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Exercise Immunology Review

Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Jose Cesar Rosa Neto, Karsten Krüger
Many lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary diseases, are associated with chronic systemic inflammation, which has been shown to contribute to the disease initiation and progression, and also for co-morbidities of these diseases. While the source of inflammation in obese subjects is suggested to be mainly the visceral adipose tissue, smoke-induced inflammation originates in the pulmonary system. Here, chronic cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, resulting in severe cellular damage...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Andrea Ticinesi, Fulvio Lauretani, Claudio Tana, Antonio Nouvenne, Erminia Ridolo, Tiziana Meschi
Exercise is a possible modulator of intestinal microbiome composition, since some investigations have shown that it is associated with increased biodiversity and representation of taxa with beneficial metabolic functions. Conversely, training to exhaustion can be associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome, promoting inflammation and negative metabolic consequences. Gut microbiota can, in turn, influence the pathophysiology of several distant organs, including the skeletal muscle. A gut-muscle axis may in fact regulate muscle protein deposition and muscle function...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Michelle Curran, John Campbell, Mark Drayson, Rob Andrews, Parth Narendran
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease that targets and destroys insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Beta cell specific T cells are highly differentiated and show evidence of previous antigen exposure. Exerciseinduced mobilisation of highly-differentiated CD8+ T cells facilitates immune surveillance and regulation. We aimed to explore exercise-induced T cell mobilisation in T1D. In this study, we compared the effects of a single bout of vigorous intensity exercise on T cell mobilisation in T1D and control participants...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Sebastian Proschinger, Jens Freese
Feelings of fatigue not only occur in chronic and acute disease states, but also during prolonged strenuous exercise as a symptom of exhaustion. The underlying mechanisms of fatigue in diseases seem to rely on neuroinflammatory pathways. These pathways are interesting to understand exerciseinduced fatigue regarding immune system to brain signaling and effects of cerebral cytokines. Activation of the immune system incurs a high-energy cost, also in the brain. In consequence immune cells have high energetic priority over other tissues, such as neurons...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Glenn Choon Lim Wong, Vipin Narang, Yanxia Lu, Xavier Camous, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Christophe Carre, Chrystal Tan, Chin Hui Xian, Joni Chong, Michelle Chua, Wilson How, Esther Mok, Paul Tambyah, Michael Poidinger, Brian Abel, Nicolas Burdin, Laurence Quemeneur, Nabil Bosco, Tze Pin Ng, Anis Larbi
Physical inactivity is one of the leading contributors to worldwide morbidity and mortality. The elderly are particularly susceptible since the features of physical inactivity overlap with the outcomes of natural aging - including the propensity to develop cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment. The age-dependent loss of immune function, or immunosenescence, refers to the progressive depletion of primary immune resources and is linked to the development of many of these conditions...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Patrick J Highton, Naomi Martin, Alice C Smith, James O Burton, Nicolette C Bishop
Microparticles (MPs) are shed membrane vesicles released from a variety of cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. They are elevated in a wide variety of disease states and have been previously measured to assess both disease activity and severity. However, recent research suggests that they also possess bioeffector functions, including but not limited to promoting coagulation and thrombosis, inducing endothelial dysfunction, increasing pro-inflammatory cytokine release and driving angiogenesis, thereby increasing cardiovascular risk...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Nicole Cristine Rigonato-Oliveira, BreAnne Mackenzie, Andre Luis Lacerda Bachi, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Alana Santos-Dias, Maysa Alves Rodrigues Brandao-Rangel, Humberto Delle, Tamara Costa-Guimaraes, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina Dulley, Marcela Anhesini Benetti, Christiane Malfitano, Christiane de Angelis, Regiane Albertini, Ana Paula Ligeiro Oliveira, Asghar Abbasi, Hinnak Northoff, Rodolfo Paula Vieira
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as hypoxemic respiratory failure with intense pulmonary inflammation, involving hyperactivation of endothelial cells and neutrophils. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic exercise (AE), this study investigated whether AE performed daily for 5 weeks would inhibit extra-pulmonary LPS-induced ARDS. C57Bl/6 mice were distributed into Control, Exercise, LPS and Exercise+LPS groups. AE was performed on a treadmill for 5x/week for four weeks before LPS administration...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Isabel Rada, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux, Hermann Zbinden-Foncea
BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are disorders that correlate with the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and cytokine production, to which Toll like receptors (TLR) contribute. Exercise may act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, but there is no consensus about the role of the TLR in this tuning. The present styudy aims to systematically review the current evidence on exercise-induced TLR regulation in animals and humans suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Pubmed and Scopus databases were searched for publications from 1990 to September 2015...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Linda A Buss, Gabi U Dachs
Exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer development and improves survival in breast cancer patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain to be fully elucidated. It is unclear whether exercise can attenuate or modify the pro-tumour effects of obesity and related conditions, such as hyperlipidaemia. This review summarises how hyperlipidaemia and exercise contribute to or reduce breast cancer risk and progression, respectively, and highlights the possible mechanisms behind each...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Luciele G Minuzzi, Luís Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, João Valente Dos Santos, Richard Simpson, António Martinho, Artur Paiva, Ana M Teixeira
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ageing has profound impact on the immune system, mainly on T-cells. However, it has been suggested that chronic exercise may delay immunosenescence. Master athletes represent an interesting sub-demographic group to test this theory since they maintain a high training frequency and load throughout life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lifelong training on the senescence and mobilization of T lymphocytes in response to acute exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen athletes who regularly participated in training and competitions for more than 20 years throughout their lives and a control group of 10 healthy individuals participated in this study...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Jason P Edwards, Neil P Walsh, Philip C Diment, Ross Roberts
