and nanoscale spatial control. Initial studies utilizing relatively passive means of microenvironmental control have provided the fundamental knowledge required to begin to design microculture platforms that closely mimic these biological systems...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Mingying Yang, Kazuo Yamauchi, Masato Kurokawa, Tetsuo Asakura
To develop biomaterials for tissue engineering, a silk-like protein inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins (MAPs) was designed and prepared. The primary structure of this silk-like protein is designed as TS[AKPSYPPTYKAS (GAGAGS)(3)](10) by combining the sequences (GAGAGS)(3), the crystalline region of Bombyx mori silk fibroin, and AKPSYPPTYK, the adhesive sequence of MAP from Mytilus edulis. This protein was synthesized by the genetic engineering method. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectra showed that this silk-like protein adopts flexible conformation due to introduction of the sequence AKPSYPPTYK...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Robert P Wilkes, Amy K McNulty, Teri D Feeley, Marisa A Schmidt, Kris Kieswetter
Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a highly successful and widely used treatment modality for wound healing, although no apparatus exists to monitor the effects of subatmospheric pressure application in vitro. Such an apparatus is desirable to better understand the biological effects of this therapy and potentially improve upon them. This article describes the development and validation of a novel bioreactor that permits such study. Tissue analogues consisting of 3-dimensional fibroblast-containing fibrin clots were cultured in off-the-shelf disposable cell culture inserts and multi-well plates that were integrated into the bioreactor module...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Wesley L Randle, Jae Min Cha, Yu-Shik Hwang, K L Andrew Chan, Sergei G Kazarian, Julia M Polak, Athanasios Mantalaris
Embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture is fragmented and laborious and involves operator decisions. Most protocols consist of 3 individual steps: maintenance, embryoid body (EB) formation, and differentiation. Integration will assist automation, ultimately aiding scale-up to clinically relevant numbers. These problems were addressed by encapsulating undifferentiated murine ESCs (mESCs) in 1.1% (w/v) low-viscosity alginic acid, 0.1% (v/v) porcine gelatin hydrogel beads (d = 2.3 mm). Six hundred beads containing 10,000 mESCs per bead were cultured in a 50-mL high-aspect-ratio vessel bioreactor...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Isao Kanatani, Akihiro Kanematsu, Yasuyuki Inatsugu, Masaaki Imamura, Hiromitsu Negoro, Noriyuki Ito, Shingo Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Tabata, Yoshito Ikada, Osamu Ogawa
An ideal biomaterial for urethral reconstruction has not been developed. To create a urethral graft biomaterial with optimal biodegradability and biocompatibility, a copoly(L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone) [P(LA/CL)] fabric tube was combined with a type I collagen sponge. The P(LA/CL) fibers were knitted into a vascular stent style (Type 1) or weaved into a mesh style (Type 2) to prepare P(LA/CL) tubes. The tubes were dipped in aqueous collagen solution and lyophilyzed to prepare the P(LA/CL)-collagen sponge graft...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Gregor Boese, Christiane Trimpert, Wolfgang Albrecht, Günter Malsch, Thomas Groth, Andreas Lendlein
A cell carrier made from synthetic material supporting selective growth of keratinocytes is a promising approach to avoid the phenomenon of fibroblast overgrowth during in vitro culture of skin substitutes. Therefore, we investigated polymer membranes made of polyacrylonitrile and copolymers of acrylonitrile and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) for their ability to support selectively the growth of keratinocytes. It was found that a copolymer with an NVP-content of 30% (NVP30) supports growth of human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) cells and inhibits fibroblast growth under serum-containing conditions...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Ahmet Bozkurt, Gary A Brook, Sven Moellers, Franz Lassner, Bernd Sellhaus, Joachim Weis, Michael Woeltje, Julian Tank, Christina Beckmann, Paul Fuchs, Leon Olde Damink, Frank Schügner, Ingo Heschel, Norbert Pallua
The goal of this study was the development of a bioartificial nerve guide to induce axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this in vitro study, the ability of a novel, 3-dimensional (3D), highly oriented, cross-linked porcine collagen scaffold to promote directed axonal growth has been studied. Collagen nerve guides with longitudinal guidance channels were manufactured using a series of chemical and mechanical treatments with a patented unidirectional freezing process, followed by freeze-drying (pore sizes 20-50 microm)...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Simone Pacini, Silvia Spinabella, Luisa Trombi, Rita Fazzi, Sara Galimberti, Francesca Dini, Fabio Carlucci, Mario Petrini
It has been proven that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into tenocytes. Attempts to repair tendon lesions have been performed, mainly using scaffold carriers in experimental settings. In this article, we describe the clinical use of undifferentiated MSCs in racehorses. Significant clinical recovery was achieved in 9 of 11 horses evaluated using ultrasound analysis and their ability to return to racing. Our results show that the suspension of a small number of undifferentiated MSCs may be sufficient to repair damaged tendons without the use of scaffold support...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Yue Xu, Preeti Malladi, Michael Chiou, Elena Bekerman, Amato J Giaccia, Michael T Longaker
Cartilage is an avascular tissue, and chondrocytes in vivo experience a severely hypoxic environment. Using a defined in vitro model of early chondrogenesis, we attempted to enrich for cells with an enhanced ability for chondrogenic differentiation by pre-exposure of mouse adipose-derived adult stromal cells (ADASs) to a hypoxic (2% oxygen) environment. ADASs were subsequently expanded in 2% or 21% oxygen environments, resulting in 2 groups of cells, and then early chondrogenic differentiation was induced at 21% oxygen tension using a 3-dimensional micromass culture system...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Leda Racanicchi, Giuseppe Basta, Pia Montanucci, Lucia Guido, Alessandra Pensato, Valentina Conti, Riccardo Calafiore
Beta (beta)-cell replacement represents an attractive approach for the possible cure of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In a search for potential sources of insulin-secreting cells for IDDM substitution therapy, we have focused on the neonatal pig liver, which is putatively enriched in multipotent stem cells. We then isolated cells measuring 10 to 15 microm in diameter, identified as small cells, characterized by a high proliferation rate and positive staining for immature liver and pancreatic endocrine cell markers (i...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Benjamin R Shepherd, James B Hoying, Stuart K Williams
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate epicardial transplantation of an intact microvascular network for treatment of myocardial ischemia in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction. We describe transplantation of an intact microvascular network constructed from isolated microvascular segments stabilized in a 3-dimensional matrix to the epicardial surface after acute myocardial infarction. This microvascular graft was implanted as a patch on the epicardium of mice after left coronary artery ligation...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Sophia W Liao, Xiao Lu, Andrew J Putnam, Ghassan S Kassab
Changes in dimensional and mechanical properties of degradable sheaths in poly lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA) have been researched extensively. Composite PLGA having variable resorption rates in multiple layers under physiological loading has not been reported. Our novel design of a PLGA sheath is composed of 3 layers with different degradation rates (i.e., the innermost layer degrades the fastest, followed by the middle, while the outer layer degrades the slowest). In the presence of physiological luminal pressure, diameter is greater, thickness is less, resorption rate is greater, pore size is greater, and incremental modulus is greater than in nonpressurized sheaths...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Michael S Stosich, Barb Bastian, Nicholas W Marion, Paul A Clark, Gwendolen Reilly, Jeremy J Mao
Vascularization is critical to the survival of engineered tissues. This study combined biophysical and bioactive approaches to induce neovascularization in vivo. Further, we tested the effects of engineered vascularization on adipose tissue grafts. Hydrogel cylinders were fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG) in four configurations: PEG alone, PEG with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), microchanneled PEG, or both bFGF-adsorbed and microchanneled PEG. In vivo implantation revealed no neovascularization in PEG, but substantial angiogenesis in bFGF-adsorbed and/or microchanneled PEG...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Jennifer A Dyson, Paul G Genever, Kenneth W Dalgarno, David J Wood
There is a clinical need for new bone replacement materials that combine long implant life with complete integration and appropriate mechanical properties. We have used human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to populate porous apatite-wollastonite (A-W) glass-ceramic scaffolds produced by the layer manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering, to create custom-built bone replacements. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine optimal seeding densities and to demonstrate that MSCs adhered and retained viability on the surface of A-W scaffolds over a culture period of 21 days...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Stephanie J Armstrong, Mikael Wiberg, Giorgio Terenghi, Paul J Kingham
Tissue engineering using a combination of biomaterials and cells represents a new approach to nerve repair. We have investigated the effect that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules have on Schwann cell (SC) attachment and proliferation on the nerve conduit material poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), and SC influence on neurite outgrowth in vitro. Initial SC attachment to PHB mats was unaffected by ECM molecules but proliferation increased (laminin > fibronectin > collagen). SCs seeded onto ECM-coated culture inserts suspended above a monolayer of NG108-15 cells determined the effect of released diffusible factors...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
Gregory M Williams, Jessica W Lin, Robert L Sah
Shaped cartilage grafts can be used in the restoration of injured joints and the reconstruction of deformities of the head and neck. This study describes a novel method for altering cartilage shape, based on the hypothesis that mechanical loading coupled with in vitro tissue growth and remodeling facilitates tissue reshaping. Static bending deformations were imposed on strips of immature articular cartilage, and retention of the imposed shape and structural and biochemical measures of growth were assessed after 2, 4, and 6 days of incubation...
December 2007: Tissue Engineering
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