There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V ...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Philipp Zimmer, Alexander Schenk, Markus Kieven, Michelle Holthaus, Jonas Lehmann, Lukas Lövenich, Wilhelm Bloch
With their ability to recognize and eliminate virus-infected and neoplastic cells, natural killer cells (NK-cells) represent an important part of the innate immune system. NK-cells have attracted the attention of exercise scientists for more than thirty years ago. To date, it is widely accepted that NK-cell counts in the peripheral blood are strongly influenced by acute exercise. Additionally, many studies reported effects of both, acute and chronic exercise on NK-cell cytotoxicity. However, these findings are contradictory...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
Maree Gleeson, David B Pyne, Lisa J Elkington, Sharron T Hall, John R Attia, Christopher Oldmeadow, Lisa G Wood, Robin Callister
Clinical and laboratory identification of the underlying risk of respiratory illness in athletes has proved problematic. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical data, combined with immune responses to standardised exercise protocols and genetic cytokine polymorphism status, could identify the risk of respiratory illness (symptoms) in a cohort of highly-trained athletes. Male endurance athletes (n=16; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.1 underwent a clinical evaluation of known risk factors by a physician and comprehensive laboratory analysis of immune responses both at rest and after two cycling ergometer tests: 60 min at 65% VO2max (LONG); and 6 x 3 min intervals at 90% VO2max (INTENSE)...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
Stephane Bermon, Lindy M Castell, Philip C Calder, Nicolette C Bishop, Eva Blomstrand, Frank C Mooren, Karsten Krüger, Andreas N Kavazis, John C Quindry, David S Senchina, David C Nieman, Michael Gleeson, David B Pyne, Cecilia M Kitic, Graeme L Close, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Ascension Marcos, Simin N Meydani, Dayong Wu, Neil P Walsh, Ryochi Nagatomi
In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
Russell Emmons, Grace M Niemiro, Michael De Lisio
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the most primitive cells of the hematopoietic system responsible for maintaining all mature blood cells, display the hallmark characteristics of self-renewal and multi-potent differentiation into mature cell lineages. HSPC activity is directed by the bone marrow niche, a complex environment composed of heterogeneous cell populations that regulate HSPC function through the secretion of a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Diet induced obesity results in a dramatic remodeling of the bone marrow niche, skewing HSPC function resulting in a compromised immune system...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
Ben D Perry, Marissa K Caldow, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Melissa Sbaraglia, George Jerums, Andrew Garnham, Chiew Wong, Pazit Levinger, Muhammad Asrar Ul Haq, David L Hare, S Russ Price, Itamar Levinger
Muscle atrophy is caused by an imbalance in contractile protein synthesis and degradation which can be triggered by various conditions including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Reduced muscle quality in patients with T2DM adversely affects muscle function, the capacity to perform activities of daily living, quality of life and ultimately may increase the risk of premature mortality. Systemic inflammation initiated by obesity and prolonged overnutrition not only contributes to insulin resistance typical of T2DM, but also promotes muscle atrophy via decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased ubiquitin-proteasome, lysosomal-proteasome and caspase 3- mediated protein degradation...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
L A Perandini, D Sales-de-Oliveira, D C Almeida, H Azevedo, C A Moreira-Filho, M A Cenedeze, F B Benatti, F R Lima, E Borba, E Bonfa, A L Sa-Pinto, H Roschel, N O S Camara, B Gualano
UNLABELLED: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a persistent systemic inflammation. Exercise induced inflammatory response in SLE remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acuteexercise on leukocyte gene expression in active (SLEACTIVE) and inactive SLE (SLEINACTIVE) patients and healthy controls(HC). METHODS: All subjects (n = 4 per group) performed a 30-min single bout of acute aerobic exercise (~70% of VO2peak) on a treadmill, and blood samples were collected for RNA extraction from circulating leukocyte at baseline, at the end of exercise, and after three hours of recovery...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
James F Markworth, Krishna Rao Maddipati, David Cameron-Smith
Lipid mediators are bioactive metabolites of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that play diverse roles inthe initiation, self-limitation, and active resolution of inflammation. Prostaglandins, classical pro-inflammatory lipid metabolites of arachidonic acid, have long been implicated in immunological and adaptive muscle responses to acute injury and exercise-induced stress. More recently, PUFA metabolites have been discovered during the resolution phase of inflammation which collectively function as endogenous 'stop signals' to control inflammation whilst actively promoting the return to a non-inflamed state...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
Emily C P LaVoy, Christopher P Fagundes, Robert Dantzer
Cancer-related fatigue significantly disrupts normal functioning and quality of life for a substantial portion of cancer survivors, and may persist for years following cancer treatment. While the causes of persistent fatigue among cancer survivors are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that several pathways, including chronic inflammation, autonomic imbalance, HPA-axis dysfunction, and/or mitochondrial damage, could contribute towards the disruption of normal neuronal function and result in the symptom of cancer-related fatigue...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
Jennifer L J Heaney, Michael Gleeson, Anna C Phillips, Ian M Taylor, Mark T Drayson, Margret Goodall, Cheng-Shiun He, Ida S Svendsen, Sophie C Killer, John P Campbell
BACKGROUND: Free light chains (FLCs) have a range of biological functions and may act as a broad marker of immunesuppression and activation and inflammation. Measurement of salivary FLCs may provide practical advantages in a range of clinical populations. The aim of the present study was to develop normal reference ranges of FLCs in saliva and assess the effects of acute exercise on FLC levels in younger and older adults. METHODS: Saliva FLC concentrations and secretion rates were measuredin young (n = 88, aged 18-36) and older (n = 53, aged 60-80) adults...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
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